|Possible time of origin||12,000 years BP|
|Possible place of origin||South Asia or Central Asia|
|Descendants||R-M124*, R-L295, R-L263, R-L1069|
|Defining mutations||M124, P249, P267, L266 |
- 1 Term history
- 2 Origins
- 3 Subclades
- 4 Distribution
- 5 Position on the ISOGG tree and related SNPs
- 6 Prediction with haplotypes
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Before the update of the 2010 Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree on the 9th of September 2010, Haplogroup R-M124 was officially known as Haplogroup R2. However, the first reference to the newly defined Haplogroup, R-M124, was on the 25th of August 2010.
Before the publication of the 2005 Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree, Haplogroup R-M124 was known as Haplogroup P1 and formerly thought to be a sister clade of Haplogroup R rather than derived from it.
According to the Genographic Project conducted by the National Geographic Society, Haplogroup R-M124 arose about 25,000 years ago in Central Asia  and its members migrated southward as part of the second major wave of human migration into India.
According to Sengupta et al. (2006),
uncertainty neutralizes previous conclusions that the intrusion of HGs R1a1 and R2 [Now R-M124] from the northwest in Dravidian-speaking southern tribes is attributable to a single recent event. Rather, these HGs contain considerable demographic complexity, as implied by their high haplotype diversity. Specifically, they could have actually arrived in southern India from a southwestern Asian source region multiple times, with some episodes considerably earlier than others.
- Haplogroup R, the ancestral clade to R1 and R2, appeared on the Central Asian Steppes around 35,000 to 30,000 years ago.
- R1, sister clade to R2, moved to the West from the Central Asian Steppes around 35,000 to 30,000 years ago. R1 pockets were established, from where R1a and R1b emerged.
- R2a [R-M124] made its first entry into the Indian sub-continent around 25,000 years ago. The routes taken are not clear, although the Indus and Ganges rivers are possible theories put forward. There could, of course, have been multiple immigrations of this haplogroup into the Indian sub-continent, both in the Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
Paragroup is a term used in population genetics to describe lineages within a haplogroup that are not defined by any additional unique markers. They are typically represented by an asterisk (*) placed after the main haplogroup.
Y-chromosomes which are positive to the M124, P249, P267, and L266 SNPs and negative to the L295, L263, and L1069 SNPs, are categorized as belonging to Paragroup R-M124*.
- Haplogroup R2a is present both in Dravidian and other Indian populations, meaning that R2a has a pan-Indian presence, and not restricted to any linguistic group.
- Haplogroup R2a has a more significant presence in middle and upper castes.
- The frequencies of R2a seem to mirror the frequencies of R1a (i.e. both lineages are strong and weak in the same social and linguistic subgroups). This may indicate that both R1a and R2a moved into India at roughly the same time or cohabited, although more research is needed.
- R1a1 and R2a haplogroups indicate demographic complexity that is inconsistent with a recent single history and is not inconsistent with a more proximal Central Asian input of the R2a haplogroup in the upper castes.
- R2a has a particularly strong presence in the Indian states of West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat, and in the area of Mumbai (Bombay).
- The paper claims that there is no evidence that Central Asia was the source of the R1a and R2a lineages in India. The theory that Central Asia could have been the recipient of the two lineages from India should not be ruled out. In addition, the data are not inconsistent with complex exchanges of this haplogroup between Central Asia and the Indian sub-continent, with the latter being both the source and the recipient at different times.
Haplogroup R-M124, along with haplogroups H, L, R1a1, and J2, forms the majority of the South Asian male population. The frequency is around 10-15% in India and Sri Lanka and 7-8% in Pakistan. Its spread within South Asia is very extensive, ranging from Baluchistan in the west to Bengal in the east; Hunza in the north to Sri Lanka in the south.
North Indian Muslims have a frequency of 11%(Sunni) and 9%(Shia), while Dawoodi Bohra Muslim in the western state of Gujarat have a frequency of 16% and Mappla Muslims of South India have a frequency of 5%. The R-M124 haplogroup is also found in 14% of the Burusho people who speak the language isolate called Burushaski.
