Harbin Y-12

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Harbin Y-12
YJAV5.JPG
Y-12 IV in flight, showing the revised wingtips
Role Twin-engine turboprop utility aircraft
Manufacturer Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation
Designer Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation
First flight 14 July 1982
Status In production
Primary user People's Liberation Army Air Force
Produced 1985 - present
Developed from Harbin Y-11

The Harbin Y-12 (Chinese: 运-12; pinyin: Yun-12) is a high wing twin-engine turboprop utility aircraft built by Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation (HAMC).

Design and development[edit]

The Y-12 started life as a development of the Harbin Y-11 airframe. It was first called Y-11T in 1980.[1] The design featured numerous improvements including a redesigned wing with a new low drag section, a larger fuselage and bonded rather than riveted construction.

The first prototype, followed by about 30 production Y-12 (I) aircraft before a revised version was produced. This was designated the Y-12 (II), which featured more powerful engines and removal of leading edge slats, first flying on 16 August 1984 and receiving Chinese certification in December of the following year.[2] The power plants are two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-27 turboprops with Hartzell propellers. The Y-12 has a maximum payload of 5,700 kg (12,600 lb) with seating for 17 passengers and two crew. The aircraft is operated as a light commuter and transport aircraft.

The latest development is Y-12F, which is almost a new design with many improvements: new wings, new landing gears, new fuselage, with more powerful engine from Pratt & Whitney Canada and extended payload and range. The prototype is still under test and verification.[3]

Variants[edit]

Harbin Y-12E
Harbin Y-12F
  • Y-12 (I) : Twin-engined STOL utility transport aircraft, powered by two 500-shp (373-kW) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-11 turboprop engines. Prototype version.
  • Y-12 (II) : Fitted with more powerful PT6A-27 engines.
  • Y-12 (III) : Planned version to be fitted with WJ-9 turboprop. Evolved to Y-12C because of IV's success when WJ-9 development was completed.
  • Y-12 (IV) : Improved version. Revised wingtips (span increased to 19.2 m (63 ft)) and increased take off weight. 19 passenger seats. This version is the first aircraft ever certified by the FAA in 1995.[4]
  • Y-12C : Basically a (IV) version with WJ-9 turboprop, now used by PLAAF for aerial survey.
  • Y-12E : Variant with 18 passenger seats. PT6A-135A engines of equal horsepower but increased torque driving four-bladed propellers. This version was certified by the FAA in 2006.[5]
  • Y-12F : The latest development with almost everything redesigned: wider fuselage, new wings, retractable landing gear and more powerful engines.[6] The turbine engines are more powerful PT6A-65B. Due to all the improvement, Y-12F has high cruise speed and long range, it can accommodate 19 passenger or carry cargo in 3 LD3 containers.[7] The design started at April 2005 and maiden flight in December 2009.[8] It has been also demonstrated during the 2012 Zhuhai International Aviation Show.
  • Turbo Panda : Export name for (II) version, marketed by England and Japanese companies. No real order due to airworthiness certification.
  • Twin Panda : Originally (II) version for export. Later a modified Y-12(IV) powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-34 turboprop engines and fitted with uprated undercarriage, upgraded avionics and interior. Thirty-five orders reportedly received by 2000 but production not proceeded with.

Operators[edit]

Military operators[edit]

 Cambodia
 People's Republic of China
 Eritrea
 Guyana
 Iran
 Kenya
 Mauritania
 Burma
 Namibia
 Pakistan
 Paraguay
 Peru
 Sri Lanka
 Tanzania
 Uganda
 Zambia

Governmental operators[edit]

 People's Republic of China
 Republic of the Congo
 Seychelles

Civil operators[edit]

Air Vanuatu Harbin Y-12
 Bangladesh
 People's Republic of China
 Colombia
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Republic of the Congo
 Indonesia
 Kiribati
 Laos
 Malaysia
 Mongolia
   Nepal
 Philippines
  • PADC (10 on order)
 Tonga
 Uganda
 Vanuatu

