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|The Holy City of Haridwar|
Har ki Pauri, Haridwar at evening
|• Total||12.3 km2 (4.7 sq mi)|
|Elevation||314 m (1,030 ft)|
|• Density||14,228/km2 (36,850/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||UK 08|
|Sex ratio||1.18 ♂/♀|
Haridwar (Pron:ˈhʌrɪˌdwɑ:) pronunciation (help·info) also spelled Hardwar (Hindi: हरिद्वार) is an ancient city and municipality in the Haridwar district of Uttarakhand, India. The River Ganges, after flowing for 253 kilometres (157 mi) from its source at Gaumukh at the edge of the Gangotri Glacier, enters the Indo-Gangetic Plains of North India for the first time at Haridwar, which gave the city its ancient name, Gangadwára.
Haridwar is regarded as one of the seven holiest places (Sapta Puri) to Hindus. According to the Samudra manthan, Haridwar along with Ujjain, Nashik and Prayag (Allahabad) is one of four sites where drops of Amrit, the elixir of immortality, accidentally spilled over from the pitcher while being carried by the celestial bird Garuda. This is manifested in the Kumbha Mela being celebrated every 3 years in one of the 4 places, and thus every 12 years in Haridwar. Amidst the Kumbha Mela, millions of pilgrims, devotees, and tourists congregate in Haridwar to perform ritualistic bathing on the banks of the river Ganges to wash away their sins to attain Moksha. Brahma Kund, the spot where the Amrit fell, is located at Har Ki Pauri (literally, "footsteps of the Lord") and is considered to be the most sacred ghat of Haridwar.
Haridwar is the headquarters and the largest city of the district. Today, the city is developing beyond its religious importance, with the fast developing industrial estate of State Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand (SIDCUL), and the close by township of Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited in Ranipur, Uttarakhand as well as its affiliated ancillaries.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Seven holy places
- 3 History
- 4 Geography and climate
- 5 Cityscape
- 6 Hindu genealogy registers at Haridwar
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Places of interest
- 8.1 Har Ki Pauri
- 8.2 Chandi Devi Temple
- 8.3 Mansa Devi Temple
- 8.4 Maya Devi Temple
- 8.5 Kankhal
- 8.6 Piran Kaliyar
- 8.7 Neel Dhara Pakshi Vihar
- 8.8 Bhimgoda Tank
- 8.9 Dudhadhari Barfani Temple
- 8.10 Sureshvari Devi Temple
- 8.11 Pawan Dham
- 8.12 Bharat Mata Mandir
- 8.13 Shopping
- 8.14 Sapta Rishi Ashram and Sapta Sarovar
- 8.15 Parad Shivling
- 8.16 Ramanand Ashram
- 8.17 Anandamayi Maa Ashram
- 8.18 Shantikunj
- 8.19 Patanjali Yogpeeth (Trust)
- 9 Educational institutions
- 10 Important areas within the city
- 11 Transport
- 12 Industry
- 13 See also
- 14 Further reading
- 15 References
- 16 External links
The name of the town has two spellings: Hardwar and Haridwar. Each of these names has its own connotation.
In Sanskrit, Hara means "Lord Shiva" and Dwara means "gate" or "gateway". Hence, Hardwar stands for "Gateway to Lord Shiva". Hardwar has been a typical place to start a pilgrim's journey in order to reach Mount Kailash, the eternal abode of Lord Shiva, Kedarnath, the northernmost Jyotirlinga and one of the sites of the smaller Char Dham pilgrimage circuit and Gaumukh, the source of River Ganga. Har ki Pauri or footsteps of Lord Shiva is considered the most sacred site in Hardwar.
On the other hand, Hari means "Lord Vishnu". So, Haridwar stands for "Gateway to Lord Vishnu". In order to reach Badrinath, one of the four Char Dhams, with a temple of Lord Vishnu, Haridwar is a typical place to start a pilgrim's journey. Therefore, the name Haridwar.
Haridwar is also known as the home of Devi Sati and the palace of her father Daksha. In ancient times, the town was also referred to as Gangadwára (गंगाद्वार), the place where the Ganges descends to the plains.
