Haplogroup T-M184

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This article is about the Y-Chromosome Haplogroup T-M184. For the unrelated mtDNA Haplogroup, see Haplogroup T (mtDNA).
Haplogroup T-M184

Distribution Haplogroup T Y-DNA II.svg

Possible time of origin 19,000-30,000 years BP[1]
Possible place of origin West Asia[1][2]
Ancestor LT
Descendants T-M193
Defining mutations M184/PAGES34/USP9Y+3178, M272, PAGES129, L810, L455, L452, L445
Highest frequencies Somalis, Kurru, Bauris, Armenian Sasuntzis, Chians, Saccensi/Sicilians, Fulbe, Eivissencs, Northeastern Portuguese Jews, Rajus, Mahli, Zoroastrians in Kerman, Bakhtiaris/Lurs, Southern Egyptians

In molecular evolution, a haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes. Haplogroup T-M184 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. From 2002 to 2008, it was known as Haplogroup K2.

The UEP which defines this clade is generally considered to be the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) M184. Other SNPs (M272, PAGES129, L810, L455, L452, L445) are currently considered to be phylogenetically equivalent.

Origins[edit]

K2-M70 is believed to have originated in Asia after the emergence of the K-M9 polymorphism (45–30 ky) (Underhill et al. 2001a). As deduced from the collective data (Underhill et al. 2000; Cruciani et al. 2002; Semino et al. 2002; present study), K2-M70 individuals, at some later point, proceeded south to Africa. While these chromosomes are seen in relatively high frequencies in Egypt, Oman, Tanzania, Ethiopia, they are especially prominent in the Fulbe 18%( [Scozzari et al. 1997, 1999])"

— J. R. Luis et al.[3]

The occurrence in Europe of lineages belonging to both T1a1 (old T1a) and T1a2 (old T1b) subclades probably reflects multiple episodes of gene flow. T1a1* haplogroups in Europe likely reflect older gene flow.[1]

Distribution[edit]

Haplogroup T-M184 (M193, M272, L206, PAGES129) is found in a majority of Kurru, Bauris & Lodha in South Asia; and in a significant minority of Rajus and Mahli in South Asia; Somalis, southern Egyptians and Fulbe in north Cameroon; Chian Greeks, Saccensi/Sicilians, Eivissencs / Ibizans and Northeastern Portuguese Jews in Europe and Zoroastrians, Bakhtiaris/Lurs in the Middle East. Haplogroup T is common in northern Somalia and in the Somalis of Ethiopia. It is found in frequency of greater than 10 percent in populations of Kenya Tanzania and Cameroon. It is notable for being widespread in Tanzania where it is more common than Kenya . It has also been detected in the limba populations of Zimbabwe Malawi and South Africa. The distribution of this haplogroup has been suggested to be associated with mtdna haplogroup M1 as the two tend to be common in the same regions.[4]

Haplogroup T-M184 is not associated with the R1, G and J lineages that entered Africa from Eurasia relatively recently. Luis et al. (2004) suggest that the presence of the clade on the African continent may, like R1* representatives, point to an older introduction from Asia. The Levant rather than the Arabian Peninsula appears to have been the main route of entry, as the Egyptian and Turkish haplotypes are considerably older in age (13,700 ybp and 9,000 ybp, respectively) than those found in Oman (only 1,600 ybp). According to the authors, the spotty modern distribution pattern of haplogroup T-M184 within Africa may therefore represent the traces of a more widespread early local presence of the clade. Later expansions of populations carrying the E1b1b, E1b1a, G and J NRY lineages may have overwhelmed the T-M184 clade-bearers in certain localities.[5]

The distribution of haplogroup T-M184 in most parts of Europe is patchy or regionalized; for example, haplogroup T-M184 was found in 1.7% (10/591) of a pool of six samples of males from southwestern Russia, but it was completely absent from a pool of eight samples totalling 637 individuals from the northern half of European Russia.[6] The Russians from the southwest were from the following cities: Roslavl, Livny, Pristen, Repyevka, and Belgorod; and Kuban Cossacks from the Republic of Adygea.

The paternal haplogroup T-M70 varies between 3% and 24% of male lineages in Germany.

The Genographic Project 2.0 2012

Northern Asia[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Kazakhs Kazakh (Turkic) Kosh-Agachski Raion 19/49 38.8% [7] K(xL, NOP). According to Dulik 2011 only T fit.
Tuvinians Tuvan (Turkic) Kyzyl and Ubsunur Hollow 10/102 9.8% [7] In Kharkov et al. 2013 were sampled 296 Tuvinians from Kyzyl and were found to be 0% T.
Kazakhs Kazakh (Turkic) Southwestern Altai 1/30 3.3% [8]
Khakass Khakas (Turkic) Abakan 3/176 1.7% .[7]

