Harald V (Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈhɑːrɑːld]; born 21 February 1937) is the King of Norway. He succeeded to the throne of Norway upon the death of his father Olav V on 17 January 1991. The son of the then-Crown Prince Olav and of Princess Märtha of Sweden, Harald was born at the Crown Prince Residence at Skaugum, Akershus, Norway.
A member of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, a house originally from Northern Germany, Harald became the first Norwegian-born prince since Olav IV, who was born in 1370. Harald V is the formal head of the Church of Norway and the Norwegian Armed Forces. He has two children, Crown Prince Haakon and Princess Märtha Louise.
He is closely related to other European monarchs. He is the first cousin once removed of King Philippe of Belgium and Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg, the second cousin of Queen Margrethe II of Denmark and Queen Elizabeth II, and the second cousin once removed of King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden.
Childhood and education
Prince Harald was born in Skaugum and was baptised in the Royal Chapel in the Royal Palace in Oslo on 31 March by Bishop Johan Lunde. His godparents were: his paternal grandfather, the King of Norway; his paternal grandmother, the Queen of Norway; his maternal grandfather, Prince Carl of Sweden; his maternal grandmother, Princess Ingeborg of Sweden; his uncle, the King of Belgium; King George VI and Queen Mary of the United Kingdom; and Crown Princess Ingrid of Denmark. His parents already had two daughters, Princess Ragnhild and Princess Astrid.
In 1940 the entire royal family had to flee their homes because of the German invasion. The dramatic journey northbound was marked by the Germans' repeated attempts to kill the King through bombing. It was deemed safer for the family to split up. The King and Crown Prince Olav would remain in Norway and the Crown Princess was to make her way to Sweden with the three children. The latter party reached Sweden on the night of 10 April, but although Crown Princess Märtha was Swedish-born, they encountered problems at the border station. According to Princess Astrid and others who were present, they were admitted only after the driver threatened to ram the border gate. Another account does not describe the escape so dramatically. However when the King and Crown Prince inquired of Swedish foreign minister Christian Günther whether they could sleep one night in Sweden without being interned, they were denied.
Prince Harald spent the following days in Sälen before relocating to Prince Carl Bernadotte's home in Frötuna on 16 April. On 26 April the group moved to Drottningholm in Stockholm. King Gustaf V has been accounted to have had an amicable relationship with his Norwegian guests, but the topic of the war in Norway was not to be raised. However, influential Swedish politicians including Minister of Justice Westman wanted the Crown Princess and Prince Harald to be sent back to Norway so he could be proclaimed King by the Germans. After the King and Crown Prince had to leave Norway on 7 June they felt Sweden might not be the best place for the rest of the family. They started planning for them to be relocated to the United States. On 17 August the Crown Princess and her children left for the United States from Petsamo, Finland, aboard the transport ship American Legion.
Harald and his mother and sisters lived in Washington, D.C., during the war, while his father, Crown Prince Olav, and his grandfather, King Haakon, stayed in London with the Norwegian government-in-exile. One of the notable events he remembers from that time is standing behind Franklin D. Roosevelt when he was sworn in for his fourth term on the South Portico of the White House in 1945. Such childhood experiences are reflected in a trace of an American accent when he speaks English. The Doris Kearns Goodwin book No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt and the Home Front in World War II contains a picture of the King (then Prince) playing with FDR's dog, Fala, on the North Lawn of the White House in 1944.
Prince Harald visited Norwegian servicemen on training in the United States. The prince also made visits outside America, travelling north to visit Norwegian personnel at the training base "Little Norway" in Ontario, Canada. He attended The White Hall Country School from 1943. Prince Harald returned to Norway along with his family at the war's end in 1945.
In the autumn of 1945 he was enrolled in third grade of Smestad skole as the first royal to attend a public school. In 1955 he graduated from Oslo katedralskole and in the autumn of that year, Harald began studies at the University of Oslo. Later he attended the Cavalry Officers' Candidate School at Trandum, followed by enrolment at the Norwegian Military Academy, from which he graduated in 1959.