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 13 December 1993, a Lao Aviation Y-12-II, registration RDPL-34117, clipped trees in fog and crashed at Phonesavanh, Laos, killing all 18 on board.[21]
  • On 4 April 1995, a TANS Y-12-II, registration 333/OB-1498, crashed shortly after takeoff from Iquitos Airport, Peru, killing all three on board.
  • On 21 June 1996, a China Flying Dragon Aviation Y-12-II, registration B-3822, crashed into a 100 m (330 ft) mountain near Changhai Airport after the crew began the final approach too early and deviated from the intended course, killing two of 12 on board.[22]
  • On 20 January 1997, a Sri Lanka Air Force Y-12-II, CR851, crashed off Pataly Air Base while on a surveillance mission, killing all four on board.[23]
  • On 10 June 1997, a MIAT Mongolian Airlines Y-12-II, registration JU-1020, crashed at Mandalgobi Airport due to windshear, killing seven of 12 on board.[24]
  • On 26 May 1998, a MIAT Mongolian Airlines Y-12-II, registration JU-1017, crashed into a 10,800 ft (3,300 m) mountain near Galt Som in heavy icing condition, Mongolia en route to Tosontsengel due to heavy icing, wing de-ice system fault and overloading, killing all 28 on board; this crash is the worst ever accident involving the Y-12.
  • On 19 October 2000, a Lao Aviation (now Lao Airlines) Y-12-II, registration RDPL-34130 and operating as Flight 703, crashed in a mountainous area in bad weather while on approach to Sam Neua, killing eight of 15 passengers; both pilots survived.[25]
  • On 18 May 2005, a Zambia Air Force Y-12-II, AF-216, crashed shortly after takeoff from Mongu Airport, killing all 13 on board.[26]
  • On 10 April 2006, a Kenya Air Force (KAF) Y-12-II, 132, struck the side of Mount Marsabit, killing 14 of 17 on board.[27]
  • On 15 June 2008, a China Flying Dragon Aviation Y-12-II, registration B-3841, struck a small hill during a survey flight for a new aluminum mine, killing three of four on board.[28]
  • On 12 July 2012, a Y-12 of the Mauritanian Air Force crashed while transporting gold, killing all 7 occupants.[29]
  • On 12 May 2014, a Y-12-II of the Kenyan Air Force crashed in El Wak, Kenya. The airplane operated on a flight from Mandera to Nairobi with stops at El Wak and Garissa. Preliminary information suggests that one pilot was killed and the remaining eleven occupants were injured. [30]

Specifications (Y-12 (II))[edit]

Data from Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999/2000 [31]

General characteristics

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 328 km/h (177 knots, 204 mph) at 3,000m (9,840 ft) (max cruise)
  • Cruise speed: 250 km/h (135 knots, 155 mph) at 3,000m (9,840 ft) (econ cruise)
  • Range: 1,340 km (723 NM, 832 mi) at econ cruise, 45 min reserves
  • Service ceiling: 7,000 m (23,000 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 8.1 m/s (1,595 ft/min)

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.baike.com/wiki/%E8%BF%90-12
  2. ^ JWR Taylor 1988, p.38.
  3. ^ http://www.y-12.com.cn/y-12/home/index.do?cmd=goToChannel&language=US&cid=466
  4. ^ FAA Y-12 IV and Y-12E Type Certificate retrieved 17 August 2013.
  5. ^ FAA Y-12 IV and Y-12E Type Certificate retrieved 12 November 2009.
  6. ^ Francis, Leithen. "Harbin Y-12 turboprop to be bigger" Flight International 20 September 2007 (online version) retrieved 12 November 2009.
  7. ^ AVIC
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 47.
  10. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 50.
  11. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 51.
  12. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 52.
  13. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 54.
  14. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 55.
  15. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 56.
  16. ^ a b c Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 57.
  17. ^ Jackson 2003, p. 82.
  18. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 60.
  19. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 61.
  20. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 64.
  21. ^ Accident description for RDPL-34117 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
  22. ^ Accident description for B-3822 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
  23. ^ Accident description for CR851 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
  24. ^ Accident description for JU-1020 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
  25. ^ Accident description for RDPL-34130 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
  26. ^ Accident description for AF-216 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
  27. ^ Accident description for 132 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
  28. ^ Accident description for B-3841 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
  29. ^ http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20120712-0
  30. ^ Accident description for registration unknown at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 5 June 2014.
  31. ^ Taylor 1999, p.189
  32. ^ JWR Taylor 1988, p.39.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International. Vol. 182, No. 5321, 11–17 December 2012, pp. 40–64. ISSN 0015-3710.
  • Jackson, Paul. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004. Coulsdon, Surry, UK: Jane's Information Group, 2003. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5.
  • Taylor, John W R. (ed.). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1988-89. Coulsdon, Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group, 1988. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5.
  • Taylor, Michael J.H. (ed.). Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999/2000. London: Brassey's, 1999. ISBN 1-85753-245-7.

External links[edit]