Europe[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Marchigianos Marchigiano (Romance) Arquata del Tronto and Apiro 2/2 100% [9]
Cretans and southern Aegeans Southeastern Greek Crete and southern Aegean 2/6 33.3% [10]
Chians Southeastern Greek Khíos 4/16 25% [11]
German Stilfser/Tyrolese Southern Austro-Bavarian (Upper German) Stilfs 4/17 23.5% [12]
Venetians Venetian (Romance) Vigasio and Povegliano Veronese 2/9 22.2% [13]
Abruzzesi Neapolitan language (Romance) L'Aquila 6/30 20% [14] macro-haplogroup LT is 30% in L'Aquila population.
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Sciacca 5/28 17.9% [15]
Balearics Eivissenc (Romance) Eivissa 9/54 16.7% [16]
Northeastern Portuguese Jews Judaeo-Portuguese (Romance) Bragança 9/57 15.7% [17] T have been found to be the second largest lineage in the Mirandês speaking population of Miranda do Douro too.
Albanians Albanian Brescia (Lombardia) 12/83 14.5% [18] The haplogroup tested is K*(xNOP), is assumed as LT and most probably are members of T
Corsicans Corsican (Romance) Balagne (region of Haute-Corse) 3/83 12.5% [19]
Cantabrians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Cantabria 2/18 11.1% [20] All individuals were interviewed in order to assess the geographical origin of their grandparents and their speaking dialect.
Marchigianos Marchigiano (Romance) Matelica 1/9 11.1% [9]
Gaditanos Andalusian (Romance) Cádiz 3/28 10.7% [21]
Native Mirandese speakers Astur-Leonese (Romance) Miranda de l Douro 6/58 10.3% [22]
Asturianos Astur-Leonese (Romance) Eastern Uviéu 1/10 10% [23]
Cretans Cretan Greek Lasithi 2/23 8.7% [24]
Campanians Neapolitan language (Romance) West Campania 7/84 8.3% [25]
Campanians Neapolitan language (Romance) Cilento 4/48 8.3% [26]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Alcamo 2/24 8.3% [15]
Lebaniegos Astur-Leonese (Romance) Liébana 3/37 8.1% [27]
Corsicans Corsican (Romance) Corte 5/62 8.1% [19]
Marchigianos Marchigiano (Romance) Offida 3/38 7.9% [28]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) East Sicily 9/114 7.9% [15]
Northern Portugueses Portuguese (Romance) Vila Real 3/39 7.7% [29]
Campanians Neapolitan language (Romance) Campania 8/108 7.4% [30]
Balearics Eivissenc (Romance) Eivissa 7/96 7.3% [31]
Cretans Cretan Greek Oropedio Lasithiou 3/41 7.3% [24]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Ragusa 2/28 7.1% [15]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Piazza Armerina 2/28 7.1% [15]
Walloons Walloon (Romance) Wallonia 3/47 6.4% [32]
Asturianos Eonavian (Romance) Navia-Eo 2/31 6.5% [23]
Gagauzes Gagauz (Turkic) Kongaz 3/48 6.3%
Northern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Aveiro 4/66 6.1%
Western Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Huelva 10/167 6% [33]
Aragonese Aragonese and Castilian (Romance) Aragón 2/34 5.9%
Corsicans Corsican Corsica 2/34 5.9%
Panteschis Sicilian with Siculo-Arabic influences (Romance) Pantelleria 1/17 5.9% [34]
Extremadurans Astur-Leonese and Castilian (Romance) Extremadura 3/52 5.8%
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Unspecified Bulgarian region 4/69 5.8% [35]
Dutch Hollandic (West Germanic) North Holland 1/18 5.6%
Lombardians Lombard and Italian (Romance) Lombardia 1/18 5.6% [19]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Mazara del Vallo 1/18 5.6%
Southern Italians Italian (Romance) South Apulia 4/71 5.6%
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) South Sicily 3/55 5.4%
Lombardians Lombard and Italian (Romance) Lombardia 7/131 5.3%
Hutterites Austro-Bavarian (Upper German) Tyrol 4/75 5.3%
Peloponnesians Southern Greek Peloponnese 1/19 5.3% [10]
Estonians Estonian (Uralic) Estonia 11/207 5.3%
Gutes Gutnish (North Germanic) Gotland 2/40 5%
Alsatians Alsatian (Upper German) Alsace 4/80 5%
Asturians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Asturies 1/20 5%
Italian speakers Italian (Romance) Bozen 3/59 5%
Ladin Stilfser/Tyrolese Ladin (Romance) Stelvio 1/20 5%
Macedonians and Thracians Northern Greek East Macedonia and Thrace 1/21 4.8% [10]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Razgrad 1/21 4.8% [35]
Northeastern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Trás os Montes 3/64 4.7%
Sardinians Corsican (Romance) Sassari 2/43 4.7% [19]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) East Sicily 4/87 4.6%
