Hardcourt or hard court describes a form of surface or floor on which a sport is played. It may refer to an indoor court made from a wood, or more specifically hardwood such as maple, as in basketball or indoor soccer. Alternatively, it may refer to outdoor materials such as asphalt, shale, or, in the early period of tennis, clay. In modern tennis, however, clay is considered a separate type of surface from hardcourt.
Tennis hard courts are made of synthetic/acrylic layers on top of a concrete or asphalt foundation and can vary in color. These courts tend to play medium-fast to fast because there is little energy absorption by the court, like in grass courts. The ball tends to bounce high and players are able to apply many types of spin during play. Flat balls are favored on hard courts because of the extremely quick play style. Speed of rebound after tennis balls bounce on hard courts is determined by how much sand is in the synthetic/acrylic layer placed on top of the asphalt foundation. More sand will result in a slower bounce due to more friction.