In 1960, Harald entered Balliol College, Oxford where he studied history, economics and politics. He was a keen rower during his student days at Oxford and was taught to row by fellow student and friend Nick Bevan, later a leading British school rowing coach. In 1960, he also made his first official journey abroad, visiting the United States in connection with the fiftieth anniversary of the American Scandinavian Foundation.
Crown Prince Harald attended the Council of State for the first time on 27 September 1957 and took the oath to the Constitution of Norway on 21 February 1958. In the same year, he also served as regent in the King's absence for the first time.
Harald married a commoner, Sonja Haraldsen, at Oslo Domkirke in Oslo on 29 August 1968, a marriage that sparked much public controversy at the time. The couple have two children, Princess Märtha Louise and Crown Prince Haakon, heir-apparent to the Norwegian throne.
The King heads the Council of State at Oslo Palace every Friday. He also has weekly meetings with the Prime Minister and the Foreign Minister. He receives foreign envoys, and opens parliament every October. According to the Norwegian constitution, he appoints his government. Since 1884 parliamentarism has been in place in Norway, so the government has to have support from Parliament. The King appoints the leader of the parliamentary block with majority as prime minister. When the parliamentary situation is unclear the king relies on the advice of the president of Parliament and the sitting prime minister. He travels extensively throughout Norway and makes official state visits to other countries.
An avid sailor, Harald represented Norway in the yachting events of Olympic Games in Tokyo in 1964 and in Mexico City in 1968 and the Munich 1972. The Crown Prince carried the Norwegian flag at the opening parade of the 1964 Summer Olympics. In 1994, both the King and Crown Prince Haakon played roles during the opening ceremony of the Lillehammer Olympics. The King opened the games, while the Crown Prince lit the cauldron, paying tribute to both the King and his grandfather as Olympians. The King has also represented Norway at opening ceremonies of Olympic Games, among them Torino and Beijing. However, he wasn't present in Vancouver, the Crown Prince attended instead, with the King and Queen attending later in the games.
With his sailing crew he won World Championship bronze, silver and gold medals, in 1988, 1982 and 1987, respectively. In July 2005, the King and his crew aboard the royal sailboat Fram XV won the gold medal at the European Championships in Sweden. In the 2007 World Championship the King obtained a sixth place.
Twice since the start of the twenty-first century King Harald was unable to perform his monarchical duties due to ill-health: in December 2003 to mid-April 2004 due to urinary bladder cancer, and in April to early June 2005 due to aortic stenosis. Crown Prince Haakon served as the country's regent on both occasions.
Titles and styles
- 21 February 1937 – 21 September 1957: His Royal Highness Prince Harald of Norway
- 21 September 1957 – 17 January 1991: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Norway
- 17 January 1991 – present: His Majesty The King of Norway
The King is also a Prince of Denmark and a Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. These subsidiary titles are not in active use. He is the nominal head of the Church of Norway, and a four-star general, an admiral, and formally the Supreme Commander of the Norwegian Armed Forces. The infantry battalion His Majesty the King's Guard are considered the King's and the Royal Family's bodyguards, they guard the Royal residences, including the Royal Palace, the Crown Prince Residence at Skaugum, and the Royal Mausoleum at Akershus Castle.
In the British Army, the King was the final Colonel-in-Chief of the Green Howards. It remains to be seen whether there will continue to be an active association between the 2nd Battalion, Yorkshire Regiment (Green Howards) and the Norwegian Royal Family. He is also an honorary Colonel in the British Royal Marines.
The King is The Grand Master of the Order of St. Olav and the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit. He is a Knight of the Garter, and he is also a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, and a recipient of the Royal Victorian Chain as well as numerous other orders of chivalry.
The King is patron of the Anglo-Norse Society in London, together with Queen Elizabeth II, his second cousin. He is also patron of the Norwegian-American Foundation (Norge-Amerika Foreningen) and the Norse Federation (Nordmanns-Forbundet) in the United States.
He received the honorary degree Doctor of Civil Law from Oxford University in 2006 (as did his father, King Olav, in 1937, and his grandfather, King Haakon, in 1943). The King has earlier been appointed an honorary doctor of law by the University of Strathclyde (1985) in Scotland and by Waseda University (2001) in Japan (2001). He is also an honorary fellow at Balliol College, Oxford.
