Hard-Boiled Wonderland and the End of the World
First US edition cover
|Original title||Sekai no owari to Hādo-Boirudo Wandārando
|Genre||Speculative fiction, Science fiction, Surrealism novel|
|Publisher||Kodansha International (US)
Published in English
|Media type||Print (Hardcover)|
|ISBN||ISBN 4-7700-1544-5 (US)
ISBN 4-10-600644-8 (JP)
|LC Class||PL856.U673 S4513 1991|
Hard-Boiled Wonderland and the End of the World (Japanese 世界の終りとハードボイルド・ワンダーランド; Sekai no owari to Hādo-Boirudo Wandārando, literally The End of the World & Hard-Boiled Wonderland) is a 1985 novel by Japanese writer Haruki Murakami. The English translation by Alfred Birnbaum was released in 1991. A strange and dreamlike novel, its chapters alternate between two bizarre narratives — "Hard-Boiled Wonderland" (a cyberpunk-like, science-fiction part) and "The End of the World" (a virtual fantasy-like, surreal part).
The story is split between parallel narratives. The odd-numbered chapters take place in the 'Hard-Boiled Wonderland', although the phrase is not used anywhere in the text, only in page headers. The narrator is a "Calcutec", a human data processor/encryption system who has been trained to use his subconscious as an encryption key. The Calcutecs work for the quasi-governmental System, as opposed to the criminal "Semiotecs" who work for the Factory and who are generally fallen Calcutecs. The relationship between the two groups is simple: the System protects data while the Semiotecs steal it, although it is suggested that one man might be behind both. The narrator completes an assignment for a mysterious scientist, who is exploring "sound removal". He works in a laboratory hidden within an anachronistic version of Tokyo's sewer system. The narrator eventually learns that he only has a day and a half to exist before he leaves the world he knows and delves forever into the world that has been created in his subconscious mind.
The even-numbered chapters deal with a newcomer to "The End of the World", a strange, isolated walled Town depicted in the frontispiece map as being surrounded by a perfect and impenetrable wall. The narrator is in the process of being accepted into the Town. His Shadow has been "cut off" and this Shadow lives in the "Shadow Grounds" where he is not expected to survive the winter. Residents of the Town are not allowed to have a shadow, and, it transpires, do not have a mind. Or is it only suppressed? The narrator is assigned quarters and a job as the current "Dreamreader": a process intended to remove the traces of mind from the Town. He goes to the Library every evening where, assisted by the Librarian, he learns to read dreams from the skulls of unicorns. These "beasts" passively accept their role, sent out of the Town at night to their enclosure, where many die of cold during the winter. It gradually becomes evident that this Town is the world inside of the narrator from the Hard-Boiled Wonderland's subconscious (the password he uses to control different aspects of his mind is even 'end of the world'). The narrator grows to love the Librarian while he discovers the secrets of the Town, and although he plans to escape the Town with his Shadow, he later goes back on his word and leaves his Shadow to escape the Town alone.
In the original Japanese, the narrator uses the more formal first-person pronoun watashi to refer to himself in the "Hard-Boiled Wonderland" narrative and the more intimate boku in the "End of the World". Translator Alfred Birnbaum achieved a similar effect in English by putting the 'End of the World' sections in the present tense.
In both narratives, none of the characters is named. Each is instead referred to by occupation or a general description, such as "the Librarian" or "the Big Guy."
- The Narrator
- A Calcutec in his mid-thirties (35) who, aside from his unusual profession, lives the life of a typical Tokyo yuppie. Although very observant, he gives little thought to the strangeness of the world around him.
- The Old Man/the scientist
- A great, yet absent-minded, scientist who hires the narrator to process information. He is researching "sound removal". He has developed a way of reading the subconscious and actually recording it as comprehensible, if unrelated images. He had the inspiration of then editing these images to embed a fictional story into the subconscious of his subjects, one of whom is of course the narrator. He did this by working with the System due to the attractiveness of its facilities, though he disliked working for anyone. He later goes to Finland, as said by his granddaughter, to escape.
- The Chubby Girl
- The Granddaughter of the Old man. She is half the narrator's age, and described as overweight, yet attractive. She helps the Narrator in his journey through the sewers and decides to move in his apartment after the 2 worlds of his will converge.
- The Librarian
- The always-hungry girl who helps the narrator research unicorns and becomes his 48-hour girlfriend.
- Junior and Big Boy
- Two thugs who, on unknown orders, confront the narrator, leaving his apartment destroyed and inflicting a deliberately non-lethal but serious slash across his lower abdomen.
