|This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2009)|
|• Total||1,725 km2 (666 sq mi)|
|• Density||466/km2 (1,210/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
|District Council||x seats|
|Number of Tehsils||3|
Haripur (Urdu: ہری پور,"The Town of Hari or God") is a district in the Hazara region of Pakistan with an altitude of around 610 metres (2,000 ft) above sea level. As of 2005[update], Haripur District has the third highest Human Development Index of all the districts in the Pakistan.
- 1 History
- 2 Administration
- 3 Notable people
- 4 Haripur Tehsil Proper
- 5 Natural resources
- 6 Boundary
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Languages
- 9 Telcom Enterprises TM
- 10 Education
- 11 Industries
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
Ancient and medieval period
The Haripur district is situated at the heart of the ancient Gandhara civilization. At the time of Alexander the region including Taxila was known as "Eastern Gandhara", with its boundaries reaching as far as Kashmir. Geographically it lies on either side of the Sindu River, (Indus the River Goddess of Rigveda), near the Tarbela Reservoir. Most historians[who?] believe that the Aryans must have composed a number of Vedic hymns on the banks of Indus. During the kingship of his father Bindusara, the Maharaja Ashoka ruled this region as governor and, according to Tibetan Buddhist traditional stories, he died here.
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In 1399, the Muslim warrior Timur, on his return to Kabul, stationed his Turk soldiers in Hazara to protect the important route between Kabul and Kashmir. By 1472, Prince Shahab-ud-Din came from Kabul and established his rule over the region. Prince Shahab-ud-Din, a Turk of central Asian origin and a descendant of Amir Taimur, founded the state and named it Pakhli Sarkar and chose the Gulibagh as his capital. Their territory at that time was up to Attock as per Raja Irshad's Tarikh e Hazara. Haripur was a part of Pakhli Sarkar at that time.
During the period of Mughal rule, local Turkish chiefs acknowledged Mughal authority. In fact, (Pakhli) provided the main route to Kashmir and was the most commonly used route for Emperor Akbar to travel to Kashmir. During the reign of Akbar one Turk Chief revolted against the authority of Moghals on the plea that the central government of Mughals were interfering too much in to internal affairs of Pakhli. Akbar defeated him. Later he pardoned him and restored his rule. But since then Mughals levied no tax on Pakhli Sarkar and perhaps this was the only state in Sub-continent, which was exempted from taxation.
In the 18th century, Turkish rule came to an end due to the increased aggression of the Swathis and their allied forces.Haripur was already liberated from Turks by Gakhars Rajas of Haripur. At that time it was not called Haripur. The area was part of Lower Tanawal area of Pkhali Sarkar and ruled by Turks of Pakhli Sarkar. The last Wali of the Lower Tanawal (headquarter Sherwan) was Sultan Qiyasuddin, the younger brother of Sultan Memood Kurd, who was the last Turk ruler in Hazara (Pakhli Sarkar).Pakhli Sarkar got a last blow when Syed Jala Shah commonly known as Jalal Baba conspired against his own father in Law i.e. Sultan Memood Kurd. the Sultan was away to Dehli, when called by Aurangzeb Alamgir for some central Asian expeditions. Syed Jalal Shah took advantage of the situation and invited Swaties to attack Pakhli Sarkar to overthrow the Turks. He succeeded and overthrew Turks in 1703. The descendants of these Turk rulers still live in various parts of Hazara Division, such as Behali, Manakrai, etc.
There are large number of people belonging to Awan tribe (marshall tribe)settled in Haripur District which are the direct descendants of Qutb Shah who came to this land along with his sons with Sultan Mehmood Ghazanvi. Awan's are thickly populated in Haripur City, Union Council sarai naimat khan, Jatti Pind, Sirya, Kagg, Beer pharhari(village Gorraki,Bhattan,Kangaramgah,Kotnali,Alloli).Awans are supposed to have been migrated from Afghanistan durnig Ghaznavid,s invasions.
When Ahmad Shah Durrani expanded his kingdom to Punjab, Hazara also came under his control. Durrani considered it wise to rule the area through local tribal chiefs. The Durranis' rule ended abruptly in the beginning of the 18th century.
Shilmani or Sulemani
The Shilmani or Sulemani شلمانى of (Haripur) is a Pashtun tribe called shilmani pathan these tribes Shilmani are "Banu Bakhtar" Israel who were comes from area "Shalman" (Syria).