Seven holy places
|“||Ayodhyā Mathurā Māyā Kāśī Kāñcī Avantikā I
Purī Dvārāvatī caiva saptaitā mokṣadāyikāḥII – Garuḍa Purāṇa I XVI .14
A Kṣetra is a sacred ground,[clarification needed] a field of active power, a place where Moksha, final release can be obtained. The Garuḍa Purāṇa enumerates seven cities as giver of Moksha. These are Ayodhyā, Mathurā, Māyā, Kāśī, Kāñcī, Avantikā, Purī and Dvārāvatī.[dubious ]
In the scriptures, Haridwar has been variously mentioned as Kapilasthana, Gangadwara and Mayapuri. It is also an entry point to the Char Dham (the four main centres of pilgrimage in Uttarakhand viz, Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri, and Yamunotri), hence, Shaivaites (followers of Lord Shiva) and Vaishnavites (followers of Lord Vishnu) call this place Hardwar and Haridwar respectively, corresponding to Hara being Shiv and Hari being Vishnu.
In the Vanaparva of the Mahabharat, where sage Dhaumya tells Yudhisthira about the tirthas of India, Gangadwar, i.e., Haridwar and Kankhal, have been referred to, the text also mentions that Agastya Rishi did penance here, with the help of his wife, Lopamudra (the princess of Vidharba).
The legendary King, Bhagiratha, the great-grandson of the Suryavanshi King Sagar (an ancestor of Rama), is said to have brought the river Ganges down from heaven, through years of penance in Satya Yuga, for the salvation of 60,000 of his ancestors from the curse of the saint Kapila, a tradition continued by thousands of devout Hindus, who brings the ashes of their departed family members, in hope of their salvation. Lord Vishnu is said to have left his footprint on the stone that is set in the upper wall of Har Ki Pauri, where the Holy Ganges touches it at all times.
Haridwar came under the rule of the Maurya Empire (322–185 BCE), and later under the Kushan Empire (c. 1st–3rd centuries). Archaeological findings have proved that terra cotta culture dating between 1700 BCE and 1200 BCE existed in this region. First modern era written evidence of Haridwar is found in the accounts of a Chinese traveller, Huan Tsang, who visited India in 629 AD. during the reign of King Harshavardhan (590–647) records Haridwar as 'Mo-yu-lo', the remains of which still exist at Mayapur, a little to the south of the modern town. Among the ruins are a fort and three temples, decorated with broken stone sculptures, he also mentions the presence of a temple, north of Mo-yu-lo called 'Gangadwara', Gateway of the Ganges.
During his visit to Haridwar, first Sikh Guru, Guru Nanak (1469–1539) bathed at 'Kushawart Ghat', wherein the famous, 'watering the crops' episode took place, his visit is today commemorated by a gurudwara (Gurudwara Nanakwara), according to two Sikh Janamsakhis, this visit took place on the Baisakhi day in 1504 AD, he later also visited Kankhal en route to Kotdwara in Garhwal. Pandas of the Haridwar have been known to keep genealogy records of most of the Hindu population. Known as vahis, these records are updated on each visit to the city, and are a repository of vast family trees of family in North India.
Ain-e-Akbari, written by Abul Fazal in the 16th century during the reign of Mughal Emperor Akbar, refers to it as Maya (Mayapur), known as Hardwar on the Ganges”, as seven sacred cities of Hindus. It further mentions it is eighteen kos (each approx. 2 km) in length, and large numbers of pilgrims assemble on the 10th of Chaitra. It also mentions that during his travels and also while at home, Mughal Emperor, Akbar drank water from the Ganges river, which he called 'the water of immortality'. Special people were stationed at Sorun and later Haridwar to dispatch water, in sealed jars, to wherever he was stationed
During the Mughal period, there was mint for Akbar's copper coinage at Haridwar. It is said that Raja Man Singh of Amber, laid that foundation of the present day city of Haridwar and also renovated the ghats at Hark Ki Pauri. After his death, his ashes are also said to have been immersed at Brahma Kund by Mughal emperor Akbar himself. Thomas Coryat, an English traveller, who visited the city in the reign of Emperor Jahangir (1596–1627) mentions it as 'Haridwara', the capital of Shiva.
