Hariphunchai

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Haripunjaya
661 - 1292
1000 - 1100 AD
Light Green: Haripunchai
Light Blue: Lavo Kingdom
Red: Khmer Empire
Yellow: Champa
Blue: Đại Việt
Pink: Pagan Kingdom
Capital Lamphun
Government Monarchy
King
 -  661 Jamadevi (first)
 -  c. 1200 Yip (last)
Historical era Middle Ages
 -  Founding by Suthep 661
 -  More probable, supposed founding c. 750 A.D.
 -  Besieged and captured by Kingdom of Lanna 1292

Haripunjaya (Pali: Haripunjaya) was a Mon kingdom in the north of present Thailand in the centuries before the Thais moved into the area. Its capital was at Lamphun, which at the time was also called Hariphunchai. In 1292 the city was besieged and captured by the Thai kingdom of Lanna.

Founding[edit]

According to the Camadevivamsa and Jinakalamali chronicles, the city was founded by a hermit named Suthep in 661 AD, and the Mon ruler of Lavo Kingdom (present-day Lopburi) sent his daughter Jamadevi to become its first queen. However, this date is now considered as too early, and the actual beginning is placed at around 750 AD.[citation needed] At that time, most of what is now central Thailand was under the rule of various Mon city states, known collectively as the Dvaravati kingdom. Queen Jamadevi gave birth to twins, the older succeeding her as the ruler of Lamphun, and the younger becoming ruler of neighboring Lampang.

Flourishing and downfall[edit]

A Hariphunchai statue of the Buddha Shakyamuni from the 12th-13th century CE

The chronicles say that the Khmer unsuccessfully besieged Hariphunchai several times during the 11th century. It is not clear if the chronicles describe actual or legendary events, but the other Dvaravati Mon kingdoms did in fact fall to the Khmers at this time. The early 13th century was a golden time for Hariphunchai, as the chronicles talk only about religious activities or constructing buildings, not about wars. Nevertheless, Hariphunchai was besieged in 1292 by the Lanna king Mangrai the Great, who incorporated it into his Lannathai kingdom.

List of rulers[edit]

Names of monarchs of the Hariphunchai kingdom according to Tamnan Hariphunchai (History of Kingdom of Hariphunchai):

  1. Queen Jamadevi
  2. Hanayos
  3. Kumanjaraj
  4. Rudantra
  5. Sonamanjusaka
  6. Samsara
  7. Padumaraj
  8. Kusadeva
  9. Nokaraj
  10. Dasaraj
  11. Gutta
  12. Sera
  13. Yuvaraj
  14. Brahmtarayo
  15. Muksa
  16. Traphaka
  17. Uchitajakraphad king of Lavo
  18. Kampol
  19. Jakaphadiraj, King of Atikuyaburi
  20. Vasudev
  21. Yeyyala
  22. Maharaj, King of Lampang
  23. Sela
  24. Kanjana
  25. Chilanka
  26. Phunthula
  27. Ditta
  28. Chettharaj
  29. Jeyakaraj
  30. Phatijjaraj
  31. Thamikaraj
  32. Ratharaj
  33. Saphasith
  34. Chettharaj
  35. Jeyakaraj
  36. Datvanyaraj
  37. Ganga
  38. Siribun
  39. Uthen
  40. Phanton
  41. Atana
  42. Havam
  43. Trangal
  44. Yotta
  45. Yip

References[edit]

  • 'Historic Lamphun: Capital of the Mon Kingdom of Haripunchai', in: Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 4. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006J541LE
  • Swearer, Donald K. and Sommai Premchit. The Legend of Queen Cama: Bodhiramsi's Camadevivamsa, a Translation and Commentary. New York: State University of New York Press, 1998.