King Harald V is Honorary President of the Offshore Racing Congress and also the Co-President of Honour of the International Sailing Federation with the King Constantine II of Greece.
Honours and medals
See also List of honours of the Norwegian Royal Family by country
National honours and medals
||1987 World Championship
||1982 World Championship
||1988 World Championship
||2005 European Championship
Northern European Countries
The mark ° shows honours mention on his official website page about decorations
- Ireland – Freedom of the City of Cork.
- Spirit of Luther Award, awarded by Luther College of Decorah, IA
- A 230,000 km² area in Antarctica is named Prince Harald Coast in his honour.
- In 2007 King Harald was awarded the Holmenkollen medal with Simon Ammann, Frode Estil, Odd-Bjørn Hjelmeset, and his wife Queen Sonja.
- Portugal – Key of Honor to the City of Lisbon, on May 28, 2008 
- In 2013, a 6,500 km² area in Svalbard was named Harald V Land.
|Ancestors of Harald V of Norway
Harald's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son.
Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations – which means that if Harald V were to choose an historically accurate house name it would be Oldenburg, as all his male-line ancestors have been of that house.
House of Oldenburg
- Egilmar I of Lerigau, dates unknown
- Egilmar II of Lerigau, d. 1142
- Christian I of Oldenburg, d. 1167
- Moritz of Oldenburg, d. 1209
- Christian II of Oldenburg, d. 1233
- John I, Count of Oldenburg, d. 1275
- Christian III, Count of Oldenburg, d. 1285
- John II, Count of Oldenburg, d. 1314
- Conrad I, Count of Oldenburg, 1300–1347
- Christian V, Count of Oldenburg, 1340–1423
- Dietrich, Count of Oldenburg, 1398–1440
- Christian I of Denmark, 1426–1481
- Frederick I of Denmark, 1471–1533
- Christian III of Denmark, 1503–1559
- John II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, 1545–1622
- Alexander, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, 1573–1627
- August Philipp, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, 1612–1675
- Frederick Louis, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, 1653–1728
- Peter August, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, 1696–1775
- Prince Karl Anton August of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, 1727–1759
- Friedrich Karl Ludwig, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, 1757–1816
- Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, 1785–1831
- Christian IX of Denmark, 1818–1906
- Frederick VIII of Denmark, 1843–1912
- Haakon VII of Norway, 1872–1957
- Olav V of Norway, 1903–1991
- Harald V of Norway, b. 1937
- ^ Coronation discarded by constitutional amendment in 1908. Harald V swore the Royal Oath in the Storting on 21 January 1991 and received the benediction in the Nidaros Cathedral on 23 June 1991.
- ^ a b c d Hegge, Per Egil; Harald V, En biografi; N.W. Damm & Søn AS; 2006.
- ^ "Kidnapper Foiled?". Time. 2 September 1940. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
- ^ "Non-Political Campaign". Time Magazine. 9 September 1940. p. 2. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
- ^ a b c "Those Apprentice Kings and Queens Who May – One Day – Ascend a Throne," New York Times. 14 November 1971.
- ^ "Victory by Design". Time Magazine. 27 September 1963. p. 1. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
- ^ "HP-Time.com". Time Magazine. 26 June 1964. p. 2. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
- ^ Sandefjords Blad on the King's performance in the World Championship (Norwegian) Retrieved 10 September 2007.
- ^ Article in VG on the honorary doctorate (Norwegian)
- ^ ORC web site. Committees. Retrieved November 2010.
- ^ http://www.sailing.org/26220.php
- ^ "Noblesse et Royautés", Guests to Victoria of Sweden's wedding, Photo
- ^ Noblesse et Royautés (French), State visit of President of Finland in Norway, 2012, Photo
- ^ Lithuanian Presidency, Lithuanian Orders searching form
- ^ Photo of a State visit of Lithuania to Norway, March 2011
- ^ "King of Norway awarded Honorary Freedom of Newcastle". Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
- ^ Solholm, Rolleiv (14 November 2008). "King Harald receives honorary title". Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (Norway Post). Retrieved 14 November 2008.
