Harlem

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For other uses, see Harlem (disambiguation).

Coordinates: 40°48′32.52″N 73°56′54.14″W / 40.8090333°N 73.9483722°W / 40.8090333; -73.9483722

Harlem
Neighborhood of New York City
The Apollo Theater on 125th Street, in November 2006.
The Apollo Theater on 125th Street, in November 2006.
Nickname(s): "Black mecca", "Heaven"
Motto: "Making It!"
Country  United States of America
State  New York
County New York City New York
City  New York City
Founded 1658
Named for Haarlem, Netherlands
Area[1]
 • Total 10.03 km2 (3.871 sq mi)
Population (2000)[2][3][4]
 • Total 335,109
 • Density 33,000/km2 (87,000/sq mi)
Economics
ZIP codes 10026, 10027, 10029, 10030, 10031, 10035, 10037, 10039
Area code 212, 917, 646

Harlem is a large neighborhood within the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Since the 1920s, Harlem has been known as a major African-American residential, cultural and business center. Originally a Dutch village, formally organized in 1658,[5] it is named after the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands. Harlem's history has been defined by a series of economic boom-and-bust cycles, with significant population shifts accompanying each cycle.[6]

African-American residents began to arrive en masse in 1905, with numbers fed by the Great Migration. In the 1920s and 1930s, Central and West Harlem were the focus of the "Harlem Renaissance", an outpouring of artistic work without precedent in the American black community. However, with job losses in the time of the Great Depression and the deindustrialization of New York City after World War II, rates of crime and poverty increased significantly.[7]

Since New York City's revival in the late 20th century, Harlem has been experiencing gentrification. Despite this influx of new wealth, much of the population must rely on income support—with West, Central, and East Harlem respectively at 34.9%, 43.3%, and 46.5% of the population.[8]

Harlem's black population peaked in the 1950s.[9] In 2008, the Census found that for the first time Harlem's population was no longer a majority black, with their share being 4 in 10 residents.[10]

Geography[edit]

Map of Harlem excluding Morningside Heights

Harlem is located in Upper Manhattan—often referred to as Uptown by locals—and stretches from the East River west to the Hudson River between 155 Street, where it meets Washington Heights, to an uneven border along the south.

Central Harlem (118,000 inhabitants) is bounded by Fifth Avenue on the east, Central Park on the south, Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Avenue and Edgecombe Avenue on the west, and the Harlem River on the north.[11] A chain of three large linear parks — Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Park and Jackie Robinson Park — are situated on steeply rising banks and form most of the district's western boundary. On the east, Fifth Avenue and Marcus Garvey Park, also known as Mount Morris Park, separate this area from East Harlem.[citation needed] The bulk of the area falls under Manhattan Community Board No. 10.[2] In the late 2000s, South Harlem, sometimes called SoHa, emerged from area redevelopment, running along Frederick Douglass Boulevard from West 110th to West 138th Streets.[12][13]

The West Harlem neighborhoods of Manhattanville and Hamilton Heights comprise part of Manhattan Community Board No. 9. The two neighborhoods' area is bounded by Cathedral Parkway (110th Street) on the South; 155th Street on the North; Manhattan/Morningside Ave/St. Nicholas/Bradhurst/Edgecome Avenues on the East; and Morningside Park/the Hudson River on the west. Morningside Heights is located in the southern most section of West Harlem. Manhattanville begins at roughly 123rd Street and extends northward to 135th Street. The northern most section of West Harlem is Hamilton Heights.[3]

East Harlem, also called Spanish Harlem, within Manhattan Community Board 11, is bounded by East 96th Street on the south, East 142nd Street on the north, Fifth Avenue on the west and the Harlem River on the east.[4]

The New York City Police Department patrols five precincts located within Harlem. The areas of West Harlem are served by the 30th Precinct,[14] the areas of Central Harlem are served by the 28th[15] and 32nd Precincts,[16] and the areas of East Harlem are served by the 23rd[17] and 25th Precincts.[18]

The New York City Fire Department operates 9 firehouses in Harlem, organized into 2 Battalions. The following fire companies are quartered in Harlem: Engine 35, Engine 37, Engine 47, Engine 58, Engine 59, Engine 69, Engine 80, Engine 84, Engine 91, Ladder 14, Ladder 23, Ladder 26, Ladder 28, Ladder 30, Ladder 34, Ladder 40, and the Chiefs of the 12th and 16th Battalions.