Western Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Huelva 1/22 4.5% [21]
West Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Sevilla 7/155 4.5% [21]
Galicians Galician (Romance) Santiago 2/46 4.4%
Ligurians Ligurian (Romance) Central Liguria 2/45 4.4% [28]
Greeks Greek Athens 4/92 4.3%
Northern Portuguese Portuguese Beira Litoral 5/116 4.3%
Ligurians Ligurian (Romance) La Spezia 2/46 4.3% [36]
South Italians Salentino (Romance) North Apulia 2/46 4.3%
Cantabrians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Cantabria 3/70 4.3% [21]
Macedonians Northern Greek Central Macedonia 1/25 4% [10]
Germans German (West Germanic) Berlin 4/103 3.9%
Northern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Braga 2/51 3.9%
Tuscans Tuscan (Romance) South Tuscany 3/79 3.8%
Riojans Riojan and Castilian (Romance) La Rioja 2/54 3.7% [20]
Marchigianos Marchigiano (Romance) Apennines Marche 1/27 3.7%
Calabrians Southern Italian (Romance) West Calabria 1/27 3.7% [28]
Native Sayaguese speakers Astur-Leonese (Romance) Sayago 1/28 3.6% [22]
Galicians Galician (Romance) Montes Baixo Miño 1/28 3.6%
Corsicans Corsican (Romance) Ajaccio 1/28 3.6% [19]
Estonians Estonian (Uralic) Estonia - 3.5%
Southern Portugueses Portuguese (Romance) Évora 1/29 3.5%
Canarians Canarian Spanish (Romance) La Palma 3/85 3.5%
Scanians Scanian dialects (South Scandinavian) Malmö 1/29 3.4%
Occitans Auvergnat (Romance) Auvergne 3/89 3.4%
Azoreans Portuguese (Romance) Eastern Azores 3/87 3.4% [37]
Galicians Galician (Romance) Lugo 2/61 3.3%
Albanians Albanian dialects Albania 1/30 3.3%
Northeastern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Bragança 1/30 3.3% [17]
Northern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Viseu 1/30 3.3%
Northern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Guarda 1/30 3.3%
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) West Sicily 4/122 3.3%
Lithuanians Aukštaitian (Baltic) West Aukstaiciai 1/31 3.2%
Greeks Northern Greek Western Greece 1/31 3.2% [10]
Campanians Neapolitan language (Romance) San Giorgio La Molara 1/31 3.2% [28]
Valencians Catalan and Castilian (Romance) Valencia 1/31 3.2% [21]
Southern Tyroleans Southern Austro-Bavarian (Upper German) Lower Vinschgau 1/32 3.1%
Rhinelanders Ripuarian (Central Franconian) Köln 3/96 3.1%
Swedes Swedish dialects (East Scandinavian) Örebro 1/32 3.1%
Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Madeira 4/129 3.1%
Native Alistano speakers Astur-Leonese (Romance) Aliste 1/36 2.8% [22]
Azoreans Portuguese (Romance) Central Azores 2/76 2.6% [37]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) Vysocina 1/40 2.5% [38]
Flemish Dutch (West Germanic) Turnhout 1/42 2.4% [39] ‘1675’ data set
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Haskovo 1/41 2.4% [35]
Sardinians Corsican (Romance) Gaddùra 1/46 2.2% [19]
Sardinians Sardinian (Romance) Trexenta 1/47 2.1% [19]
Zamoranos Castilian (Romance) Campos - Pan 1/50 2% [22]
Eastern Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Alpujarra de la Sierra 1/50 2%
Basques Gipuzkoan (Isolate language) Southwestern Gipuzkoa 1/57 1.8% [20]
Basques Gipuzkoan (Isolate language) Gipuzkoa 1/58 1.7% [40]
Flemish Dutch (West Germanic) Noord-Brabant 2/119 1.7% [39] ‘1775’ data set
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Sofia 1/59 1.7% [35]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Lovech 1/62 2.4% [35]
Bosch surname members Catalan language (Romance language) Països Catalans 1/56 1.8% [41]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) Plzen 1/62 1.6% [38]
Mecklenburgers East Low Saxon (West Germanic) Rostock 3/200 1.5% [42]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Plovdiv 2/159 1.3% [35]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Montana, Bulgaria 1/80 1.3% [35]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) Usti nad Labem 1/86 1.2% [38]
Eastern Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Granada 2/180 1.1% [33]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) South Moravia 2/216 0.9% [38]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Sofia Province 2/257 0.8% [35]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) Prague 3/595 0.5% [38]
Individuals living in Catalonia Catalan language (Romance) Barcelona metropolitan area 1/247 0.4% [43]