Being one of the oldest living cities, Haridwar finds its mention in the ancient Hindu scriptures as it weaves through the life and time stretching from the period of the Buddha, to the more recent British advent. Haridwar has a rich and ancient religious and cultural heritage. It still has many old havelis and mansions bearing exquisite murals and intricate stonework.
One of the two major dams on the river Ganges, the Bhimgoda, is situated here. Built in 1840s, it diverts the waters of the Ganges to the Upper Ganges Canal, which irrigated the surrounding lands. Though this caused severe deterioration to the Ganges water flow, and is a major cause for the decay of the Ganges as an inland waterway, which till 18th century was used heavily by the ships of the East India Company, and a town as high up as Tehri, was considered a port city The headworks of the Ganges Canal system are located in Haridwar. The Upper Ganges Canal was opened in 1854 after the work began in April 1842, prompted by the famine of 1837–38. The unique feature of the canal is the half-kilometre-long aqueduct over Solani river at Roorkee, which raises the canal 25 metres above the original river.
'Haridwar Union Municipality' was constituted in 1868, which included the then villages of Mayapur and Kankhal. Haridwar was first connected with railways, via Laksar, through branch line in 1886, when the Awadh and Rohilakhand Railway line was extended through Roorkee to Saharanpur, this was later extended to Dehradun in 1900.
Haridwar has been an abode of the weary in body, mind and spirit. It has also been a centre of attraction for learning various arts, science, and culture. The city has a long-standing position as a great source of Ayurvedic medicines and herbal remedies and is home to the unique Gurukul (school of traditional education), including the Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, which has a vast campus, and has been providing traditional education of its own kind, since 1902. Development of Haridwar took an upturn in the 1960s, with the setting up of a temple of modern civilisation, BHEL, a 'Navratna PSU' in 1962, which brought along not just a its own township of BHEL, Ranipur, close to the existing Ranipur village, but also a set of ancillaries in the region. The University of Roorkee, now IIT Roorkee, is one of the oldest and most prestigious institutes of learning in the fields of science and engineering.
Geography and climate
The Ganges emerges from the mountains to touch the plains. The water in the river Ganges is mostly clear and generally cold, except in the rainy season, during which soil from the upper regions flows down into it.
The river Ganges flows in a series of channels separated from each other called aits, most of which are well wooded. Other minor seasonal streams are Ranipur Rao, Pathri Rao, Ravi Rao, Harnaui Rao, Begham Nadi etc. A large part of the district is forested, and Rajaji National Park is within the bounds of the district, making it an ideal destination for wildlife and adventure lovers. Rajaji is accessible through different gates; the Ramgarh Gate and Mohand Gate are within 25 km of Dehradun, while the Motichur, Ranipur and Chilla Gates are just about 9 km from Haridwar. Kunaon Gate is 6 km from Rishikesh, and Laldhang gate is 25 km from Kotdwara.
Haridwar district, covering an area of about 2360 km², is in the southwestern part of Uttarakhand state of India.
|This section requires expansion. (May 2010)|
- Summers: 25 °C – 44 °C
- Winters: -2 °C – 24 °C
|Climate data for Haridwar|
|Average high °C (°F)||20
|Average low °C (°F)||7
|Precipitation mm (inches)||72
Hindu genealogy registers at Haridwar
Something that is not well known today to Indians and to those settled abroad, in an ancient custom detailed family genealogies of Hindu families for the past several generations are kept by professional Hindu Brahmins popularly known as Pandas, at the Hindu holy city of Haridwar in hand written registers passed down to them over generations by their Brahmin ancestors which are classified according to original districts and villages of ones ancestors, with special designated Brahmin families being in charge of designated district registers, even for cases where ancestral districts and villages that have been left behind in Pakistan after Partition of India with Hindus having to migrate to India. In several cases present day decedents are now Sikhs and many maybe Muslims or even Christians. It is common for one to find details of up to, or even more than, ones seven past generations in these genealogy registers kept by the Pandas of Haridwar.
For centuries when Hindu ancestors visited the holy town of Haridwar for any purpose which may have mostly been for pilgrimage purposes or/and for cremation of their dead or for immersion of ashes and bones of their kin after cremation into the waters of the holy river Ganges as required by Hindu religious custom, it has been an ancient custom to go to the Pandit who is in charge of ones family register and update the family's genealogical family tree with details of all marriages, births and deaths from ones extended joint family.