Harlem is represented by New York's 13th congressional district, the New York State Senate's 30th district, the New York State Assembly's 68th and 70th districts, and the New York City Council's 7th, 8th, and 9th districts.

History[edit]

Main article: History of Harlem

Founded in the 17th century as a Dutch military outpost named Nieuw Haarlem, Harlem became successively a farming village, a revolutionary battlefield, an industrial suburb, a commuter town, an American ghetto, and a world renowned center of African-American culture.

Culture[edit]

In the 1920s and 1930s, Central and West Harlem was the focus of the "Harlem Renaissance", an outpouring of artistic work without precedent in the American black community.

Though Harlem musicians and writers are particularly well remembered, the community has also hosted numerous actors and theater companies, including the New Heritage Repertory Theater,[19] National Black Theater, Lafayette Players, Harlem Suitcase Theater, The Negro Playwrights, American Negro Theater, and the Rose McClendon Players.[20]

The Apollo Theater opened on 125th Street on January 26, 1934, in a former burlesque house. The Savoy Ballroom, on Lenox Avenue, was a renowned venue for swing dancing, and was immortalized in a popular song of the era, "Stompin' At The Savoy". In the 1920s and 1930s, between Lenox and Seventh Avenues in central Harlem, over 125 entertainment places operated, including speakeasies, cellars, lounges, cafes, taverns, supper clubs, rib joints, theaters, dance halls, and bars and grills.[21] 133rd Street, known as "Swing Street", became known for its cabarets, speakeasies and jazz scene during the Prohibition era, and was dubbed "Jungle Alley" because of "inter-racial mingling" on the street.[22][23] Some jazz venues, including most famously the Cotton Club, where Duke Ellington played, and Connie's Inn, were restricted to whites only. Others were integrated, including the Renaissance Ballroom and the Savoy Ballroom.

In 1936, Orson Welles produced his famous black Macbeth at the Lafayette Theater in Harlem.[24] Grand theaters from the late 19th and early 20th centuries were torn down or converted to churches. Harlem lacked any permanent performance space until the creation of the Gatehouse Theater in an old Croton aqueduct building on 135th Street in 2006.[25]

Since 1965, the community has been home to the Harlem Boys Choir, a famous touring choir and education program for young boys, most of whom are black. The Girls Choir of Harlem was founded in 1989.[26]

Harlem is also home to the largest African American Day Parade which celebrates the culture of African diaspora in America. The parade was started up in the spring of 1969 with Congressman Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. as the Grand Marshal of the first celebration.[27]

Arthur Mitchell, a former dancer with the New York City Ballet, established Dance Theatre of Harlem as a school and company of classical ballet and theater training in the late 1960s. The company has toured nationally and internationally. Generations of theater artists have gotten a start at the school.

Manhattan's contributions to hip-hop stems largely from artists with Harlem roots such as Tupac Shakur, Big L, Cam'ron, Kurtis Blow, Immortal Technique, A$AP Rocky, Mase, P. Diddy and Azealia Banks. Harlem is also the birthplace of popular hip-hop dances such as the Harlem shake, toe wop, and Chicken Noodle Soup.

Harlem is currently experiencing a gourmet renaissance with new dining hotspots popping up uptown around Frederick Douglass Boulevard.[28] At the same time, some residents are fighting back against the powerful waves of gentrification the neighborhood is experiencing. On October 17, 2013, residents staged a sidewalk sit-in to protest a five-days-a-week farmers market that would shut down Macombs Place at 150th Street.[29]

Religious life[edit]

Religious life has historically had a strong presence in Black Harlem. The area is home to over 400 churches.[30] Major Christian denominations include Baptists, Pentecostals, Methodists (generally African Methodist Episcopalian, or "AME"), Episcopalians, and Roman Catholic. The Abyssinian Baptist Church has long been influential because of its large congregation, and recently wealthy on account of its extensive real estate holdings. The Allah School in Mecca also lies in Harlem, which is the headquarters of the The Nation of Gods and Earths, better known as the Five Percenters. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints established a chapel at 128th Street in 2005.