With K-M9+, unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 14% (3/23) of Russians in Yaroslavl,[44] 12.5% (3/24) of Italians in Matera,[26] 10.3% (3/29) of Italians in Avezzano,[26] 10% (3/30) of Tyroleans in Nonstal,[26] 10% (2/20) of Italians in Pescara,[26] 8.7% (4/46) of Italians in Benavento,[26] 7.8% (4/51) of Italians in South Latium,[25] 7.4% (2/27) of Italians in Paola,[26] 7.3% (11/150) of Italians in Central-South Italy,[45] 7.1% (8/113) of Serbs in Serbia,[46] 7% (6/86) of Sardinians in Tempio,[47] 4.7% (2/42) of Aromanians in Romania,[48] 3.7% (3/82) of Italians in Biella,[49] 3.7% (1/27) of Andalusians in Córdoba,[21] 3.3% (2/60) of Leoneses in León|,[21] 3.2% (1/31) of Italians in Postua,[49] 3.2% (1/31) of Italians in Cavaglià,[49] 3.1% (3/97) of Calabrians in Reggio Calabria,[50] 2.8% (1/36) of Russians in Ryazan Oblast,[51] 2.8% (2/72) of Italians in South Apulia,[52] 2.7% (1/37) of Calabrians in Cosenza,[50] 2.6% (3/114) of Serbs in Belgrade,[53] 2.5% (1/40) of Russians in Pskov,[44] 2.4% (1/42) of Russians in Kaluga,[44] 2.2% (2/89) of Transylvanians in Csíkszereda,[54] 2.2% (2/92) of Italians in Trino Vercellese,[49] 1.9% (2/104) of Italians in Brescia,[55] 1.9% (2/104) of Romanians in Romania,[56] 1.7% (4/237) of Serbs and Montenegrins in Serbia and Montenegro,[57] 1.7% (1/59) of Italians in Marche,[52] 1.7% (1/59) of Calabrians in Catanzaro,[50] 1.6% (3/183) of Greeks in Northern Greece,[58] 1.3% (2/150) of Swiss Germans in Zürich Area,[59] 1.3% (1/79) of Italians in South Tuscany and North Latium,[52] 1.1% (1/92) of Dutch in Leiden,[60] 0.8% (1/132) of "Andalusians" in Northwest Tunisia,[61] 0.5% (1/185) of Serbs in Novi Sad (Vojvodina),[62] 0.5% (1/186) of Polish in Podlasie[63] and 0.4% (1/234) of Germans in Halle, Saxony-Anhalt.[64]