Some of the other studies like Bamshad et al., 2001, Kivisild et al., 2003 found Haplogroup 1(the old representation for non-R1a1 Haplogroup R subclades) at around 40% among Telugus of coastal Andhra Pradesh. The identification of this Haplogroup with R-M124 is confirmed from Sanghamitra Sahoo et al., 2006 study which observed R-M124 ranging from 35% to 55% among non-Brahmin castes of this region.
Haplogroup R-M124 comprises 53% of Y-chromosomes among Sinti, a subgroup of the Romani people living in Germany who were relocated to Central Asia, however the sample size was only 15 individuals. This Romani branch has its ancient roots in India.
In Central Asia, Tajikistan shows Haplogroup R-M124 at 6%, while the other '-stan' states vary around 2%. Bartangis of Tajikistan have a high frequency of R-M124 at about 17%, Ishkashimi at 8%, Khojant at 9% and Dushanbe at 6%.
Specifically, Haplogroup R-M124 has been found in approximately 7.5% (4/53) of recent Iranian emigrants living in Samarkand, 7.1% (7/99) of Pamiris, 6.8% (3/44) of Karakalpaks, 5.1% (4/78) of Tajiks, 5% (2/40) of Dungans in Kyrgyzstan, 3.3% (1/30) of Turkmens, 2.2% (8/366) of Uzbeks, and 1.9% (1/54) of Kazakhs.
The haplogroup R-M124 frequency of %6.1 was found among Kurds.
In the Caucasus, around 16% of Mountain Jews, 8% of Balkarians, 6% of Kalmyks, 3% of Azerbaijanis, 2.6% of Kumyks, 2.4% of Avars, 2% of Armenians, and 1% to 6% of Georgians belong to the R-M124 haplogroup. Approximately 1% of Turks and 1% to 3% of Iranians also belong to this haplogroup.
|Count||Sample Size||R-M124 Fequency %|
In the R2-M124-WTY and R-Arabia Y-DNA Projects, Haplogroup R-M124 has appeared in the following Arab countries: Kuwait (3 clusters), United Arab Emirates (1 cluster), Syrian Arab Republic (1 cluster), and Tunisia (1 cluster).
Thus, Haplogroup R-M124 has been observed among Arabs at low frequencies in 11 countries/territories (Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Palestine, Qatar, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen) of the 22 Arab countries/territories so far.
Haplogroup R-M124 is a subgroup of Haplogroup R-M479 (M479):
- R-M479 (M479)
- R-M124 (M124, P249, P267, L266)
- R-L295 (L295)
- R-L263 (L263)
- R-L1069 (L1069)
- R-M124 (M124, P249, P267, L266)
Prediction with haplotypes
Y-DNA R-M207 subclades
Y-DNA backbone tree
|Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups|
- ISOGG (2010), "Y-DNA Haplogroup R and its Subclades - 2010."
- FTDNA's Draft phylogeny tree, "FTDNA's Draft phylogeny tree."
- Myres et al. (2010), "A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe - 2010."
- Manoukian, Jean-Grégoire (2006), "A Synthesis of Haplogroup R2 - 2006."
- The first consisted of African migrants who traveled along the Indian coastline some 50,000 to 60,000 years ago.
- National Geographic Society (2005). "Atlas of the Human Journey". The Genographic Project. Washington DC: National Geographic Society..
- R2-M124-WTY (Walk Through the Y) Project, "R2-M124-WTY (Walk Through the Y) Project."
- Muthukrishnan Eaaswarkhanth, Ikramul Haque, Zeinab Ravesh, Irene Gallego Romero, Poorlin Ramakodi Meganathan, Bhawna Dubey, Faizan Ahmed Khan, Gyaneshwer Chaubey, Toomas Kivisild, Chris Tyler-Smith, Lalji Singh and Kumarasamy Thangaraj. Traces of sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern lineages in Indian Muslim populations.