Many of the area's churches are "storefront churches", which operate in an empty store, or a basement, or a converted brownstone townhouse. These congregations may have fewer than 30–50 members each, but there are hundreds of them.[31] Others are old, large, and designated landmarks. Especially in the years before World War II, Harlem produced popular Christian charismatic "cult" leaders, including George Wilson Becton and Father Divine.[32] Mosques in Harlem include the Malcolm Shabazz Mosque No. 7 (formerly Mosque No. 7 Nation of Islam, and the location of the 1972 Harlem Mosque incident), the Mosque of Islamic Brotherhood and Masjid Aqsa. Judaism, too, maintains a presence in Harlem through the Old Broadway Synagogue. A non-mainstream synagogue of black Jews known as Commandment Keepers, was based in a synagogue at 1 West 123rd Street until 2008.

Landmarks[edit]

Many places in Harlem are New York City Landmarks, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, or are otherwise prominent:

Hotel Theresa building at the corner of Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Boulevard and 125th Street
St Martin's Episcopal Church at Malcolm X Blvd and 122

Population and demographics[edit]

Like most neighborhoods in New York, the demographics of Harlem's communities have changed rapidly throughout the history of New York.

In 1910, 10% of Harlem's population was black but by 1930, they had become a 70% majority.[9] The period between 1910 and 1930 marks a huge point in the great migration of African Americans from the South to New York. This point also marks an influx from downtown Manhattan neighborhoods where blacks were feeling less welcome, to the Harlem area.[9] The black population in Harlem peaked in 1950 with a 98% share of the population (population 233,000)

As of 2000, Central Harlem had a black community comprising 77% of the population[citation needed], the largest indigenous African American community by percentage in New York City.[citation needed] The majority of African Americans moved out as more and more foreigners began to move in. [37] Central Harlem is the most famous section of Harlem and thus is commonly referred to simply as Harlem. Central Harlem is home to the famous Apollo Theater.

Central Harlem[edit]

In 2010, the population of Central Harlem was at 115,000 according to a regional census.[38] Central Harlem is home to the Mount Morris Park neighborhood.

West Harlem[edit]

In 2010, the population of West Harlem was at 110,193 according to a regional census.[39]

West Harlem, consisting of Morningside Heights, Manhattanville, and Hamilton Heights, as a whole is predominately Hispanic. African Americans make up about a quarter of the West Harlem population.[3] However, Morningside Heights has a large number of White Americans.[40] Morningside Heights is known as the "Academic Acropolis of New York". Educational institutions in the neighborhood include Columbia University, Barnard College, and New York Theological Seminary.

East Harlem[edit]

In 2010, the population of East Harlem was at 120,000.[41]

East Harlem originally formed as a predominately Italian American neighborhood, but its demographics have changed over the years. and it is now known as a predominately Hispanic neighborhood. Italian Harlem formed when Southern Italian immigration began in the late 19th century.[42] Italian Harlem is notable as the founding location of the Genovese crime family, one of the Five Families that dominated Italian organized crime in New York City as part of the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra).[43]

The area began its transition from Italian Harlem to Spanish Harlem when Puerto Rican migration began after World War II.[44] This community of stateside Puerto Ricans is notable for its contributions to Salsa music. In recent decades, many Mexican and Salvadoran immigrants have also settled in East Harlem.[45] East Harlem is also known as El Barrio and today is predominantly Hispanic, though with a significant Black presence.[44] The area suffers from the highest violent crime rate in Manhattan.[46]

Social issues[edit]

Poverty and health[edit]

Drew Hamilton Houses, a large low-income housing project in Central Harlem

Harlem suffers from unemployment rates higher than the New York average (generally more than twice as high)[47] and high mortality rates as well. In both cases, the numbers for men have been consistently worse than the numbers for women. Unemployment and poverty in the neighborhood resisted private and governmental initiatives to ameliorate them. During the Great Depression, unemployment in Harlem went past twenty percent and people were being evicted from their homes.[48] In the 1960s, uneducated blacks could find jobs more easily than educated ones could, confounding efforts to improve the lives of people who lived in the neighborhood through education.[49] Land owners took advantage of the neighborhood and offered apartments to the lower-class families for cheaper rent but in lower class conditions.[50] As of 1999, 179,000 housing units were available for the citizens of Harlem.[51] Housing activists in Harlem state that, even after residents were given vouchers for the Section 8 housing that was being placed, many were not able to live there and had to find homes elsewhere or become homeless.[51] Infant mortality was 124 per thousand in 1928 (12.4%) .[52] By 1940, infant mortality in Harlem was 5% (one infant in 20 would die), and the death rate from disease generally was twice that of the rest of New York. Tuberculosis was the main killer, and four times as prevalent among Harlem citizens than among the rest of New York's population.[52]

A 1990 study reported that 15-year-old women in Harlem had a 65% chance of surviving to age 65, about the same as women in India. Men in Harlem, on the other hand, had a 37% chance of surviving to age 65, about the same as men in Angola.[53] Infectious diseases and diseases of the circulatory system were to blame, with a variety of contributing factors, including consumption of the deep-fried foods traditional to the South, which may contribute to heart disease.