Other parts that have been found to contain a significant proportion of haplogroup T-M184 individuals include Trentino (2/67 or 3%), Mariña Lucense (1/34 or 2.9%), Heraklion (3/104 or 2.9%), Roslavl (3/107 or 2.8%), Ourense (1/37 or 2.7%), Livny (3/110 or 2.7%), Biella (3/114 or 2.6%), Entre Douro (6/228 or 2.6%), Porto (3/118 or 2.5%), Urbino (1/40 or 2.5%), Iberian Peninsula (16/629 or 2.5%), Blekinge/Kristianstad (1/41 or 2.4%), Belarus (1/41 or 2.4%), Modena (3/130 or 2.3%), Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (1/45 or 2.2%), Pristen (1/45 or 2.2%), Cáceres (2/91 or 2.2%), Brac (1/47 or 2.1%), Satakunta (1/48 or 2.1%), Western Croatia (2/101 or 2%), Ukrainia (1/50 or 2%), Greifswald (2/104 or 1.9%), Moldavians in Sofia (1/54 or 1.9%), Uppsala (1/55 or 1.8%), Lublin (2/112 or 1.8%), Pias in Beja (1/54 or 1.8%), Macedonian Greeks (1/57 or 1.8%), Nea Nikomedeia (1/57 or 1.8%), Sesklo/Dimini (1/57 or 1.8%), Lerna/Franchthi (1/57 or 1.8%), Açores (2/121 or 1.7%), Viana do Castelo (1/59 or 1.7%), Midi-Pyrénées (1/67 or 1.5%), Belgorod (2/143 or 1.4%), Sardinia (1/77 or 1.3%).[65][66][67][68][69][70][25][71][29][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82][83][84][85][71][86][87][88][9][89][90][91][92][93] According to data from commercial testing, 3.9% of Italian males belonging to this haplogroup.[94] Approximately 3% of Sephardi Jews and 2% of Ashkenazi Jews belong to haplogroup T.[95]

Middle East and Caucasus[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Tajiks Dari (Southwestern Iranian) Logar Province 2/4 50% [96]
Armenian Sasuntzis Western Armenian dialect, Kurmanji and Dimli (Northwestern Iranian) languages Sasun 21/104 20.2% [97] T1a1 and T1a2 subclades
Zoroastrians Persian Kerman 5/37 13.5% [98]
Bakhtiaris/Lurs Bakhtiari/Lurs (Southwestern Iranian (Perside)) Izeh 13/103 12.6% [99][100]
Armenians Western Armenian dialect Historical Southwestern Armenia 11/96 11.5% [101]
Abudhabians Gulf Arabic (Semitic) Abu Dhabi 21/191 11% [Research 1]
Assyrians Assyrian (Central Semitic) West Azerbaijan Province 4/39 10.3% [102]
Persian Muslims Persian Shiraz 5/51 9.8% [98]
Persian Muslims Persian Kerman 6/66 9.1% [98]
Iraqis Iraqi Arabic (Semitic) Al-Qadisiyah 6/69 8.7% [103]
Kurds Sorani (Northwestern Iranian) Kurdestan 5/59 8.5% [102]
Omani Arabs Omani Arabic (Semitic) Oman 10/121 8.3% [5]
Azeris Azeri (Oghuz) West Azerbaijan Province 5/63 7.9% [102]
Iraqis Iraqi Arabic (Semitic) Iraq 10/139 7.2% [104]
Kuwaitis Gulf Arabic (Semitic) Kuwait 3/42 7.1% [72]
Iraqis Iraqi Arabic (Semitic) Iraq 3/43 7% [105]
Arabs Levantine Arabic Israel and Palestine 10/143 7% [106]
Persians Farsi (Southwestern Iranian) Fars 3/44 6.8% [102]
Christian Arabs Levantine Arabic Israel and Palestine 3/44 6.8% [107]
Western Armenians Armenian Eastern Turkey 6/90 6.7% [108]
Persians Farsi (Southwestern Iranian) Yazd 3/46 6.5% [102]
Armenians Armenian Gardman 6/96 6.3% [97]
Muslim Arabs Levantine Arabic Israel and Palestine 7/119 5.9% [107]
Northern Armenians Armenian Northern Armenia, southern Georgia (Bolnisi, Akhalkalaki and Akhaltsikhe) and northwestern Azerbaijan (around Gyanja) 10/189 5.3% [108]
Armenians Armenian Tehran 2/38 5.3% [98]
Eastern Armenians Armenian Karabakh 11/215 5.1% [108]
Persians Farsi (Southwestern Iranian) Khorasan 3/59 5.1% [102]
Saudi Arabians Arabic dialects (Semitic) Saudi Arabia 8/157 5.1% [109]
Armenians Armenian Syunik 7/140 5% [108]
Emiratis Gulf Arabic (Semitic) United Arab Emirates 8/164 4.9%
Lebanese Muslims Lebanese Arabic (Semitic) Lebanon 28/568 4.9% [110]
Kurds Kurmanji (Northwestern Iranian) Anatolia 12/251 4.8% [111]
Kurds Kurdish dialects (Northwestern Iranian) Iraq 6/126 4.8% [Research 2]
Anizes Gulf Arabic (Semitic) Kuwait 1/21 4.7% [112]
Lebaneses Levantine Arabic (Semitic) Lebanon 43/914 4.7%
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Cyprus 3/65 4.6%
Maronites Lebanese Arabic and Syriac (Semitic) Lebanon 24/518 4.6% [110]
Armenians Armenian Ararat 2/44 4.6% [108]
Qeshmis Qishmi (southwestern Iranian) Qeshm 2/49 4.1% [102]
Lurs Luri (Southwestern Iranian) Lorestan 2/50 4% [102]
Sadats Languages of Iran Different cities of Iran 2/50 4% [113]
Armenians Armenian Lake Van 4/103 3.9% [97]
Armenians Armenian Ararat Valley 4/110 3.6% [97]
Tajiks Tajik (Southwestern Iranian) Afghanistan 2/56 3.6% [96]
Iranians Languages of Iran South Iran 4/117 3.4% [66]
Ionians Greek Phokaia 1/31 3.2% [114]
Bandaris Bandari (Southwestern Iranian) Bandar Abbas 4/131 3.1% [102]
Jordanians Arabic dialects (Semitic) Jordania 8/273 2.9%
Lezghins Lezgian (Northeast Caucasian) Southern Dagestan 2/81 2.5% [115]
Turks Turkish Turkey 13/523 2.5%
Iranians Languages of Iran Iran 7/324 2.2% [110]
Azerbaijani Muslims Azerbaijani (Turkic) Uromia 2/91 2.2% [98]
Assyrians Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (Semitic) Uromia and Tehran 1/55 1.8% [98]
Abkhazians Abkhaz (Northwest Caucasian) Abkhazia 1/58 1.7% [115]
Greek Orthodox Koine Greek Lebanon 2/116 1.7% [110]
Aeolians Greek Smyrna 1/68 1.5% [114]
Turkmens Turkmen (Oghuz) the people of Golestan 1/68 1.5% [102]
Ossetian Digors Digorian (Scythian) North Ossetia 1/127 0.8% [115]
Yemeni Arabs Sanaani Arabic (Semitic) Sana'a 1/129 0.8% [Research 3]
Syrians Syrian Arabic (Semitic) Syria 4/518 0.8% [110]
Circassians Adyghe (Northwest Caucasian) Republic of Adygea 1/142 0.7% [115]
Pashtuns Pashto (Eastern Iranian) mainly living in the Southern Afghanistan province of Kandahar 1/141 0.7% [116]

Unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 28% (7/25) of Lezginians in Dagestan,[100] 21.7% (5/23) of Ossetians in Zamankul,[117] 14% (7/50) of Iranians in Isfahan,[100] 13% (3/23) of Ossetians in Zil'ga,[117] 12.6% (11/87) of Kurmanji Kurds in Eastern Turkey,[118] 11.8% (2/17) of Palestinian Arabs in Palestine,[119] 8.3% (1/12) of Iranians in Shiraz,[120] 8.3% (2/24) of Ossetians in Alagir,[117] 8% (2/25) of Kurmanji Kurds in Georgia,[118] 7.5% (6/80) of Iranians in Tehran,[100][121] 7.4% (10/135) of Palestinian Arabs in Israeli Village,[119] 7% (10/143) of Palestinian Arabs in Israel and Palestine,[119] 5% (1/19) of Chechens in Chechenia,[100][121] 4.2% (3/72) of Azerbaijanians in Azerbaijan,[100][121] 4.1% (2/48) of Iranians in Isfahan,[121] 4% (4/100) of Armenians in Armenia,[100][121] 4% (1/24) of Bedouins in Israel[119] and 2.6% (1/39) of Turks in Ankara.[121]

Africa[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Somalis (Northern Dir tribes) Northern Somali (East Cushitic) Dire Dawa 14/17 82.4% [122] Dir sub-clans of Dire Dawa are Issa, Gurgura and Gadabuursi.
Anteony Antemoro (Plateau Malagasy) old Antemoro Kingdom 22/37 59.5% [123] The Anteony are the descendants of aristocrats, from whom the Antemoro king is chosen. Can be grouped into the Silamo, because they have the right to undertake the ritual slaughter of animals (Sombily)
Aushi Aushi Zambia 1/2 50% [124]
Akie Akie people (Nilotic) Tanzania 3/13 23.1% [Hirbo et al.] Akie people have remnants of a Cushitic language
Somalis Darood Somali (East Cushitic) Jijiga (Ogaden) 19/83 22.9% [122] Jijiga is mostly inhabited by Darod subclans like Bartire, Geeri Koombe and Ogaden.
Arabs from Somalia Benaadir (Cushitic) immigrants in Yemen 7/33 21.2% [125]
Lemba Venda and Shona (Bantu) South Africa 6/34 17.6% [1] Exclusively belong to T1a2* (old T1b*). Possible recent founder effect. Low frequency of T1a2 has been observed in Bulgarian Jews and Turks but is not found in other Jewish communities. Y-str Haplotypes close to some T1a2 Armenians.
Fulbe Fula northern Cameroon 3/17 17.6% [126]
Rangi Rangi Language (Bantu) Tanzania 5/32 15.6% [Hirbo et al.]
Multiple ethnicity - Somalia 15/105 14.3% [127][128]
Iraqw Iraqw language (Cushitic) Tanzania 6/47 12.8% [Hirbo et al.]
Somali Somali (Cushitic) immigrants to Norway 12/104 11.5% [129]
Bench Bench(northern Omotic) Bench Maji Zone 14/126 11.4% [122]
Kores (Cushitic) SNNP 2/18 11.1% [122]
Oromo Afaan Oromo language (Cushitic) Oromiyaa 1/9 11.1% [130]
Gorowa Gorowa language (Cushitic) Tanzania 2/19 10.5% [Hirbo et al.]
Somali Somali (Cushitic) immigrants to Denmark 21/201 10.4% [131]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Luxor Governorate 3/29 10.3% [16][132]
Kontas Konta language (Omotic) Konta special woreda 11/107 10.3% [122]
Rendille Rendille language (Cushitic) Kenya 3/31 9.7% [Hirbo et al.]
Gewadas Gewada language (east Cushitic) SNNP 11/116 9.5% [122]
Antalaotra Antemoro (Plateau Malagasy) old Antemoro Kingdom 4/43 9.3% [123] The Antalaotra are in charge of the magical and religious domains; they have the ability to read and write Sorabe. Can be grouped into the Silamo, because they have the right to undertake the ritual slaughter of animals (Sombily)
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Aswan Governorate 1/11 9.1% [133]
Subiya Subiya/Kuhane (Bantu) Zambia 1/11 9% [124]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Assiut Governorate 6/70 8.6% [133]
Konsos (Semitic) Konso special woreda 2/24 8.3% [122]
Somali Somali (Cushitic) immigrants to Sweden 12/147 8.2% [134]
Arabs and Berbers Egyptian Arabic and Siwi Lower Egypt 12/147 8.2% [5]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Sohag Governorate 4/52 7.7% [133]
Egyptians Erythraic (Cushitic) Egypt 7/92 7.6% [128][130] If the K* sample is M184+ then 8.7%
Oromo (Semitic) SNNP 2/28 7.1% [124]
Tigray-Tigrinyas Tigrinya (South Semitic) SNNP 2/30 6.7% [122]
Dirashas Dirasha (east Cushitic) Dirashe special woreda 5/79 6.3% [122]
Canarians Canarian Spanish Tenerife 11/178 6.2%
Omo Valley Omotic languages Ethiopia 6/98 6.1% [124]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Qena Governorate 3/52 5.8% [133]
Afars Afar (East Cushitic) Afar Region 6/111 5.4% [122]
Ethiopians Ethiopian languages Ethiopia 4/74 5.4% [105]
Mashiles Mashile language (Cushitic) SNNP 7/130 5.4% [122]
Gurages Gurage languages (South Semitic) SNNP 6/118 5.1% [122]
Canarians Canarian Spanish Gran Canaria 4/78 5.1% [124]
Oromo Afaan Oromo language (Cushitic) Oromiyaa 4/78 5.1% [124]
Oromo Afaan Oromo language (Cushitic) Adis Abeba 2/40 5% [124]
Turu Nyaturu (Bantu) Tanzania 1/20 5% [135]
Gedeos Gedeo (east Cushitic) SNNP 6/122 4.9% [122]
Western Libyans Libyan Arabic (Semitic) Tripoli region 7/142 4.9% [136]
Kanuri Kanuri Cameroon 1/21 4.8% [Hirbo et al.]
Iraqw[137] Iraqw (Cushitic) Tanzania 2/43 4.7%
Yems Yemsa (Omotic) SNNP 5/107 4.7% [122]
Gobeze Cushitic SNNP 5/113 4.4% [122]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Minya Governorate 1/23 4.3% [133]
Konsos Konso language (East Cushitic) Konso special woreda 4/94 4.3% [122]
Amhara Amharic (Semitic) Ethiopia 2/48 4.2% [124]
Kembaatas East Cushitic Kembata Tembaro Zone 4/102 3.9% [122]
Maasai Maasai (Eastern Nilotic) Kenya 3/79 3.8% [124]
Lower Egyptians Egyptian Arabic (Semitic) Mansoura 1/44 2.2% [16][132]
Berbers Siwi (Berber) Siwa Oasis 2/93 2.2% [138][139]
Meru Meru (Northeast Bantu) Tanzania 2/99 2% [140]
Itam Ibibio Obong Itam (Southeast Nigeria) 1/50 2% [141]
Berbers Shilha (Berber) Asni 1/54 1.9% [138][139]
Eastern Libyans Libyan Arabic (Semitic) Benghazi 4/214 1.9% [142]
Algerians Algerian Arabic (Semitic) Algeria 3/164 1.8% [119]
Bokoras Karamojong (Eastern Nilotic) Karamoja region 1/59 1.7% [143]
Lower Egyptians Egyptian Arabic (Semitic) Cairo 1/63 1.6% [144]
Nilotes Ateker (Eastern Nilotic) Karamoja region 1/118 0.8% [143]

Unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 9.7% (3/31) of Datogs in Tanzania,[135] 5.8% (4/69) of Kordofanians in Kurdufan,[119] 5.6% (1/18) of Tuaregs in Gorom-Gorom,[145] 4.8% (5/105) of Tunisians in Sfax,[146] 4.8% (3/63) of Libyans in Tripoli Area,[147] 2.6% (1/39) of Hutus in Rwanda[148] 2.1% (1/47) of Berbers in Sejenane,[149] 1.9% (1/53) of Ovimbundo in Angola,[150] and 1.5% (1/68) of Mozabites in Ghardaia,[151]

South Asia[edit]

Haplogroup T-M184 has been detected in:

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Kurru Yerukala (Dravidian) Andhra Pradesh 10/18 55.6% [71]
Bauris Bengali (Indo-Aryan) West Bengal 10/19 52.6% [71] K* is found at 6/19, if M70- but M184+, then could be 84.2%. Bauris are thought to be descendants of a native tribe of the Central Highlands before the Aryan invasion, then as Bauris have not been well assimilated and have not participated satisfactorily in the new Aryan society, the Bauris ended up being seen as "low caste". They are at "halfway" between the old Bauri tribal and the new Aryan society lifestyle.
Lodha Lodhi (Sora–Juray–Gorum Munda) West Bengal 2/4 50% [71]
Rajus Telugu (Dravidian) Andhra Pradesh 3/19 15.9% [71]
Maheli Mahali (Kherwari Munda) West Bengal 2/13 15.3% [71]
Chenchus Chenchu (Dravidian) Andhra Pradesh 3/20 15% [71] K* is found at 7/20, if M70- but M184+, then could be 50%
Kare Vokkal Kannada (Dravidian) Uttara Kannada 4/30 13.3% [152] K* is found at 3/30, if M70- but M184+, then could be 23.3%
Banjaras Lambadi (Indo-Aryan) Andhra Pradesh 2/18 11.1% [71]
Gonds Gondi (Dravidian) South Uttar Pradesh 4/38 10.6% [153]
Gonds Gondi (Dravidian) Madhya Pradesh 10/139 7.2% [153]
Indians languages of India South India 18/305 5.9% [71]
Maheli Mahali (Kherwari Munda) Jamshedpur from Jharkhand; Purulia, Midnapore & other location from West Bengal 2/38 5.3% [71][154] Two samples from different studies grouped together
Chenchus Chenchu (Dravidian) Andhra Pradesh 3/61 4.9% [71][155] Samples from Trivedi et al. and Kivisild et al.
Banjaras Lambadi (Indo-Aryan) Andhra Pradesh 2/53 3.8% [71][155] Two samples from different studies grouped together
Indians languages of India East India 14/367 3.8% [71]
Gujaratis Gujarati (Indo-Aryan) Gujarat 1/29 3.4% [155]
Lodha Lodhi (Sora–Juray–Gorum Munda) Midnapore & other location from West Bengal 2/71 2.8% [71][154][156] Three samples from different studies grouped together
Sahariyas Saharia (Munda) Madhya Pradesh 2/73 2.7% [157]

With K-M9+, unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 56.6% (30/53) of Kunabhis in Uttar Kannada,[158] 32.5% (13/40) of Kammas in Andhra Pradesh,[159] 26.8% (11/41) of Brahmins in Visakhapatnam,[159] 25% (1/4) of Kattunaiken in South India,[160] 22.4% (11/49) of Telugus in Andhra Pradesh,[161] 20% (1/5) of Ansari in South Asia, (2/20) of Poroja in Andhra Pradesh,[159] 9.8% (5/51) of Kashmiri Pandits in Kashmir,[153] 8.2% (4/49) of Gujars in Kashmir,[153] 7.7% (1/13) of Siddis (migrants from Ethiopia) in Andhra Pradesh,[159] 5.5% (3/55) of Adi in Northeast India,[162] 5.5% (7/128) of Pardhans in Adilabad,[161] 5.3% (2/38) of Brahmins in Bihar,[153] 4.3% (1/23) of Bagata in Andhra Pradesh,[159] 4.2% (1/24) of Valmiki in Andhra Pradesh,[159] (1/32) of Brahmins in Maharashtra,[153] 3.1% (2/64) of Brahmins in Gujarat,[153] 2.9% (1/35) of Rajput in Uttar Pradesh,[163] 2.3% (1/44) of Brahmins in Peruru,[159] and 1.7% (1/59) of Manghi in Maharashtra.[161]

Also in Desasth-Brahmins in Maharashtra (1/19 or 5.3%) and Chitpavan-Brahmins in Konkan (1/21 or 4.8%), Chitpavan-Brahmins in Konkan (2/66 or 3%).

Far East[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Xibe/Sibo/Xibo people Xibe (Tungusic) Xinjiang 1/8 12.5% [164][165]
Uyghur Uyghur (Turkic) Xinjiang 1/48 (1/4 samples) 2.1% [166]

Unconfirmed but probable T-M70+ : 4.9% (2/41) of Xibe in Xinjiang,[167] 2% (4/204) of Hui in Liaoning province,[168] and 0.9% (1/113) of Bidayuh in Sarawak.[169]

Colonial America[edit]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Movimas Movima language (Language isolate) Beni 1/5 20% [170]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Antioquia 9/51 17.6% [171]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Aranzazu, Caldas 23/190 12.1% [171]
Bahamians Bahamian English (West Germanic) Long Island 3/43 7% [172]
Northwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Mountainous region of San Salvador de Jujuy 6/86 7% [173]
Kolla Quechua, Aymara and Argentinian Spanish Mountainous region of Tucumán 2/29 6.9% [174][175]
Basques Basque (Isolate language) Nevada 1/16 6.3% [Research 4]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Marinilla and its zone of influence 15/241 6.2% [176]
Centralwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Mountainous region of La Rioja (Capital) 5/87 5.7% [173]
Kolla Quechua, Aymara and Argentinian Spanish Mountainous region of Jujuy 1/18 5.6% [177]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Cundinamarca 1/22 4.5% [171]
Centralwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Mountainous region of Mendoza (Capital) 3/75 4% [173]
Bahamians Bahamian English (West Germanic) Eleuthera 1/60 1.7% [172]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Peque (Antioquia) 1/62 1.6% [171]

Elite endurance runners[edit]