In present day India people visiting Haridwar are dumbfounded when Pandas out of the blue solicit them to come and update their very own ancestral genealogical family tree, news travels like wildfire among the Pandas with ones family's designated Panda being quickly notified of ones visit. Nowadays with Hindu joint family system having broken down with people preferring more nuclear families, record keeping Pandits prefer visitors to Haridwar to come prepared after getting in touch with all of ones extended family and bringing all relevant details regarding ones ancestral district and village, names of grand parents and great grand parents and marriages, births and deaths that have occurred in the extended family, even with as much details as possible of the families married into. A visiting family member is required to personally sign the family genealogical register furnished by ones Family Panda after updating it for future family visitors and generations to see and to authenticate the updated entries, friends and other family members accompanying on the visit may also be requested to sign as witnesses. However it is preferable to visit one's family pandas before immerson of ashes of one's kin as they will help properly in this rituals.
As of 2001[update] India census, Haridwar district had a population of 295,213. Males constitute 54% of the population and females, 46%. Haridwar has an average literacy rate of 70%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 75%, and female literacy is 64%. In Haridwar, 12% of the population is under six years of age.
The Hindu Rajput Community (Chauhan) here in a very large number and constitute 36 Chauhan majority Villages in Haridwar.gurjars also live here in large population
Places of interest
|“||"Haridvāre Kuśāvarte Bilvake Nīla parvate
snatvā Kanakhale tīrthe punarjanma na vidyate"
In Hindu traditions, the 'Panch Tirth' (Five Pilgrimages) within Haridwar, are "Gangadwar" (Har ki Pauri), Kushawart (Ghat in Kankhal), Bilwa Tirtha (Mansa Devi Temple) and Neel Parvat (Chandi Devi Temple). There are several other temples and ashrams located in and around the city. Also, alcohol and non-vegetarian food is not permitted in Haridwar.
Har Ki Pauri
This sacred Ghat was constructed by King Vikramaditya (1st century BC) in memory of his brother Bharthari. It is believed that Bharthari came to Haridwar and meditated on the banks of the holy Ganges. When he died, his brother constructed a Ghat in his name, which later came to be known as Har Ki Pauri. The most sacred ghat within Har Ki Pauri is Brahmakund. The evening prayer (Aarti) at dusk offered to Goddess Ganga at Har Ki Pauri (steps of God Hara or Shiva) is an enchanting experience for any visitor. A spectacle of sound and colour is seen when, after the ceremony, pilgrims float Diyas (floral floats with lamps) and incense on the river, commemorating their deceased ancestors. Thousands of people from all around the world do make a point to attend this prayer on their visit to Haridwar. A majority of present ghats were largely developed in the 1800s. On the night of Dussehra or a few days before that the Ganga Canal is dried in Haridwar to clean the riverbed. The water is restored on Dewali. It is believed that on Dussera Maa Ganga goes to her father's house and returns after Bhai Duj or Bhai Phota. It is for this reason that the waters in the Ganga canal in Haridwar are partially dried on the night of Dussehra and the waters are restored on the day of Bhai Duj or Bhai Phota.
Chandi Devi Temple
The temple is dedicated to Goddess Chandi, who sits atop the 'Neel Parvat' on the eastern bank of the river Ganges. It was constructed in 1929 A.D. by the king of Kashmir, Suchat Singh. Skanda Purana mentions a legend, in which Chanda-Munda, the Army Chief of a local Demon Kings Shumbha and Nishumbha were killed by goddess Chandi here, after which the place got the name Chandi Devi. It is believed that the main statue was established by the Adi Shankaracharya in 8th century A.D. The temple is a 3 km trek from Chandighat and can also be reached through a ropeway.
Mansa Devi Temple
Situated at the top of Bilwa Parwat, the temple of Goddess Mansa Devi, literally meaning the Goddess who fulfills desires (Mansa), is a popular tourist destination, especially because of the cable cars, which offer a picturesque view of the entire city. The main temple houses two idols of the Goddess, one with three mouths and five arms, while the other one has eight arms.
