Haplogroup R (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup R

Haplogroup R (mtDNA) & subclades.PNG

Possible time of origin 66,000 YBP [1]
Possible place of origin Asia
Ancestor N
Descendants R0, R1, R2'JT, R3, R5, R6'7, R8, R9, R11'B, R12'21, R14, R22, R23, R30, R31, P, U
Defining mutations 12705, 16223[2]

In human mitochondrial genetics, haplogroup R is a very extended mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup and is the most common macro-haplogroup in West Eurasia.

Haplogroup R is a descendant of macro-haplogroup N. Among its descendant haplogroups are B, U (and thus K), F, R0 (and thus HV, H, and V), and the ancestral haplogroup of J and T.

Origin[edit]

As of June 2009, the most recent study dates the origin of haplogroup R to 66.8kya (thousand years ago) with a 95% confidence interval of 52.6-81kya.[1]

South Asia lies on the way of earliest dispersals from Africa and is therefore a valuable well of knowledge on early human migration.[3] The analysis of the indigenous haplogroup R lineages in India points to a common first spread of the root haplotypes of M, N, and R along the southern route some 60–70 kya.[4]

Haplogroup R has wide diversity and antiquity among varied ethnic status and different language families in South Asia. In Indian western region among the castes and southern region among the tribes show higher haplogroup diversity than the other regions, possibly suggesting their autochthonous status.[5]

Distribution[edit]

R and its descendants are spread all over Eurasia, Oceania and the Americas. These descendants are specially common in Western Eurasia.[citation needed]

Subclades[edit]

Tree[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup R subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[2] and subsequent published research.

  • R
    • R0 (formerly pre-HV)
      • R0a
        • R0a1
        • R0a2
      • HV
        • HV0 (formerly pre-V)
          • HV0a
        • H
    • R1
      • R1a
        • R1a1
          • R1a1a
    • R2'JT
    • R5
      • R5a
        • R5a1
          • R5a1a
        • R5a2
          • R5a2a
          • R5a2b
            • R5a2b1
            • R5a2b2
            • R5a2b3
            • R5a2b4
    • R6'7
      • R6
        • R6a
          • R6a1
            • R6a1a
      • R7
        • R7a
          • R7a1
            • R7a1a
            • R7a1b
              • R7a1b1
              • R7a1b2
        • R7b
          • R7b1
            • R7b1a
    • R8
      • R8a
        • R8a1
          • R8a1a
            • R8a1a1
            • R8a1a2
            • R8a1a3
          • R8a1b
        • R8a2
      • R8b
        • R8b1
        • R8b2
    • (16304)
      • R9
        • R9b
          • R9b1
          • R9b2
        • R9c
        • F
        • R22
    • R11'B (16189)
      • R11
        • R11a
      • B
      • R24
    • R12'21
      • R12
      • R21
    • R14
    • R23
    • R30
      • R30a
      • R30b
        • R30b1
    • R31
      • R31a
        • R31a1
      • R31b
    • P
    • U