- Firasat S, Khaliq S, Mohyuddin A, Papaioannou M, Tyler-Smith C, Underhill PA, Ayub Q. Y-chromosomal evidence for a limited Greek contribution to the Pathan population of Pakistan.
- R.Spencer Wells et al, The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity, PNAS August 28, 2001, vol. 98 no. 18, pp.10244-10249.
- "Kurdish Genetics: Abstracts and Summaries".
- Nasidze et al.; Sarkisian, T; Kerimov, A; Stoneking, M (2003). "Testing hypotheses of language replacement in the Caucasus: evidence from the Y-chromosome". Hum Genet 112 (3): 255–261. doi:10.1007/s00439-002-0874-4. PMID 12596050. 
- I. Nasidze, D. Quinque, I. Dupanloup et al., "Genetic Evidence Concerning the Origins of South and North Ossetians," Annals of Human Genetics (2004) 68, 588–599
- Vincenza Battaglia, Simona Fornarino, Nadia Al-Zahery et al., "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe," European Journal of Human Genetics (2008), 1 – 11
- Ivan Nasidze, Dominique Quinque, Isabelle Dupanloup, Richard Cordaux, Lyudmila Kokshunova, and Mark Stoneking, "Genetic Evidence for the Mongolian Ancestry of Kalmyks," American Journal of Physical Anthropology 126:000–000 (2005).
- Yunusbaev et al. (2006): 2/76 = 2.6% R-M124 Kumyks, 1/42 = 2.4% R-M124 Avars
- Semino, A; Passarino G, Oefner PJ, Lin AA, Arbuzova S, Beckman LE, De Benedictis G, Francalacci P, Kouvatsi A, Limborska S, Marcikiae M, Mika A, Mika B, Primorac D, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA (2000). "The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective" (PDF). Science 290 (5494): 1155–59. doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1155. PMID 11073453.
- Cinnioğlu et al. (2003), "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia."
- Regueiro M, Cadenas AM, Gayden T, Underhill PA, Herrera RJ (2006). "Iran: tricontinental nexus for Y-chromosome driven migration". Hum. Hered. 61 (3): 132–43. doi:10.1159/000093774. PMID 16770078.
- Alshamali et al. (2009), "Local Population Structure in Arabian Peninsula Revealed by Y-STR Diversity."
- Cadenas et al. (2007), "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman."
- Mohammad et al. (2009), "Genetic structure of nomadic Bedouin from Kuwait."
- Flores et al. (2005), "Isolates in a corridor of migrations: a high-resolution analysis of Y-chromosome variation in Jordan."
- Zalloua et al. (2008), "Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Lebanon Is Structured by Recent Historical Events."
- Myres et al. (2010), "A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe."
- Luis et al. (2004), "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations."
- R-Arabia Y-DNA Project, "R-Arabia Y-DNA Project."
- Manoukian, Jean-Grégoire (2006). "A Synthesis of Haplogroup R2" (published 2006-12-01)..
- Sengupta et al.; Zhivotovsky, LA; King, R; Mehdi, SQ; Edmonds, CA; Chow, CE; Lin, AA; Mitra, M et al. (2006). "Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 78 (2). pp. 202–221. doi:10.1086/499411. PMC 1380230. PMID 16400607. .
- Zerjal et al.; Pandya, A; Thangaraj, K; Ling, EY; Kearley, J; Bertoneri, S; Paracchini, S; Singh, L et al. (2007). "Y-chromosomal insights into the genetic impact of the caste system in India". Human Genetics 121 (1). pp. 137–144. doi:10.1007/s00439-006-0282-2. PMC 2590678. PMID 17075717. .
- Sharma et al.; Rai, E; Sharma, P; Jena, M; Singh, S; Darvishi, K; Bhat, AK; Bhanwer, AJ et al. (2009). "The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system". J. Hum. Genet. 54 (1). pp. 47–55. doi:10.1038/jhg.2008.2. PMID 19158816. .