Maya Devi Temple
Dating to the 11th century, this ancient temple of Maya Devi, the Adhishthatri Devi (Patron Goddess) of Haridwar, is considered one of the Siddhapithas and is said to be the place where the heart and navel of Goddess Sati had fallen. It is one of few ancient temples still standing in Haridwar, along with Narayani Shila temple and Bhairav Temple.
The ancient temple of Daksha Mahadev also known as Daksheshwar Mahadev Temple, is situated in the south Kankhal town. According to Hindu texts, King Daksha Prajapati, father of Dakshayani, Lord Shiva's first wife, performed a yagña, to which he deliberately did not invite Lord Shiva. When she arrived uninvited, he was further insulted by the king, seeing which Sati felt infuriated and self-immolated herself in the yagna kund. King Daksha was later killed by the demon Virabhadra, born out of Shiva's anger. Later the king was brought to life and given a goat's head by Shiva. Daksha Mahadev temple is a tribute to this legend.
Sati Kund, another well-known mythological heritage worth a visit is situated in the Kankhal. Legend has it that Sati immolated herself in this kund.
Piran Kaliyar Sharif, built by Ibrahim Lodhi, a ruler of Delhi, this 'Dargah' of Hazrat Alauddin Sabir Kaliyari, a 13th-century, Sufi Saint of Chishti Order (also known as Sarkar Sabir Pak), in Kaliyar village, 7 km. from Roorkee, is visited by devotees from all over the world, during the annual 'Urs' festival, which is celebrated from 1st day of sighting the moon to 16th day of Rabi al-awwal month, in the Islamic calendar.
This Bird Sanctuary is situated on the main Ganges river, or Neel Dhara, at the Bhimgoda Barrage, it is a paradise for bird watchers and home to many migratory birds during the winter season.
This tank is situated at a distance of about 1 km from Har Ki Pauri. It is said that while Pandavas were going to Himalayas through Haridwar, prince Bhima drew water from the rocks here by thrusting his knee (goda), to the very ground.
Dudhadhari Barfani Temple
Sureshvari Devi Temple
Temple of Goddess Sureshwari, situated in midst of Rajaji National Park. Serene and religious makes this temple abode of worshipers, saints etc. Located at outskirts of Haridwar in Ranipur and permission from forest rangers is necessary. The location of the temple is beyond the boundary of Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Haridwar.
A modern temple, made entirely of glass pieces, Pawan Dham is now a popular tourist destination. The temple complex was constructed by the effort of Swami Vedantanand Maharaj and the institute located there is growing under the leadership of Swami Sahaj Prakash Maharaj. People from Moga in Punjab have put considerable efforts and money to erect this place.
Bharat Mata Mandir
Bharat Mata Mandir is a multi-storey temple dedicated to Bharat Mata (Mother India). Bharat Mata Mandir was inaugurated on 15 May 1983 by Indira Gandhi on the banks of the river Ganges. It is situated adjacent to the Samanvaya Ashram, and stands eight stories tall to a height of 180 feet (55 m). Each floor depicts an era in the Indian history, from the days of Ramayana[dubious ] until India's independence.
On the first floor is the statue of Bharat Mata. The second floor, Shur Mandir, is dedicated to the well renowned heroes of India. The third floor Matri Mandir is dedicated to the achievements of India's revered women, such as Radha, Mira, Savitri, Draupadi, Ahilya, Anusuya, Maitri, Gargi etc. The great saints from various religions, including Jainism, Sikhism, and Buddhism are featured on the fourth floor Sant Mandir. The assembly hall with walls depicting symbolic coexistence of all religions practised in India and paintings portraying history and beauty in various provinces, is situated on the fifth floor. The various forms of the Goddess Shakti can be seen on the sixth floor, whilst the seventh floor is devoted to all incarnations of Lord Vishnu. The eighth floor holds the shrine of Lord Shiva from which devotees can gain a panoramic view of Himalayas, Haridwar, and the splendour of the entire campus of Sapta Sarovar.
The temple was built under the former Shankaracharya Maha-Mandleshwar Swami Satyamitranand Giri Maharaj. Since the inception of the Swami Satyamitranand foundation in 1998, several other branches have been opened, namely in Renukut, Jabalpur, Jodhpur, Indore, and Ahmedabad.