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Soares, Pedro; Ermini, Luca; Thomson, Noel; Mormina, Maru; Rito, Teresa; Röhl, Arne; Salas, Antonio; Oppenheimer, Stephen; MacAulay, Vincent (2009). "Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock". The American Journal of Human Genetics 84 (6): 740–59. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001. PMC 2694979. PMID 19500773. 
  2. ^ a b Van Oven, Mannis; Kayser, Manfred (2009). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation 30 (2): E386–94. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. 
  3. ^ a b Karmin, Monika (2005). Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup R in India: dissecting the phylogenetic tree of South Asian-specific lineages (M.Sc. Thesis). University of Tartu. OCLC 692161090. hdl:10062/567. [page needed]
  4. ^ a b c d Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Sun, Chang; Agrawal, Suraksha; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Kong, Qing-Peng; Khan, Faisal; Wang, Cheng-Ye; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Palla, Venkatramana (2004). "Phylogeny of Mitochondrial DNA Macrohaplogroup N in India, Based on Complete Sequencing: Implications for the Peopling of South Asia". The American Journal of Human Genetics 75 (6): 966–78. doi:10.1086/425871. PMC 1182158. PMID 15467980. 
  5. ^ Maji, Suvendu; Krithika, S.; Vasul, T.S. (2008). "Distribution of Mitochondrial DNA Macrohaplogroup N in India with Special Reference to Haplogroup R and its Sub-Haplogroup U". International Journal of Human Genetics 8 (1–2): 85–96. 
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  8. ^ a b Helgason, Agnar; Hickey, Eileen; Goodacre, Sara; Bosnes, Vidar; Stefánsson, Kári; Ward, Ryk; Sykes, Bryan (2001). "MtDNA and the Islands of the North Atlantic: Estimating the Proportions of Norse and Gaelic Ancestry". The American Journal of Human Genetics 68 (3): 723–37. doi:10.1086/318785. PMC 1274484. PMID 11179019. 
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  10. ^ Serk, Piia (2004). Human Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup J in Europe and Near East (M.Sc. Thesis). Estonia: University of Tartu. OCLC 692161303. hdl:10062/777. [page needed]
  11. ^ oxfordancestors.com Maternal Ancestry
  12. ^ Mannis van Oven's PhyloTree.org – mtDNA subtree R
  13. ^ a b c Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas; Metspalu, Ene; Parik, Jüri; Hudjashov, Georgi; Kaldma, Katrin; Serk, Piia; Karmin, Monika; Behar, Doron M; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Endicott, Phillip; Mastana, Sarabjit; Papiha, Surinder S; Skorecki, Karl; Torroni, Antonio; Villems, Richard (2004). "Most of the extant mtDNA boundaries in south and southwest Asia were likely shaped during the initial settlement of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans". BMC Genetics 5: 26. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-5-26. PMC 516768. PMID 15339343. 
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  15. ^ a b c "Figure 4. The frequency distribution of R7a and R7b clades in Indian subcontinent".  in Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Karmin, Monika; Metspalu, Ene; Metspalu, Mait; Selvi-Rani, Deepa; Singh, Vijay; Parik, Jüri; Solnik, Anu; Naidu, B Prathap; Kumar, Ajay; Adarsh, Niharika; Mallick, Chandana; Trivedi, Bhargav; Prakash, Swami; Reddy, Ramesh; Shukla, Parul; Bhagat, Sanjana; Verma, Swati; Vasnik, Samiksha; Khan, Imran; Barwa, Anshu; Sahoo, Dipti; Sharma, Archana; Rashid, Mamoon; Chandra, Vishal; Reddy, Alla G; Torroni, Antonio; Foley, Robert A; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Singh, Lalji (2008). "Phylogeography of mtDNA haplogroup R7 in the Indian peninsula". BMC Evolutionary Biology 8: 227. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-227. PMC 2529308. PMID 18680585. 
  16. ^ Figure 4. Isofrequency map of mtDNA haplogroup R8 in Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Nandan, Amrita; Sharma, Vishwas; Sharma, Varun Kumar; Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Patra, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Sandhya; Rekha, Sashi; Dua, Monika et al. (2009). Ahmed, Niyaz, ed. "Deep Rooting In-Situ Expansion of mtDNA Haplogroup R8 in South Asia". PLoS ONE 4 (8): e6545. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.6545T. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006545. PMC 2718812. PMID 19662095. 
  17. ^ Ian Logan 2009, Haplogrupo R9b, Mitochondrial DNA Site
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  21. ^ Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Denisova, Galina; Dambueva, Irina; Perkova, Maria; Dorzhu, Choduraa; Luzina, Faina; Lee, Hong Kyu (2007). "Phylogeographic Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA in Northern Asian Populations". The American Journal of Human Genetics 81 (5): 1025–41. doi:10.1086/522933. PMC 2265662. PMID 17924343. 
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  25. ^ Haplogroup R14, Ian Logan's Mitochondrial DNA Site
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Evolutionary tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U
HV JT K
H V J T

External links[edit]