Hardinge Giffard, 1st Earl of Halsbury

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The Right Honourable
The Earl of Halsbury
PC QC
Hardinge Giffard, 1st Earl of Halsbury.jpg
Lord Chancellor
In office
24 June 1885 – 28 January 1886
Monarch Victoria
Prime Minister The Marquess of Salisbury
Preceded by The Earl of Selborne
Succeeded by The Lord Herschell
In office
3 August 1886 – 11 August 1892
Monarch Victoria
Prime Minister The Marquess of Salisbury
Preceded by The Lord Herschell
Succeeded by The Lord Herschell
In office
29 June 1895 – 4 December 1905
Monarch Victoria
Edward VII
Prime Minister The Marquess of Salisbury
Arthur Balfour
Preceded by The Lord Herschell
Succeeded by The Lord Loreburn
Personal details
Born 3 September 1823 (1823-09-03)
London
Died 11 December 1921 (1921-12-12)
Nationality British
Political party Conservative
Spouse(s) (1) Caroline Humphreys
(d. 1873)
(2) Wilhelmina Woodfall
(d. 1927)
Alma mater Merton College, Oxford

Hardinge Stanley Giffard, 1st Earl of Halsbury PC, QC (3 September 1823-11 December 1921) was a leading barrister, politician and government minister. He served thrice as Lord Chancellor of Great Britain.

Background and education[edit]

Born in London, Halsbury was the third son of Stanley Lees Giffard, editor of the Standard newspaper, by his wife Susanna, daughter of Francis Moran. He was educated at Merton College, Oxford, and was called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1850.

Legal career[edit]

Halsbury joined the North Wales and Chester circuit. Afterwards he had a large practice at the central criminal court and the Middlesex sessions, and he was for several years junior prosecuting counsel to the Treasury. He was engaged in most of the celebrated trials of his time, including the Overend and Gurney and the Tichborne cases. He became Queen's Counsel in 1865, and a bencher of the Inner Temple.

Political career[edit]

Giffard twice contested Cardiff in the Conservative interest, in 1868 and 1874, but he was still without a seat in the House of Commons when he was appointed Solicitor General by Disraeli in 1875 and received the honour of knighthood. He also failed to gain a seat in a by-election in Horsham in 1876. In 1877 he succeeded in obtaining a seat, when he was returned for Launceston, which borough he continued to represent until his elevation to the peerage.

He was then created Baron Halsbury, of Halsbury in the County of Devon, and appointed Lord Chancellor, thus forming a remarkable exception to the rule that no criminal lawyer could ever reach the woolsack. He resumed the position in 1886 and held it until 1892 and again from 1895 to 1905, his tenure of the office, broken only by the brief Liberal ministries of 1886 and 1892–1895, being longer than that of any Lord Chancellor since Lord Eldon. In 1898 he was created Earl of Halsbury and Viscount Tiverton, of Tiverton in the County of Devon.

During the crisis over the Parliament Act 1911, Halsbury was one of the principal leaders of the rebel faction of Tory peers—labelled the "Ditchers"—that resolved on all out opposition to the government's bill whatever happened. At a meeting of Conservative peers on the 21 July of that year, Halsbury shouted out "I will divide even if I am alone". As Halsbury left the meeting a reporter asked him what was going to happen. Halsbury immediately replied: "Government by a Cabinet controlled by rank socialists".[1] Halsbury was also President of the Royal Society of Literature, Grand Warden of English Freemasons, and High Steward of the University of Oxford.

Halsbury's lasting legacy was the compilation of a complete digest of "Laws of England" (1905–1916), a major reference work published in many volumes and often called simply "Halsbury's". "Halsbury's Laws" was followed by a second multiple-volume reference work in 1929, "Halsbury's Statutes", and later by "Halsbury's Statutory Instruments".

Family[edit]

Halsbury married firstly Caroline, daughter of William Corne Humphreys, in 1852. There were no children from this marriage. Caroline died in September 1873. Halsbury married secondly Wilhelmina, daughter of Henry Woodfall, in 1874. He died in December 1921, aged 98, and was succeeded by his only son from his second marriage, Hardinge. The Countess of Halsbury died in December 1927.

Cases[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ George Dangerfield, The Strange Death of Liberal England (Serif, 2001), p. 54.

External links[edit]

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
James Henry Deakin
Member of Parliament for Launceston
1877–1885
Succeeded by
Richard Webster
Legal offices
Preceded by
Sir John Holker
Solicitor General for England and Wales
1875–1880
Succeeded by
Sir Farrer Herschell
Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Selborne
Lord Chancellor
1885–1886
Succeeded by
The Lord Herschell
Preceded by
The Lord Herschell
Lord Chancellor
1886–1892
Lord Chancellor
1895–1905
Succeeded by
The Lord Loreburn
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Earl of Halsbury
1898–1921
Succeeded by
Hardinge Giffard
Baron Halsbury
1885–1921