- Short for Infra-Nocturnal Kappa. Sewer-dwelling people described as "Kappa" who have developed their own culture. They are so dangerous that the scientist lives in their realm, protected by a repelling device, to keep away from those who want to steal his data. It is said that they worship a Tilapia fish with violent tendencies (and leeches). They also do not eat fresh flesh; rather, once they catch a human, they submerge him in water and wait for him to rot in a few days before eating him.
End of the World
- The narrator
- A newcomer to "the End of the World". As an initiation into the Town, his Shadow is cut off and his eyes pierced to make him averse to daylight and give him the ability to "read dreams", his allotted task. He cannot remember his former life nor understand what has happened to him, but he knows that the answers are held in his mind, which his Shadow preserves.
- The narrator's Shadow
- Apparently human in form. He retains the narrator's memory of their former life together, but he is doomed to die, separated as he is, and is harshly (but not cruelly) treated by his custodian, the Gatekeeper. Upon his death, the narrator would then cease to have a 'mind'. The Shadow longs to escape from the Town and be reunited with the world where he and the narrator rightfully belong.
- The Gatekeeper
- The guardian and maintenance foreman of "the End of the World". He instructs the narrator in his duties, and keeps the narrator’s Shadow effectively a prisoner, putting him to work – disposing of dead beasts who die during winter.
- The Librarian
- The Town’s Librarian who keeps the beasts' skulls in which the "dreams" reside. She assists the narrator in his work. She has no “mind", but her mother did, and the narrator becomes increasingly convinced that her mind is in fact only hidden, not irretrievably lost. The connection between this Librarian and the other, in Hard-Boiled Wonderland, is never made explicit, although the narrator repeatedly mentions that she looks familiar.
- The Colonel
- An old man, the narrator's neighbor, who provides advice and support, and nurses him when he falls sick.
- The Caretaker
- A young man who tends the Power Station in the Town's dangerous Woods. He is an outsider who provides a miniature accordion, a possible key in the narrator's efforts to recover his mind and memories. The Caretaker is banished to the Woods because he still has a semblance of a mind, and cannot be allowed to live within the Town.
Murakami has often referred to his love of Western literature and particular admiration for hard-boiled pioneer Raymond Chandler. "Hard-Boiled Wonderland" owes much to American "hard-boiled" detective fiction, as well as to science fiction and cyberpunk, but the book does not belong in any of those categories.
The "end of the world" has much in common with The Castle by Franz Kafka. Both deal with newcomers to strange villages who are both intrigued and horrified by the behavior of the villagers. The image of losing one's shadow when approaching the end of the world is found in Knut Hamsun's 1898 novel Victoria. The same idea appeared earlier, in the 1814 story of "Peter Schlemihls wundersame Geschichte" ("Peter Schlemihl's Remarkable Story") by Adelbert von Chamisso. The theme of the human brain storing encrypted data is found in William Gibson's short story Johnny Mnemonic, but in interviews Murakami says this was not an influence.
Jay Rubin, who has translated many of Murakami's later works into English, said that Hard-Boiled Wonderland and the End of the World is his favorite Murakami novel and that it "is just a shock after reading the black and white, autobiographical fiction that is such the norm in Japan."
Hard-Boiled Wonderland and the End of the World was awarded the Tanizaki Prize in 1985.
- Murakami, Haruki (September 1991), Hard-Boiled Wonderland and the End of the World (hardcover), Alfred Birnbaum trans, Kodansha, ISBN 4-7700-1544-5.
- ——— (March 2, 1993), Hard-Boiled Wonderland and the End of the World (paperback), Alfred Birnbaum trans, Vintage Press, ISBN 0-679-74346-4.
Influences in other works
The "End of the World" narrative is one of the inspirations for Yoshitoshi ABe in creating his Haibane Renmei, originally produced as a manga and later adapted as an anime series. Both works contain a city people are not allowed to leave, a wall, a river, a library and a clock tower.
- Rubin, Jay (2005), Haruki Murakami and The Music of Words.
Rubin interviewed Murakami several times between 1993 and 2001 and has translated several of his novels.
- Haney, William S (2006), "Hard Boiled Wonderland", Cyberculture, Cyborgs and Science Fiction: Consciousness and the Posthuman, p. 131.
- Napier, Susan Jolliffe (1996), The Fantastic in Modern Japanese Literature: The Subversion of Modernity, p. 127.
- "End of the World" (links to reviews and articles), Exorcising Ghosts, UK.
- Critics (review), 2005-10-24.