The Sikhs annexed Hazara in two stages. First Lower Hazara was annexed when the Sikhs defeated the Afghan army led by Fateh Khan and Dost Mohammad Khan Barakzai and wrested control of Akbar's fort of Attock in 1813. Upper Hazara suffered a similar fate when the Sikhs took Kashmir from the Barakzai Afghans in 1819. The town of Haripur (meaning 'Hari's town') was founded in 1822 by Hari Singh Nalwa the Commander-in-Chief of Ranjit Singh's army following advice from Mukkadam Musharaf of Kot Najibullah. On the successful completion of his tenure as Governor of Kashmir in 1821, Pakhli and Damtaur were bestowed upon Nalwa as a jagir in 1822. As soon as Hari Singh Nalwa received this grant, he built the walled town of Haripur in the heart of the Haripur plain with the fort of Harkishan Garh encircled by a deep trench. The site selected by Hari Singh had previously seen some of the fiercest encounters between Sikhs and Afghans.
Hari Singh's name and the presence of his fort at Harkishangarh eventually brought a feeling of security to the region. In 1835, Baron Heugel, a German traveller found only remnants of the four-yard thick and 16 yard high wall built to initially protect the town.
The sole example of a planned town in this region until the British built Abbottabad many years later, Haripur continued to grow and flourish to eventually become a city and later a district.
Haripur once bore the official name of Haripur Hazara and was the capital of Hazara until 1853 when the new capital Abbottabad was built, named after Indian Army officer James Abbott, the first deputy commissioner of Hazara (1849–1853). In March 1849, the Punjab was annexed by the British Empire. In Abbott's time as under former Sikh domination, Haripur was the district headquarters of Hazara, but soon after he departed, Abbottabad took its place. Abbott later painted a noted picture of the town of Haripur and its commanding fort of Harkishangarh.
The District of Haripur was a Tehsil, or sub-division of Abbottabad District, until 1992 when it separated and became a district in its own right. The district is presently (2010–2011) represented in the provincial assembly by four elected MPAs. One Member is elected to the National/Federal Assembly from the district.
Haripur District is divided into two tehsils, further subdivided into 44 Union Councils of which 15 are urban Union Councils.he following 44 pages are in this category, out of 44 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more). A Ali Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa B Bagra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Baitgali Bakka, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Bandi Sher Khan Barkot, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Beer, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Famous Villages(Kutli,Machhan Da Mera,Gorraki, Soha, Kacchi,Talhala,Chatti,Bhattan, ,Behki,Kakotri,Karam,Banda,Nilore) Bherrary Breela D Darwesh Dheendah Dingi G Ghazi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa H Haripur Central Haripur North H cont. Haripur South Hattar J Jabri Jatti Pind K Kalinjar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Khalabat Township Khanpur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Kholian Bala Kot Najeebullah Kotehrra Kundi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa L Landarmang M Mankrai Maqsood N Najifpur N cont. Nara Amaz P Pandak, Pakistan Panian Pind Hasham Khan Pind Kamal Khan Q Qazipur R Rehana S Sarai Saleh Serai Niamat Khan Sikandarpur Sirikot Sirya T Tarbela Tofkian Categories: Union councils of Khyber PakhtunkhwaHaripur District
- Field Marshal Ayub Khan, President of Pakistan (1957 to 1969)
- Pir Sabir Shah, Chief Minister NWFP (1996 to 1997)
- Gohar Ayub Khan, former Speaker of the Pakistani National Assembly
- Omar Ayub Khan, former federal minister of state for finance
- Raja Sikander Zaman, fomer chief minister of the NWFP
- (Akhter Nawaz khan Shaheed) province minister of transport and fishires.
Haripur Tehsil Proper
Tehsil Haripur comprises the Maidan-e-Hazara and Panjkatha areas. The Hazara Plain, once called Hazara, is bounded by the Gandghar Range in the north west, the Haro River in the west, Siri Bang, Sarara and the Margalla Ranges in the south, the Haro River and its tributary Nilan Stream in the south east, the Jahngra and Chamba villages of Tehsil Havelian in the East and the upper Tanawal on the left bank of the Indus on its northern limits.
The area is rich in natural resources and contains two important reservoirs, the Tarbela Dam and Khanpur Dam. Geographically, it is the gateway to Hazara, the Hazara Division, and the Pakistani capital Islamabad.
Geographically, the significance of the district is due to its boundaries that border Mardan District, centre of the ancient Gandhara civilization in the north west, Abbottabad District in the north east, Mansehra District in the north, the Margallah hills of Islamabad in the south east, the Swat valley in the north-west as well as the Buner and Swabi districts in the west. Moreover, the Swabi, Mansehra and Abbottabad districts of Hazara, two districts of Punjab province i.e. Attock and Rawalpindi, lie to the southwest and southeast respectively of Haripur district. The Federal Capital Islamabad is also adjacent to the district in the south.
