Haplogroup R-M173

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Haplogroup R1
Possible time of origin 12,500–25,700 years BP (Karafet 2008)
Possible place of origin Most probably Central Asia or South Asia
Ancestor R-M207
Descendants R-M420, R-M343
Defining mutations M173[1]

In human genetics, Haplogroup R-M173 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup R, associated with the M173 mutation. It is dominated in modern populations by two Eurasian clades, R-M420 and R-M343, which together are found all over Eurasia except in Southeast Asia and East Asia.[citation needed] However, other types of R-M173, less well-known and undefined so far by any identified SNP, and therefore referred to collectively simply as R-M173*, have been reported in the Americas Africa and all over Asia and Oceania.

Origins[edit]

The origins of R-M173 remain unclear. Haplogroup R-M207 is part of the family of haplogroup P-M45, and a sibling clade, therefore, of haplogroup Q-M242, which is common in the Americas and Eurasia. In Eurasia, Q-M242's geography includes eastern areas such as Siberia. Based on these ancestral lineages, an inferred origin for R-M173 to the east of West Asia. For example, Kivisild 2003 believes the evidence "suggests that southern and western Asia might be the source of this haplogroup" and "Given the geographic spread and STR diversities of sister clades R1 and R2, the latter of which is restricted to India, Pakistan, Iran, and southern central Asia, it is possible that southern and western Asia were the source for R1 and R1a differentiation." Soares 2010 felt in their review of the literature, that the case for South Asian origins is strongest, with the Central Asian origin argued by (Wells 2001) being also worthy of consideration.

Distribution[edit]

Haplogroup R-M173 is fairly common throughout Europe, South Asia and Central Asia. It also occurs in Africa, Near East and Native Americans from North America. Low frequencies in Siberia, Malay Archipelago and Indigenous Australians (Kayser 2002).

Eurasia[edit]

R-M173 is very common throughout all of Eurasia except East Asia and Southeast Asia. Its distribution is believed to be associated with the re-settlement of Eurasia following the last glacial maximum. Its main subgroups are R-M420 and R-M343. One subclade of haplogroup R-M343 (especially R-M269), is the most common haplogroup in Western Europe and Bashkortostan (Lobov 2009), while another R-M420 (especially R-M17 aka R-M98) is the most common haplogroup in large parts of South Asia, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western China, and South Siberia.[2]

Individuals whose Y-chromosomes possess all the mutations on internal nodes of the Y-DNA tree down to and including M207 (which defines Haplogroup R-M207) but which display neither the M173 mutation that defines Haplogroup R-M173 nor the M479 mutation that defines Haplogroup R2 are categorized as belonging to group R-M207*. Haplogroup R-M207* has been found in 10.3% (10/97) of a sample of Burusho and 6.8% (3/44) of a sample of Kalash from northern Pakistan (Firasat 2007).

Americas[edit]

In Indigenous Americans groups, R-M173 is the most common haplogroup after the various Q-M242, especially in North America in Ojibwe people at 79%, Chipewyan 62%, Seminole 50%, Cherokee 47%, Dogrib 40% and Papago 38%. The decreasing gradient of haplogroup R-M207 from Northeastern to Southwestern North America is evidence that this results from European admixture (Malhi 2008).

Africa[edit]

One isolated clade (or clades) of Y-chromosomes that appear to belong to the R-P25 sublineage is found at high frequency among the native populations of northern Cameroon, such as the Kirdi, in west-central Africa, which is believed to reflect a prehistoric back-migration of an ancient proto-Eurasian population into Africa.[citation needed]

Subclade distribution[edit]

Paragroup R-M173[edit]

Distribution of the two major R-M173 branches: R-M420 (purple) and R-M343 (red)

Haplogroup R-M173 contains the majority of representatives of haplogroup R in the form of its subclades, R1a and R1b Rosser 2000, Semino 2000, and Genographic 2011).

R-M420[edit]

The highest levels of R-M420 (>50%) are found across the Eurasian Steppe: Khotons of Uvs Province (82.5%),[3] West Bengal Brahmins (72%), and Uttar Pradesh Brahmins, (67%), the Ishkashimi (68%), the Tajik population of Panjikent (64%), the Kyrgyz population of Central Kyrgyzstan (63.5%), Sorbs (63.39%), Bihar Brahmins (60.53%), Shors (58.8%),[4] Poles (56.4%), Teleuts (55.3%),[4] South Altaians (58.1%),[5] Ukrainians (50%) and Russians (50%) (Semino 2000, Wells 2001, Behar 2003, and Sharma 2007).

R-M420 has been variously associated with:

The Modern studies for R-M17 suggest that it could have originated in South Asia. It could have found its way initially from Western India (Gujarat) through Pakistan and Kashmir, then via Central Asia and Russia, before finally coming to Europe"..."as part of an archaeologically dated Paleolithic movement from east to west 30,000 years ago (Underhill 2009).