Crime[edit]

Main article: Crime in Harlem

In the early 20th century, Harlem was a stronghold of the Italian Mafia. As the ethnic composition of the neighborhood changed, black criminals began to organize themselves similarly. However, rather than compete with the established mobs, gangs concentrated on the "policy racket," also called the Numbers game, or bolita in East Harlem. This was a gambling scheme similar to a lottery that could be played, illegally, from countless locations around Harlem. According to Francis Ianni, "By 1925 there were thirty black policy banks in Harlem, several of them large enough to collect bets in an area of twenty city blocks and across three or four avenues."[54]

By the early 1950s, the total money at play amounted to billions of dollars, and the police force had been thoroughly corrupted by bribes from numbers bosses.[55] These bosses became financial powerhouses, providing capital for loans for those who could not qualify for them from traditional financial institutions, and investing in legitimate businesses and real estate. One of the powerful early numbers bosses was a woman, Madame Stephanie St. Clair.

The popularity of playing the numbers waned with the introduction of the state lottery, which has higher payouts and is legal. The practice continues on a smaller scale among those who prefer the numbers tradition or who prefer to trust their local numbers bank to the state.

Statistics from 1940 show about 100 murders per year in Harlem, "but rape is very rare."[56] By 1950, essentially all of the whites had left Harlem and by 1960, much of the black middle class had departed. At the same time, control of organized crime shifted from Jewish and Italian syndicates to local black, Puerto Rican, and Cuban groups that were somewhat less formally organized.[54] At the time of the 1964 riots, the drug addiction rate in Harlem was ten times higher than the New York City average, and twelve times higher than the United States as a whole. Of the 30,000 drug addicts then estimated to live in New York City, 15,000 to 20,000 lived in Harlem. Property crime was pervasive, and the murder rate was six times higher than New York's average. Half of the children in Harlem grew up with one parent, or none, and lack of supervision contributed to juvenile delinquency; between 1953 and 1962, the crime rate among young people increased throughout New York City, but was consistently 50% higher in Harlem than in New York City as a whole.[57]

Injecting heroin grew in popularity in Harlem through the 1950s and 1960s, though the use of this drug then leveled off. In the 1980s, use of crack cocaine became widespread, which produced collateral crime as addicts stole to finance their purchasing of additional drugs, and as dealers fought for the right to sell in particular regions, or over deals gone bad.[58]

With the end of the "crack wars" in the mid-1990s and with the initiation of aggressive policing under mayor Rudolph Giuliani, crime in Harlem plummeted. In 1981, 6,500 robberies were reported in Harlem. The number dropped to 4,800 in 1990, perhaps due to an increase in the number of police assigned to the neighborhood. By 2000, only 1,700 robberies were reported, and by 2010, only 1,100 were reported. There have been similar changes in all categories of crimes tracked by the New York City Police Department.[59] In the 32nd Precinct, which services Central Harlem above 127th Street, for example, between 1990 and 2008, the murder rate dropped 80%, the rape rate dropped 58%, the robbery rate dropped 73%, burglary dropped 86%, and the total number of crime complaints dropped 73%.[60]

Education[edit]

Main article: Education in Harlem

In 1977, Isiah Robinson, president of the New York City Board of Education, was quoted as saying that "the quality of education in Harlem has degenerated to the level of a custodial service."[19]

As of May 2006, Harlem was the heart of the charter schools movement in Manhattan; of the 25 charter schools operating in Manhattan, 18 were in Harlem.[61] In 2010, about one age-eligible Harlem child in five was enrolled in charter schools.[62]

The New York Public Library operates the Harlem Branch Library at 9 West 124th Street,[63] the 115th Street Branch Library at 203 West 115th Street,[64] and the 125th Street Branch Library at 224 East 125th Street, near Third Avenue.[65]

The Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine, City College of New York, and New York College of Podiatric Medicine are all located in Harlem.