Famous places for shopping is Bara Bazar, Moti Bazar, Upper Road, Ranipur Mor, Jwalapur. Tourists usually buy items of devotion and inexpensive ornaments. There are large number of shops throughout Haridwar where one can buy devotional items ranging from Rudraksha ornaments, Religious pictures and deity statues to music cassettes of remixed devotional songs and bhajans. Garments are other major shopping attraction for locals.
Sapta Rishi Ashram and Sapta Sarovar
A picturesque place near Haridwar, where seven great sages or Saptarishis, namely Kashyapa, Vashishtha, Atri, Vishwamitra, Jamadagni, Bharadwaja and Gautama, said to have meditated. The Ganges split herself into seven currents at this place so that the Rishis would not be disturbed by the flow.
Situated in Shravan Nath Nagar of the town near railway station, this is the main ashram of Ramanand Sampraday in Haridwar. Mahant Bhagwan Das is the chief of this ashram.
Anandamayi Maa Ashram
Shantikunj is the headquarters of famous spiritual and social organisation All World Gayatri Pariwar (AWGP) established by Pandit Shriram Sharma Acharya. Its located at a distance of 6 Kilometers from Haridwar railway station towards Rishikesh/Dehradun on NH58. At the bank of the holy Ganges and between the Shivalik ranges of the Himalayas, its also a place of attraction for tourists as well as seekers of spiritual guidance.
Patanjali Yogpeeth (Trust)
Situated in Kankhal, at the banks of the river Ganges, Gurukul Kangri University is one of the oldest Universities of India, it was founded in 1902 by Swami Shraddhananda (1856–1926), according to the tenets of Swami Dayananda Saraswati, the founder of Arya Samaj. It has also been visited by British Trade Union leader Charles Freer Andrews and British prime minister, Ramsay MacDonald, to study the unique Gurukul based education system. Here Ancient Vedic and Sanskrit literature, Ayurveda, Philosophy are part of the curriculum besides Modern Sciences and Journalism. Its 'Archaeological Museum', (estb. 1945) houses some rare statues, coins, paintings, manuscripts and artefacts, starting from Harappa culture (c.2500–1500 BC). Mahatma Gandhi visited the campus three times, and stayed in its sprawling and serene campus for extended periods of time, most notably during the 1915 Kumbh mela, followed by a visit in 1916, when on 20 March, he spoke at Gurukul Anniversary.
Established in 2002 by the act of the Uttarakhand Government is a fully residential university. Run by Shri Vedmata Gayatri Trust, Shantikunj, Haridwar (headquarters of All World Gayatri Pariwar), it provides various degree, diploma and certificate courses in areas like Yogic Science, Alternative Therapy, Indian Culture, Tourism, Rural Management, Theology, Spiritual Counseling etc. It also provides courses through distance learning.
Set up by Government of Uttarakhand is the university dedicated to studies of ancient Sanskrit scriptures, books. Also has curriculum covering ancient Hindu rituals, culture and tradition, and boasts of a building inspired by ancient Hindu architecture style.
Situated in Shivalik Nagar, 10 km from Haridwar city. one of the science colleges in Haridwar.
Shrawan Nath Math Jawahar Lal Nehru P.G. College
State Ayuevedic College & Hospital, Rishikul
campion school icse
Vidya Mandir Senior Secondary School Sector - 1 BHEL
Vidya Mandir Senior Secondary School Sector - 5 BHEL
Bal Bharti Senior Secondary School Sector - 4 BHEL
Gyan Deep School Sector - 4 BHEL
Bal Bhawan Sector - 1 BHEL
St. Mary's Senior Secondary School
Delhi Public School, Haridwar
D.A.V. Centenary Public School
Kendriya Vidyalaya, B.H.E.L. Haridwar
Pannalal Bhalla Municipal Inter College
Arya Inter College
Holy Ganges Public School
School of Computer Education, B.H.E.L. Haridwar
Whizzkid International School.
Important areas within the city
B.H.E.L., Ranipur Township The campus of Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, a Maharatna Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) is spread across an area of 12 km². The main factory consists of two divisions: The Heavy Electricals Equipment Plant (HEEP), and The Central Foundry Forge Plant (CFFP). Together they employ over 8000 skilled employees. Divided into six sectors providing excellent residential, schooling and medical facilities.