- ^ "Reply to a parliamentary question" (pdf) (in German). p. 170. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
- ^ Belga Pictures, State visit of Norway in Belgium, May 2003, Group photo, Harald V & Paola, Albert II & Sonja
- ^ Italian Presidency website, decorations – Harald V : Grand Cross – Collar
- ^ a b c Portuguese presidential website, Orders search form
- ^ Slovak republic website, State honours : 1st Class received in 2010 (click on "Holders of the Order of the 1st Class White Double Cross" to see the holders' table)
- ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado
- ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado
- ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado
- ^ "Official State visit of Norway (Photo of Order of State and Order of St. Olaf)". Precidency of Republic of Turkey. 05-11-2013. Retrieved 2013-11-11.
- ^ "State Visit continues". The Royal House of Norway. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- ^ "New land area named after King Harald". The Norway Post. NRK. 23 September 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- ^ Royal House web page on the King's patronages Retrieved 7 November 2007
- ^ "Oslo Militære Samfunds historie". Oslo Militære Samfund (in Norwegian). Retrieved 5 February 2009.
Orders, Decorations, Medals and Awards he received
- 1895: Viktor Thorn (NOR)
- 1897: Asbjørn Nilssen (NOR)
- 1899: Paul Braaten (NOR), Robert Pehrson (NOR)
- 1901: Askel Refstad (NOR)
- 1903: Karl Hovelsen (NOR)
- 1904: Harald Smith (NOR)
- 1905: Jonas Holmen (NOR)
- 1907: Per Bakken
- 1908: Einar Kristiansen (NOR)
- 1909: Thorvald Hansen
- 1910: Lauritz Bergendahl
- 1911: Otto Tangen (NOR), Knut Holst (NOR)
- 1912: Olav Bjaaland (NOR)
- 1914: Johan Kristoffersen (NOR)
- 1915: Sverre Østbye (NOR)
- 1916: Lars Høgvold (NOR)
- 1918: Hassa Horn (NOR), Jørgen Hansen (NOR)
- 1919: Thorleif Haug (NOR), Otto Aasen (NOR)
- 1923: Thoralf Strømstad (NOR)
- 1924: Harald Økern (NOR), Johan Grøttumsbråten (NOR)
- 1925: Einar Landvik (NOR)
- 1926: Jacob Tullin Thams
- 1927: Hagbart Haakonsen (NOR), Einar Lindboe (NOR)
- 1928: Torjus Hemmestveit (NOR), Mikkjel Hemmestveit (NOR)
- 1931: Hans Vinjarengen (NOR), Ole Stenen (NOR)
- 1934: Oddbjørn Hagen (NOR)
- 1935: Arne Rustadstuen (NOR)
- 1937: Olaf Hoffsbakken (NOR), Birger Ruud (NOR), Martin P. Vangsli (NOR)
- 1938: Reidar Andersen (NOR), Johan R. Henriksen (NOR)
- 1939: Sven Selånger (SWE), Lars Bergendahl (NOR), Trygve Brodahl (NOR)
- 1940: Oscar Gjøslien (NOR), Annar Ryen (NOR)
- 1947: Elling Rønes (NOR)
- 1948: Asbjørn Ruud (NOR)
- 1949: Sigmund Ruud (NOR)
- 1950: Olav Økern (NOR)
- 1951: Simon Slåttvik (NOR)
- 1952: Stein Eriksen (NOR), Torbjørn Falkanger (NOR), Heikki Hasu (FIN), Nils Karlsson (SWE)
- 1953: Magnar Estenstad (NOR)
- 1954: Martin Stokken (NOR)