R-M343[edit]

Haplogroup R-M343 probably originated in Eurasia prior to or during the last glaciation. It is the most common haplogroup in Western Europe, Bashkortostan (Lobov 2009) and may have survived the LGM concentrated in refugia in southern Europe, Aegean and Bashkortostan (Lobov 2009).

It is also present at lower frequencies throughout Eastern Europe, with higher diversity than in western Europe, suggesting an ancient migration of R-M343 from the east.[6] R-M343 is also found at various frequencies in many different populations near the Ural Mountains and Central Asia, its likely region of origin. One source has suggested a link between this haplogroup and the spread of Centum branch Indo-Europeans through Western Europe.

The frequency is about 70% in Spain and 60% in France.[7] In south-eastern England the frequency of R-M343 is about 70%;[7] in parts of the rest of north and western England, Spain, Portugal, Wales and Ireland, it is as high as 90%; and in parts of north-western Ireland it reaches 98%.It is also found in North Africa where its frequency surpasses 10% in some parts of Algeria.[8]

The R-M343 clade appears to have a much higher degree of internal diversity than R-M420, which suggests that the M343 mutation that derives R-M343 from R-M173* may have occurred considerably earlier than the mutation that defines R-M420.[citation needed]

Although it is rare in South Asia, some populations show relatively high percentages for R-M343. These include Lambadi showing 37% (Kivisild 2005), Hazara 32% (Sengupta 2005), and Agharia (in East India) at 30% (Sengupta 2005). Besides these, R-M343 has appeared in Balochi (8%), Chenchu (2%), Makrani (5%), Newars (10.6%), Pallan (3.5%), Indian Punjabis (7.6%) and West Bengalis (6.5%) (Kivisild 2003, Sengupta 2005, and Gayden 2007).

R-M343 (previously called Hg1[citation needed] and Eu18[citation needed]) is the most frequent Y-chromosome haplogroup in Europe. It is an offshoot of R-M173, characterised by the M343 marker.[9] An overwhelming majority of members of R-M343 are classified as R-P25 (defined by the P25 marker), the remainder as R-M343*. Its frequency is highest in Western Europe (and due to modern European emigration, in parts of the Americas). The majority of R-M343-carriers of European descent belong to the R-M269 descendant line.

Phylogenetic trees[edit]

There are several confirmed and proposed phylogenetic trees available for haplogroup R-M207. The scientifically accepted one is the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC) one published in Karafet 2008 and subsequently updated. A draft tree that shows emerging science is provided by Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center in Houston, Texas. The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) also provides an amateur tree.

The Genomic Research Center draft tree[edit]

This is Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center's draft tree Proposed Tree for haplogroup R-M207. The first three levels of subclades are shown. Additional detail is provided on the linked branch article pages (Krahn 2012).

  • R-M207 M207, P224, P227, P229, P232, P280, P285, L248.2, L1031
    • R-M173 M173, M306 P231, P233, P234, P236, P238, P241, P242, P245, P286, P294
    • R-M479 M479

See also[edit]

Genetics[edit]

Y-DNA R-M207 subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT (K)
I J LT(K1) K (K2)
L T MPS (K2b) X (K2a)
MS P NO
M S QR N O
Q R
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Y-DNA Haplogroup R and its Subclades - 2008 from ISOGG
  2. ^ Results for R1b1 members
  3. ^ T. Katoh et al. / Gene xx (2004) xxx-xxx, Genetic features of Mongolian ethnic groups revealed by Y-chromosomal analysis
  4. ^ a b Miroslava Derenko et al 2005, Contrasting patterns of Y-chromosome variation in South Siberian populations from Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions
  5. ^ Khar'kov, V.N. (2007), "Gene pool differences between Northern and Southern Altaians inferred from the data on Y-chromosomal haplogroups", Genetika 43 (5): 675–87, PMID 17633562 
  6. ^ Variations of R1b Ydna in Europe: Distribution and Origins
  7. ^ a b Reuters (August 2, 2011), Most Euro men are related to King Tut: DNA testing reveals strange genetic link among Europeans; Oddly, most Egyptians not in the family, Metro NY 
  8. ^ Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample
  9. ^ Note that in earlier literature the M269 marker, rather than M343, was used to define the "R1b" haplogroup. Then, for a time (from 2003 to 2005) what is now R1b1c was designated R1b3.

Works cited[edit]

In art[edit]

Artem took Lukichev animation based on Bashkir epic about the Ural, which outlined the history of the clusters of haplogroup R1: R1a and R1b.[1]

  1. ^ About R1a and R1b from Ural epic story. Artem Lukichev (c)