Transportation[edit]

Bridges[edit]

Harlem River spans; Harlem to the left and the Bronx to the right

The Harlem River separates the Bronx and Manhattan, necessitating several spans between the two New York City boroughs. In East Harlem, the Wards Island Bridge, also known as the 103rd Street Footbridge, connects Manhattan with Wards Island. The Triboro Bridge is a complex of three separate bridges that offers connections between Queens, Manhattan (Harlem), and the Bronx.[66]

Public transportation[edit]

Public transportation service is provided by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. This includes the New York City Subway and MTA Regional Bus Operations, as well as a Metro-North commuter rail stop at East 125th Street, connecting Westchester County with New York City. Some Bronx local routes also serve Manhattan, to provide customers with access between both boroughs.[67]

Subway routes include:

Bus routes include:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ "Harlem neighborhood in New York". Retrieved December 16, 2010. 
  2. ^ a b "Manhattan CD 10 Profile" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-05-28. 
  3. ^ a b c "Manhattan CD 9 Profile" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-05-28. 
  4. ^ a b "Manhattan CD 11 Profile" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-05-28. 
  5. ^ Pierce, Carl Horton, et al. New Harlem Past and Present: the Story of an Amazing Civic Wrong, Now at Last to be Righted. New York: New Harlem Pub. Co., 1903.
  6. ^ "Harlem History |". Harlemworldmag.com. January 26, 1934. Retrieved February 2, 2013. 
  7. ^ [1][dead link]
  8. ^ http://www.nyc.gov/html/dcp/pdf/pub/mnneeds_2012.pdf
  9. ^ a b c "No Longer Majority Black, Harlem Is in Transition." 2010. New York Times.
  10. ^ "No Longer Majority Black, Harlem Is in Transition." New York Times. 2010.
  11. ^ nyc.gov Harlem Community District Profile
  12. ^ Fraser, Lisa (March 13, 2013). "South Harlem: An old city neighborhood developing a new style". amNY. 
  13. ^ Arieff, Irwin (December 24, 2009). "Momentum in South Harlem". The New York Times. 
  14. ^ 30th Precinct, New York City Police Department.
  15. ^ 28th Precinct, New York City Police Department.
  16. ^ 32nd Precinct New York City Police Department.
  17. ^ 23rd Precinct, New York City Police Department.
  18. ^ 25th Precinct, New York City Police Department.
  19. ^ a b "To Live In Harlem," Frank Hercules, National Geographic, February 1977, p.178+
  20. ^ Jim Williams, "Need for Harlem Theater", in Harlem: A Community in Transition, 1964. p.158
  21. ^ The Big Bands Database, My Harlem Reverie
  22. ^ Freeland, David (2009). Automats, Taxi Dances, and Vaudeville: Excavating Manhattan's Lost Places of Leisure. NYU Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-8147-2763-8. 
  23. ^ "Saxman Finds Place For Jazz History". New York City News Service. Retrieved 6 December 2013. 
  24. ^ "Jam Streets as 'Macbeth' Opens", The New York Times, April 15, 1936
  25. ^ "Gatehouse Ushers in a Second Act as a Theater", The New York Times, October 17, 2006
  26. ^ "A Girls' Choir Finally Sings In Spotlight," Randy Kennedy, The New York Times, November 24, 1997
  27. ^ "History of the African American Parade" – Parade website
  28. ^ <http://www.nbcnewyork.com/video/#!/shows/newyorklive/Harlems-Restaurant-Row/103478474
  29. ^ Mays, Jeff (Oct 18, 2013). "Harlem Residents Hold Sit-In to Protest Farmers Market Takeover of Plaza". DNAinfo.com. 
  30. ^ "The New Heyday of Harlem," Tessa Souter, The Independent, Sunday, June 8, 1997
  31. ^ Fact Not Fiction In Harlem, John H. Johnson, St. Martin's Church, 1980. p.69+
  32. ^ Harlem U.S.A., ed. John Henrik Clarke, introduction to 1971 edition
  33. ^ a b c d e Landmarks and History of Upper Manhattan
  34. ^ Bushman Steps NYC Parks website highlights
  35. ^ Bells of St Martin by Kathleen Hulse
  36. ^ Savoy Ballroom Marker