Bahadrabad – 7 km. It is located on the Haridwar–Delhi National Highway at a distance of 7 km from Haridwar. Close by, in village Pathri, lies the Bhimgoda Barrage built on the Upper Ganges Canal in 1955. It also has block development office under which many developed villages (e.g. Khedli, Kisanpur Rohalki, Atmalpur Bongla, Sitapur, Alipur, salempur) come.
SIDCUL – 5 km. A massive industrial area, spread over 2034 acres, developed by State Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand (SIDCUL), a state government body. With big enterprises like Hindustan Unilever Limited, Dabur, Mahindra & Mahindra, Havells,Kirby moving in SIDCUL is set to develop into another industrial township within the city. 3 km away from the Delhi-Hardwar National Highway, SIDCUL lies adjacent to the BHEL Township, an important Public Sector township.
Jwalapur An old part of the city, Jwalapur is the financial and industrial capital of the city, and now an important trading and shopping centre for the locals. The town has old history ranging from 1700 AD. This town was called Mohammed pura and ruled by a local Muslim ruler. In early 1600s the running away family of Sisodias from Mewar, descendents of Rana Pratap evading mughals came to settle on outskirts of Haridwar. The families kept low for almost a generation to avoid detection. The locals renamed their surname to Mehta. It is firmly believed that in early 1700 the Mehtas dislodged the Muslim ruler and renamed the town as Jwalapur. This family subsequently settled in Jwalapur itself and inter married with the local population.
Cheela Dam A good picnic spot with a dam and a man-made lake nearby. Elephants and other wild animals could be easily spotted.
Shivalik Nagar One of the newest and biggest residential areas of Haridwar. Is divided into various clusters. Mainly developed as residential colony for BHEL employees but with the advent of SIDCUL, population and financial activity has exploded in the area due to its proximity.
Haridwar is headquarters of Haridwar district and it has good connectivity with the other towns of the district and the state.
National Highway 58, between Delhi and Mana Pass passes through Haridwar connecting it with Ghaziabad, Meerut, Muzzafarnagar, Roorkee and Badrinath and National Highway 74 originating from Haridwar connects it with Kashipur, Kichha, Nagina, Pilibhit and Bareilly.
The Haridwar Railway Station located in Haridwar is under the control of the Northern Railway zone of the Indian Railways. It has direct links the major cities of India such as Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, Jaipur, Ahmedabad, Patna, Gaya, Varanasi, Bhubaneswar, Puri, Kochi and Thiruvananthapuram and major cities of Central India namely Bhopal, Gwalior and Nagpur.
Haridwar is rapidly developing as an important industrial township of Uttarakhand since the state government agency, SIDCUL established in 2002, set up the Integrated Industrial Estate in a district attracting many important industrial houses which are setting up manufacturing facilities in the area.
Haridwar has a thriving industrial area situated at the bypass road, comprising mainly ancillary units to PSU, BHEL, which was established here in 1964 and currently employs over 8000 people.
- Gateway to the Gods: Haridwar-Rishikesh. Rupinder Khullar, Reeta Khullar. 2004, UBS Publishers. ISBN 81-7476-460-7.
- Hardwar Mela From the Caves and Jungles of Hindostan (1879–80), by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831–1891).
- Report, by Archaeological Survey of India, Alexander Cunningham. Published by Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, 1871. Chapt 30: Haridwar or Gangadwara, p. 231–236.
- Chapter XVII: Himalayas, Hardwar. India, Past and Present, by Charles Harcourt Ainslie Forbes-Lindsay. Published by J.C. Winston, 1903. Page 295.
- "Census of India, 2001". Office of the Registrar General, India. 2 March 2002. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
- Gangaji Haridwar Official website of Haridwar.
- About Haridwar sahajaharidwar.
- Integrated Industrial Estate – Haridwar SIDCUL Official site
- Dictionary Molesworth, J. T. (James Thomas). A dictionary, Marathi and English. Bombay Education Society's press, 1857, Page 888.
- Gangadwára, the place where the Ganges descends to the plains ... Sacrifice to Daksha (From the Vayu Purana.) The Vishnu Purana, translated by Horace Hayman Wilson, 1840. p. 62, 62:2.