As of the 1998 census, Haripur's population was 692,228, but was estimated to have increased to 803,000 in 2005. Of these people, 12.0% live in urban districts with the remaining 88.0% resident in rural areas.
The population is spread over an area of 1,725 square kilometres (666 sq mi), with a population density of 401.3 persons per km², this compares to an average population density of 233 persons per km², in the Hazara as whole. The average household size of the district is 6.6 persons compared to 8 at the provincial level. Agriculture is the predominant livelihood of the rural population while the total arable area is 77,370 acres (313.1 km²).
Hindko (A Punjabi Variant) is main language spoken. Urdu being National language is also spoken and understood.
The overall literacy rate in the Haripur district is 53.7%, substantially higher than the provincial literacy rate in Hazara (35.2%) as a whole. The female literacy rate is only 37.4% compared to male literacy of 63.6%. The urban/rural break down shows that rural literacy is lower (51.4%) than urban literacy (69.7%).
Telcom Enterprises TM
Telcom Enterprises is the one of the leading firms in Pakistan which is committed to provide a wide range of IT and Telecommunication services and Solutions from since 1994-2012. Bakhtawar Khan is the Managing Director of Telcom Enterprises TM.He is a Residence of Fort Road Haripur and he is also a Microsoft Company member and writer of the IT books.
Haripur District has two government funded post graduate colleges, providing higher level education, as well as four degree colleges for girls which are also funded by the government to provide higher education for girls across the city. Haripur University has also been established in the year 2012.
In 2000–2001, Haripur had 907 government primary schools, including 656 for boys and 251 for girls. In addition to government primary schools, 166 mosque schools were functioning in the district during this period. The 907 government primary schools cater for a primary school population (5–9 years) of 101,670, out of which 52,240 (51.38%) were boys and 49,430 (48.61%) were girls. Comparison of the number of primary school places against the total primary school age population in the region indicates that there is limited access to primary education.
The district had 83 middle schools (56 for boys and 27 for girls), during 2001.
Mosque schools were introduced under the National Education Policy in 1979 at the time of Fifth Five-Year Plan (1978–83). Such establishments are organized on the basis of 20–30 students, normally under one PTC teacher and an Imam of the mosque as staff members. They have a shorter teaching programme (about four hours a day), the same curriculum as primary schools and also teach Quran-e-Nazira (recitation of the Quran). Students qualifying from such schools are eligible for admission to formal schools for higher education.
During 2000–2001, 166 mosque schools (15.47% of the total primary schools) were oprational in the district, while in 1997–1998, this number had increased to 180. Details about the number of teachers and students, curricular activities and performance of these schools are not available. The school age population catered for by the mosque schools is also not available.
There are many factories of various sizes on the Hatar Industrial Estate, and the presence of these industries means the district plays an important role in national economic development.
Haripur's role in the agricultural field is also important. The district provides fruit and vegetables not only to Peshawar but also to Islamabad and the Punjab. One of the most prominent industries in the Haripur district is known as Cactus Fertilizer (formerly Pak-China Fertilizers) which is the largest producer of phosphate fertilizer in Pakistan.
- Nalwa, V. (2009), Hari Singh Nalwa - Champion of the Khalsaji, New Delhi: Manohar, pp. 77-104, ISBN 81-7304-785-5.
- Nalwa, V. (2009), Hari Singh Nalwa - Champion of the Khalsaji, New Delhi: Manohar, pp. 224-5, ISBN 81-7304-785-5.
- 'The Rock Aornos from Huzara' - British Library Online Gallery
- Information Pakistan - Districts of Pakistan
- Waldemar Heckel, Lawrence A. Tritle, ed (2009). Alexander the Great: A New History. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 47–48. ISBN 978-1-4051-3082-0. http://books.google.com/?id=jbaPwpvt8ZQC&pg=PA46&lpg=PA46&dq=callisthenes+of+olynthus+conspiracy&q=callisthenes%20of%20olynthus%20conspiracy
- Tripathi (1999). History of Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ.. pp. 118–121. ISBN 978-81-208-0018-2. http://books.google.com/?id=WbrcVcT-GbUC
- Narain, pp. 155–165
- Curtius in McCrindle, Op cit, p 192, J. W. McCrindle; History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p 229, Punajbi University, Patiala, (Editors): Fauja Singh, L. M. Joshi; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 134, Kirpal Singh.