Possible patterns between Y-chromosome and elite endurance runners were studied in an attempt to find a genetic explanation to the Ethiopian endurance running success. Given the superiority of East African athletes in international distance running over the past four decades, it has been speculated that they are genetically advantaged. Elite marathon runners from Ethiopia were analysed for K*(xP) which according to the previously published Ethiopian studies is attributable to the haplogroup T[178] and specifically to the T1a1a* (old T1a*) subclade, according to further studies.[1] T1a1a* was found to be proportionately more frequent in the elite marathon runners sample than in the control samples than any other haplogroup, therefore this y-chromosome could play a significant role in determining Ethiopian endurance running success. Haplogroup T1a1a* was found in 14% of the elite marathon runners sample of whom 43% of this sample are from Arsi province. In addition, haplogroup T1a1a* was found in only 4% of the Ethiopian control sample and only 1% of the Arsi province control sample. T1a1a* is positively associated with aspects of endurance running, whereas E1b1b1 (old E3b1) is negatively associated.[179]

Notable haplogroup members[edit]

A notable member of the T-M184 haplogroup is Thomas Jefferson. The Y-chromosomal complement of the Jefferson male line was studied in 1998 in an attempt to resolve the controversy over whether he had fathered the mixed-race children of his slave Sally Hemings. A 1998 DNA study of the Y chromosome in the Jefferson male line found that it matched that of a descendant of Eston Hemings, Sally Hemings' youngest son. This confirmed the body of historical evidence, and most historians believe that Jefferson had a long-term intimate liaison with Hemings for 38 years, and fathered her six children of record, four of whom lived to adulthood. In addition, the testing conclusively disproved any connection between the Hemings descendant and the Carr male line. Jefferson grandchildren had asserted in the 19th century that a Carr nephew had been the father of Hemings' children, and this had been the basis of historians' denial for 180 years.

Phylogenetic network analysis of its Y-STR (short tandem repeat) haplotype shows that it is most closely related to an Egyptian K2 haplotype, but the presence of scattered and diverse European haplotypes within the network is nonetheless consistent with Jefferson’s patrilineage belonging to an ancient and rare indigenous European type. This is supported by the observation that two of 85 unrelated British men sharing the surname Jefferson also share the President’s Y-STR haplotype within haplogroup K2.

— Turi E. King et al.[180]

The affiliation of the Jefferson haplotype to T1a* and the absence of closely related haplotypes (zero to two step mutations away) in the network supports the hypothesis that this haplotype belongs to an ancient rare European Y-chromosome lineage rather than to lineages that recently migrated to Europe from the Near East.

Mendez 2011

Subclades[edit]

Tree[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup subclades is based on the 2012 ISOGG Tree.

  • T (L445, L452, L455/PF5670, PR4091, L810, M184/Page34/USP9Y+3178, M272/PF5667, Page129) Found in Armenia and Northwest Europe. Also found in a South Australia European sample and a Palestinian individual.
    • T1 (L206, L490, M193) Found in Syria.
      • T1a (M70/Page46/PF5662, PAGES78) Found in Iran.
        • T1a1 (L162/Page21, L299, L453/PF5617, L454) Found in northern Anatolia and Germany.
          • T1a1a (L208/Page2, L905) Mostly found in western Europe, eastern Anatolia, Iran, Arabian Peninusla, Upper Egypt and Horn of Africa. Some spots in western Morocco, Sahrawis and Canarias.
            • T1a1a1 (P77) Mostly found in Middle East, western Europe and Ashkenazi Jews.
            • T1a1a2 (P321) Found in Syria and Ashkenazi Jews.
              • T1a1a2a (P317) Found in Syria and Italian Jews.
        • T1a2 (L131) Mostly found in northern Europe, eastern Europe, southeastern Europe and Anatolia. Also found in Xinjiang, Lemba, Tunisia, south and east Iberian Peninsula.
          • T1a2a (P322, P328) Found in Scandinavia, Denmark, Germany and Netherlands. Some spots in Yemenite Jews and Palestine(P327).
          • T1a2b (L446) Found in Northwest Europe and eastern Alps.
        • T1a3 (L1255) Found in Kuwait.

Phylogenetic history[edit]

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012 ISOGG 2013
T-M184 26 VIII 1U 25 Eu16 H5 F K* K T T K2 K2 T T T T T T
K-M70/T-M70 26 VIII 1U 25 Eu15 H5 F K2 K2 T T1 K2 K2 T T T T1 T1a T1a
T-P77 26 VIII 1U 25 Eu15 H5 F K2 K2 T2 T1a2 K2 K2 T2 T2 T2a1 T1a1b T1a1a1 T1a1a1

Original research publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

α Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 and Kaladjieva 2001

β Underhill 2000

γ Hammer 2001

δ Karafet 2001

ε Semino 2000

ζ Su 1999

η Capelli 2001

See also[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT
I J LT K
L T MPS X
MS P NO
Q R N O
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2013). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

Original research[edit]

  1. ^ W. Goodwin et al, " Department of Forensic and Investigative Science ," "www.yhrd.org/" (2012),
  2. ^ Carsten Hohoff and Bernd Brinkmann "Institut für Rechtsmedizin"," 'Universität Münster <http://www.yhrd.org>
  3. ^ Uta D. Immel et al, "Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Martin-Luther Universität Haale/Saale," "www.yhrd.org/" (1999),
  4. ^ Laura Valverde Potes et al, "Grupo BIOMICs / BIOMICs Research Group," "www.yhrd.org/" (2011),

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