- 1955: Haakon VII (NOR), Hallgeir Brenden (NOR), Veikko Hakulinen (FIN), Sverre Stenersen (NOR)
- 1956: Borghild Niskin (NOR), Arnfinn Bergmann (NOR), Arne Hoel (NOR)
- 1957: Eero Kolehmainen (FIN)
- 1958: Inger Bjørnbakken (NOR), Håkon Brusveen (NOR)
- 1959: Gunder Gundersen (NOR)
- 1960: Helmut Recknagel (GDR), Sixten Jernberg (SWE), Sverre Stensheim (NOR), Tormod Knutsen (NOR)
- 1961: Harald Grønningen (NOR)
- 1962: Toralf Engan (NOR)
- 1963: Alevtina Kolchina (URS), Pavel Kolchin (URS), Astrid Sandvik (NOR), Torbjørn Yggeseth (NOR)
- 1964: Veikko Kankkonen (FIN), Eero Mäntyranta (FIN), Georg Thoma (FRG), Halvor Næs (NOR)
- 1965: Arto Tiainen (FIN), Bengt Eriksson (SWE), Arne Larsen (NOR)
- 1967: Toini Gustafsson (SWE), Ole Ellefsæter (NOR)
- 1968: Olav V (NOR), Assar Rönnlund (SWE), Gjermund Eggen (NOR), Bjørn Wirkola (NOR)
- 1969: Odd Martinsen (NOR)
- 1970: Pål Tyldum (NOR)
- 1971: Marjatta Kajosmaa (FIN), Berit Mørdre Lammedal (NOR), Reidar Hjermstad (NOR)
- 1972: Rauno Miettinen (FIN), Magne Myrmo (NOR)
- 1973: Einar Bergsland (NOR), Ingolf Mork (NOR), Franz Keller (FRG)
- 1974: Juha Mieto (FIN)
- 1975: Gerhard Grimmer (GDR), Oddvar Brå (NOR), Ivar Formo (NOR)
- 1976: Ulrich Wehling (GDR)
- 1977: Helena Takalo (FIN), Hilkka Kuntola (FIN), Walter Steiner (SUI)
- 1979: Ingemar Stenmark (SWE), Erik Håker (NOR), Raisa Smetanina (URS)
- 1980: Thomas Wassberg (SWE)
- 1981: Johan Sætre (NOR)
- 1983: Berit Aunli (NOR), Tom Sandberg (NOR)
- 1984: Lars-Erik Eriksen (NOR), Jakob Vaage (NOR), Armin Kogler (AUT)
- 1985: Anette Bøe (NOR), Per Bergerud (NOR), Gunde Svan (SWE)
- 1986: Britt Pettersen (NOR)
- 1987: Matti Nykänen (FIN), Hermann Weinbuch (FRG)
- 1989: Marja-Liisa Kirvesniemi (FIN)
- 1991: Vegard Ulvang (NOR), Trond Einar Elden (NOR), Ernst Vettori (AUT), Jens Weißflog (GER)
- 1992: Yelena Välbe (RUS)
- 1993: Emil Kvanlid (NOR)
- 1994: Lyubov Yegorova (RUS), Vladimir Smirnov (KAZ), Espen Bredesen (NOR)
- 1995: Kenji Ogiwara (JPN)
- 1996: Manuela Di Centa (ITA)
- 1997: Bjarte Engen Vik (NOR), Stefania Belmondo (ITA), Bjørn Dæhlie (NOR)
- 1998: Fred Børre Lundberg (NOR), Larisa Lazutina (RUS), Alexey Prokurorov (RUS), Harri Kirvesniemi (FIN)
- 1999: Kazuyoshi Funaki (JPN)
- 2001: Adam Małysz (POL), Bente Skari (NOR), Thomas Alsgaard (NOR)
- 2003: Felix Gottwald (AUT), Ronny Ackermann (GER)
- 2004: Yuliya Chepalova (RUS)
- 2005: Andrus Veerpalu (EST)
- 2007: Frode Estil (NOR), Odd-Bjørn Hjelmeset (NOR), Harald V (NOR), Sonja (NOR), Simon Ammann (SUI)
- 2010: Marit Bjørgen (NOR)
- 2011: Ole Einar Bjørndalen (NOR), Michael Greis (GER), Andrea Henkel (GER), Janne Ahonen (FIN)
- 2012: Magdalena Neuner (GER), Emil Hegle Svendsen (NOR)
- 2013: Tora Berger (NOR), Martin Fourcade (FRA), Therese Johaug (NOR), Gregor Schlierenzauer (AUT)
- 2014: Magnus Moan (NOR), Eric Frenzel (GER), Thomas Morgenstern (AUT), Darya Domracheva (BLR)