Hardnesses of the elements (data page)

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number symbol name Mohs hardness Vickers hardness
(GPa) [1]
Brinell hardness
(GPa) [1]
Brinell hardness
(GPa) [2][3]
3 Li lithium 0.6
4 Be beryllium 5.5 1.67 0.6
5 B boron 9.5 49
6 C carbon (graphite) 1.5
6 C carbon (diamond) 10.0 115
11 Na sodium 0.5 0.00069
12 Mg magnesium 2.5 0.26 0.044 (cast)
13 Al aluminium 3 0.167 0.245 0.184 (annealed)
14 Si silicon 6.5
16 S sulfur 2.0
19 K potassium 0.4 0.000363
20 Ca calcium 1.5 0.167 0.416
21 Sc scandium 0.75
22 Ti titanium 6.0 0.97 0.716 1.028 (annealed)
23 V vanadium 7.0 0.628 0.628 0.742 (annealed)
24 Cr chromium 8.5 1.06 1.120 0.688 (annealed)
25 Mn manganese 6.0 0.196
26 Fe iron 4.0 0.608 0.49
27 Co cobalt 5.0 1.043 0.7 1.291 (annealed)
28 Ni nickel 4.0 0.638 0.7 0.9–1.20 (annealed)
29 Cu copper 3.0 0.369 0.874 0.52 (rolled)
30 Zn zinc 2.5 0.412 0.48–0.52 (cast)
31 Ga gallium 1.5 0.06
32 Ge germanium 6.0
33 As arsenic 3.5
34 Se selenium 2.0 0.736
37 Rb rubidium 0.3 0.000216
38 Sr strontium 1.5
39 Y yttrium 0.589
40 Zr zirconium 5.0 0.903 0.650 0.333
41 Nb niobium 6.0 1.32 0.736 0.735 (annealed)
42 Mo molybdenum 5.5 1.53 1.5 1.34 (cast)
44 Ru ruthenium 6.5 2.16 1.795 (annealed)
45 Rh rhodium 6.0 1.246 1.1 0.54 (annealed)
46 Pd palladium 5.0 0.461 0.0373 0.31 (cast)
47 Ag silver 2.5 0.251 0.0245 0.206 (annealed)
48 Cd cadmium 2.0 0.203 0.196
49 In indium 1.0 0.00883 0.0098
50 Sn tin 1.5 0.0051 0.292–0.441 (cast)
51 Sb antimony 3.0 0.294
52 Te tellurium 2.0 0.018
55 Cs caesium 0.2 0.00014
56 Ba barium 1.0
57 La lanthanum 2.5 0.491 0.363
58 Ce cerium 2.5 0.27 0.412
59 Pr praseodymium 0.4 0.481
60 Nd neodymium 0.343 0.265
61 Pm promethium 0.6178
62 Sm samarium 0.412 0.441
63 Eu europium 0.167
64 Gd gadolinium 0.57
65 Tb terbium 0.863 0.677
66 Dy dysprosium 0.54 0.500
67 Ho holmium 0.481 0.746
68 Er erbium 0.589 0.814
69 Tm thulium 0.52 0.471
70 Yb ytterbium 0.206 0.343
71 Lu lutetium 1.16 0.893
72 Hf hafnium 5.5 1.76 1.7
73 Ta tantalum 6.5 0.873 0.8 0.441–1.224 (annealed)
74 W tungsten 7.5 3.43 2.57 1.96–2.45 (annealed)
75 Re rhenium 7.0 2.45 1.32
76 Os osmium 7.0 3.92 3.487
77 Ir iridium 6.5 1.76 1.67 2.12
78 Pt platinum 3.5 0.549 0.392 0.299 (annealed)
79 Au gold 2.5 0.216 0.245 0.189 (cast)
81 Tl thallium 1.0 0.0264
82 Pb lead 1.5 0.0383 0.0375–0.0418 (cast)
83 Bi bismuth 2.5 0.0942 0.07
90 Th thorium 3.0 0.35 0.4
92 U uranium 6.0 1.96 2.4

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b As quoted at http://www.webelements.com/ from G.V. Samsonov (Ed.) in Handbook of the physicochemical properties of the elements, IFI-Plenum, New York, USA, 1968
  2. ^ Hardness can vary by several hundred percent depending on the pretreatment, see e.g. Iron#Mechanical_properties and Angelo Basile; Fausto Gallucci (19 April 2011). Membranes for Membrane Reactors: Preparation, Optimization and Selection. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-0-470-74652-3. Retrieved 7 January 2012. 
  3. ^ John Harris; Walter Benenson; Horst Stöcker (2002). Handbook of physics. Springer. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-387-95269-7. Retrieved 7 January 2012. 

See also[edit]