  37. ^ http://www.nyc.gov/html/dcp/pdf/pub/mnneeds_2012.pdf#mn10
  38. ^ "Manhattan Community District 10 - New York City Department of City Planning". Nyc.gov. Retrieved 2014-05-28. 
  39. ^ nyc.gov West Harlem Community District Profil.
  40. ^ "Morningside Heights, Manhattan New York City". Nyctouristguide.com. Retrieved 2013-02-02. 
  41. ^ nyc.org Harlem Manhattan Community District Profile
  42. ^ http://www.nycteachingfellows.org/mypersonalinfo/downloads/M.HarlemHistory.pdf
  43. ^ "Genovese Crime Family-One of the "Five Families"". American Mafia History. 2012-05-06. Retrieved 2012-09-19. 
  44. ^ a b "El Barrio (Spanish Harlem) New York City.com : Visitor Guide : Editorial Review". Nyc.com. Retrieved 2013-02-02. 
  45. ^ "East Harlem". studio323ny.com. Retrieved 2013-02-02. 
  46. ^ "What a Safer City Really Looks Like" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-09-19. 
  47. ^ Poverty and Politics in Harlem, Alphnso Pinkney & Roger Woock, College & University Press Services, Inc., 1970, p.31
  48. ^ Taylor, Nick. "The Great Depression." Great Depression (1930's) News. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Oct. 2013.
  49. ^ The Economic Development of Harlem, Thomas Vietorisz and Bennett Harrison, Praeger Special Studies in U.S. Economic and Social Development, 1970, p.19
  50. ^ "Harlem." Encyclopedia of Urban America: the cities and Suburbs.Santa Barbara. ABC-CLIO, 1998. Credo Reference.Web. 02 Oct. 2013.
  51. ^ a b Hyra, Derek S. The New Urban Renewal: The Economic Transformation of Harlem and Bronzeville.Chicago: University of Chicago, 2008. 103. Print.
  52. ^ a b "Congestion Causes High Mortality," The New York Times, October 24, 1929
  53. ^ McCord, C.; Freeman, H. P. (1990). "Excess Mortality in Harlem". New England Journal of Medicine 322 (3): 173–177. doi:10.1056/NEJM199001183220306. 
  54. ^ a b Francis A.J. Ianni, Black Mafia, 1974
  55. ^ "Inside Story of Numbers Racket", Amsterdam News, August 21, 1954
  56. ^ "244,000 Native Sons", Look Magazine, May 21, 1940, p.8+
  57. ^ Poverty and Politics in Harlem, Alphonso Pinkney & Roger Woock, College & University Press Services, Inc., 1970, p.33
  58. ^ "Harlem Speaks: A Living History of the Harlem Renaissance." Wintz, Cary.
  59. ^ "How New York Cut Crime", Reform Magazine, Autumn 2002 p.11
  60. ^ "Compstat – Volume 16 No.4 – 32nd Precinct" (PDF). nyc.gov. NYPD Compstat unit. January 26, 2009. Retrieved January 28, 2009. 
  61. ^ New York Charter Schools Association
  62. ^ The Teachers' Unions' Last Stand, by Steven Brill (Single Page online URL), in The New York Times, in the Magazine, Sunday, May 23, 2010, p. MM32 (print version may differ), as accessed June 10, 2010.
  63. ^ "Harlem Branch Library." New York Public Library. Retrieved on January 30, 2009.
  64. ^ "115th Street Branch Library." New York Public Library. Retrieved on January 30, 2009.
  65. ^ "125th Street Branch Library." New York Public Library. Retrieved on January 30, 2009.
  66. ^ "Robert F. Kennedy Bridge". Mta.info. December 30, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2013. 
  67. ^ "MTA New York City Transit". mta.info. Retrieved February 2, 2013. 
  68. ^ a b c d e "New York City Subway Map". mta.info. Retrieved May 28, 2014. 
  69. ^ mta.info—Second Avenue Subway map
  70. ^ a b "Manhattan Bus Map". mta.info. Retrieved May 28, 2014. 

Bibliography

Further reading

  • WPA Guide to New York City 1939
  • "Harlem: The Making of a Ghetto. Negro New York, 1890–1930". Gilbert Osofsky, 1963
  • TIME Magazine, vol. 84, No.5, July 31, 1964. "Harlem: No Place Like Home"
  • Newsweek, August 3, 1964. "Harlem: Hatred in the Streets"
  • Harlem Stirs, John O. Killens, Fred Halstead, 1966
  • Francis A. J. Ianni, Black Mafia: Ethnic Succession in Organized Crime, 1974
  • "Crack's Decline: Some Surprises from U.S. Cities", National Institute of Justice Research in Brief, July 1997

External links[edit]

Media related to Harlem, Manhattan at Wikimedia Commons