- The Hindu temple, Volume 1 By Stella Kramrisch, Raymond Burnier p.3
- Places of peace and power sacred sites.
- Hardwar sanatansociety.
- Hardwar The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 13, p. 52.
- Haridwar History Haridwar Official website.
- Historical, Cultural and Social Perspectives Chapter 3, The Cultural Dimension of Ecology, Baidyanath Saraswati, 1998, Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts. ISBN 81-246-0102-X. ignca.nic.in. Vanaparva (The Book of the Forest) is third parva, book of Mahabharata.
- Lopamudra The Mahabharata, translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (1883 -1896), Book 3: Vana Parva: Tirthayatra Parva: Section XCVII.
- Story of Bhagirata
- "Uttarakhand Information Centre – Gangotri Information" The Complete Uttarakhand Travel Guide
- Mankodi, Kirit (1973) "Gaṅgā Tripathagā" Artibus Asiae 35(1/2): pp. 139–144, p. 140
- Hardwar, About City
- Kumbh Mela Channel 4.
- Haridwar This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Digital Library The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Oxford, 1908, Vol.13, p.51.
- History The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 570.
- Guru Nanak (for Children) – A New Way of Teaching
- Life Of Guru Nanak: Chapter IV The Sikh Religion, Volume 1, by Max Arthur Macauliffe (1842–1913), Oxford University Press (1909). page 50-52.
- Janasakhi Janamsakhis of Miharban and Mani Singh, Janamsakhi Tradition, Dr. Kirpal Singh, 2004, Punjabi University, Patiala. ISBN 81-7205-311-8. www.globalsikhstudies.net.
- Sacred Places of Pilgrimage Ain-e-Akbari, Vol. III, p. 306.
- Hardwar Ain-e-Akbari, by Abul Fazl 'Allami, Volume I, A´I´N 22. The A´bda´r Kha´nah. P 55. Translated from the original Persian, by Heinrich Blochmann and Colonel Henry Sullivan Jarrett, Asiatic Society of Bengal. Calcutta, 1873–1907. “His Majesty calls this source of life “the water of immortality,” and has committed the care of this department to proper persons.... Both at home and on travels, he drinks Ganges water.”
- Ain # 10. The Coins of This Glorious Empire C. Copper Coins, Ain-e-Akbari, by Abul Fazl 'Allami, Volume I, p31, ib.
- Newsletter 106, 1987, Goron, S & Wiggins, K. Mughal coins struck in the name of the pretender Muhammad Akbar, at Haridwar. The Oriental Numismatic Society (ONS). UK.
- The Society for South Asian Studies British Academy, Annual Report 2001, p. 8. The British Museum is also in the possession of a unique rupee of the Mughal puppet Muhammad Akbar, issued from the mint of Haridwar (North India), during his short reign of about 45 days.
- The American Numismatic Society Oriental Numismatic Society Newsletter 178 (Winter 2004), Bhandare, S. "Hardwar: a new mint for Akbar's copper coinage," pp. 27–28, illus.
- The Ganges Basin Dams on the Ganges, University at Albany.
- Upper Ganges Canal The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 12, p. 138.
- Trade and Communications The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 21, p. 375.
- History The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 13, p. 53.
- City Development Plan: Haridwar Urban Development Department, Government of Uttarakhand. p.20.
- Haridwar weather and coordinates timeanddate.com/worldclock.
- Geography Haridwar, Official website.
- New District Haridwar, www.gmvnl.com.
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- Travel guide Haridwar
- Kankhal www.indiainfoweb.com.
- Haridwar History
- Legend Chandi Devi Temple.
- Manasa Devi Temple
- sites Uttarakhand Government Official website.
- Temples in Haridwar
- Piran Haridwar Official website.
- Piran Kaliyar Times of India, 13 March 2003.
- Local Attractions Roorkee
- Neel Dhara Bird Sanctuary
- Gurukul Official website of Haridwar.
- Archeological Museum, Haridwar indiatourism.com.
- Artefacts in the Museum Gurukul Kangri, Archaeological Museum.
- Kumbh Mela 1915 The Story of My Experiments with Truth/Part V/Lakshman Jhula.
- Chronology of Mahatma Gandhi's life/India 1916 Wiki Source.
- Sanskrit University Govt. of Uttarakhand.
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