Harlem Children's Zone
|Key people||Geoffrey Canada, President and CEO|
|Focus(es)||Combating effects of poverty; improving child and parent education|
|Revenue||$75 million |
|Endowment||$145 million |
|Motto||"Doing whatever it takes to educate children and strengthen the community."|
The Harlem Children's Zone (HCZ) is a non-profit organization for poverty-stricken children and families living in Harlem, providing free support in the form of parenting workshops, a pre-school program, three public charter schools, and child-oriented health programs for thousands of children and families. The HCZ is "aimed at doing nothing less than breaking the cycle of generational poverty for the thousands of children and families it serves."
The Harlem Children's Zone Project has expanded the HCZ's comprehensive system of programs to nearly 100 blocks of Central Harlem and aims to keep children on track through college and into the job market.
Quoting from the HCZ Project web page: "The HCZ Project began as a one-block pilot in the 1990s, then following a 10-year business plan, it expanded to 24 blocks and then 60 blocks. The goal is to serve 15,000 children and 7,000 adults by 2011. The budget for the HCZ Project for fiscal year 2009 is over $40 million, costing an average of $3,500 per child." In addition to this private financing, the HCZ schools receive about $12,500 in public funding per student. According to The New York Times, these figures do not include the costs of the HCZ "after-school program, rewards for student performance, a chef who prepares healthy meals, central administration and most building costs, and some of the expense of the students' free health and dental care".
The HCZ and its promotion as a model of education to aspire to, especially in the recent documentary Waiting for "Superman", have been criticized as an example of the privatization of education in the U.S. University of San Francisco Adjunct Professor in Education, Rick Ayers writes that Waiting for "Superman" "never mentions the tens of millions of dollars of private money that has poured into the Harlem Children's Zone, the model and superman we are relentlessly instructed to aspire to." One year after this film was made, the Grassroots Education Movement made a film titled The Inconvenient Truth Behind Waiting for Superman, which accused the original film of exaggerating the success of the HCZ.
The Obama administration announced a Promise Neighborhoods program, which hopes to replicate the success of the HCZ in poverty-stricken areas of other U.S. cities. In the summer of 2010, the U.S. Department of Education's Promise Neighborhoods program accepted applications from over 300 communities for $10 million in federal grants for developing HCZ implementation plans.
Principles and programs
The HCZ designs, funds, and operates a holistic system of education, social-services and community-building programs in Harlem to counter the negative influences of crime, drugs and poverty and help children complete college and go on to the job market. Providing this "full network of services... to an entire neighborhood from birth to college" is a key element of the Obama administration's Promise Neighborhoods program modeled after the HCZ.
The two fundamental principles of The Zone Project are to help kids as early in their lives as possible and to create a critical mass of adults around them who understand what it takes to help children succeed.
- The Baby College, a series of workshops for parents of children ages 0–3
- All-day pre-kindergarten
- Extended-day charter schools (Promise Academy)
- Health clinics and community centers for children and adults during after-school, weekend and summer hours
- Youth violence prevention efforts
- Social services such as a foster-care prevention service
- College admissions and retention support
Replication in other cities
A number of large U.S. cities have initiated their own programs styled after the HCZ, in advance of any federally funded efforts stemming from the Obama administration's HCZ-inspired anti-poverty initiatives. Philadelphia, Miami, Chicago, Cleveland, and cities in Maryland, are planning or considering HCZ replication.
The HCZ, in partnership with PolicyLink, organized a two-day conference on November 9–10, 2009 in New York City with the aim of providing guidance to community leaders from around the U.S. in their efforts to launch similar, large-scale projects like the HCZ in their areas.
In 2008 President Obama, inspired by the Harlem Children’s Zone immense progress toward breaking the generational cycle of poverty, proposed the creation of Promise Neighborhoods. Obama’s commitment to alleviating poverty is put into place with this initiative which uses HCZ’s “cradle to college” approach. “The initiative seeks to help selected local communities dramatically improve outcomes and opportunities for children and families in defined neighborhoods. The initiative will be diverse in its application, reflecting local needs and context.” The initiative’s goal follows the HCZ’s paradigm to improve every aspect of life in impoverished communities, its purpose states: “all children growing up in Promise Neighborhoods have access to effective schools and strong systems of family and community support that will prepare them to attain an excellent education and successfully transition from college to career.” This purpose statement directly reflects the mission of HCZ. HCZ, in collaboration with the national action institute PolicyLink, assists in providing ongoing guidance for the Obama administration in this initiative.
In 2010, the Obama administration allocated $75 million in the federal budget for the program. More than 330 communities across the nation applied for Promise Neighborhood planning grants. Twenty-one communities were awarded one-year grants between $400,000 and $500,000. Planning grantees are given a year to produce a strategic paradigm which will address the issues specific to their community in pursuit of an implementation grant. The grantees submitted their plans that summer, with the implementation phase for Promise Neighborhoods expected to begin in September 2011.
The 60 Minutes television program profiled the HCZ, including an interview with founder Geoffrey Canada, on 14 May 2006 and a follow up program on December 6, 2009. Canada has also appeared twice in televised interviews with Charlie Rose on 2 January 2008 and 22 June 2004, and with Stephen Colbert on 8 December 2008, on 20 July 2009, and on 4 January 2011.
The New York Times ran an article on October 12, 2010, "Lauded Harlem Schools have their own Problems," in which they exposed the "low student performance in most of the neighborhood’s public schools" and the dismissal, by the board of trustees, of an entire class of 8th graders when their performance was deemed "too weak to found a high school on." They also report that "because it lost more ground than comparable schools, it got a C from the city on its annual A-to-F report card, and an F in the student progress category," while giving credit for the increased math scores of many students in the school.
Barack Obama announced his plan in a 2008 presidential campaign speech in Washington, D.C. to replicate the HCZ in 20 cities across the United States. Federal government would provide half of the funding with the rest coming from philanthropy and businesses at a cost of a few billion per year. Senator Obama also noted the HCZ in a 2007 campaign speech.
The Wall Street Journal featured the HCZ in an article about the financial troubles experienced by this and other charitable organizations in the wake of the recession. The HCZ initiated a 100-day public service campaign started on January 23, 2009 to help counteract the effects of the economic downturn.
An article in the January/February 2009 issue of Mother Jones showcases Geoffrey Canada, the HCZ, and its recognition by the Obama 2008 presidential campaign and administration. The author of this article, Paul Tough, published a book in August 2008 about the HCZ titled, Whatever It Takes: Geoffrey Canada's Quest to Change Harlem and America.
The Washington Post published a story about the HCZ on 2 August 2009, noting that the Obama administration has set aside $10 million in the 2010 budget for planning its Promise Neighborhoods program, which seeks to replicate the HCZ.
HCZ has had many impacts, on its students, community, and federal programs. President Obama created a grant program to copy HCZ's block-by-block approach to ending poverty. Obama requested $210 million for the program.
Thirty-eight percent of Promise Academy I’s students in third through sixth grade passed the 2010 English test, placing it in the lower half of charter schools citywide and below the city’s overall passing rate of 42 percent. It outperformed Harlem as a whole, where just 29 percent of children passed.
Promise Academy II, an elementary school that occupies part of a public school building, did better, with 62 percent passing in English, among the top 10 percent of charters. But because it lost more ground than comparable schools, it got a C from the city on its annual A-to-F report card and an F in the student progress category. Both schools continued to outperform the city in math, with 60 percent passing in one school and 81 percent in the other.
One Harvard study found that Promise Academy students who entered the sixth grade in 2005 had raised their test scores so much by the eighth grade that they had “reversed the black-white achievement gap in mathematics” and reduced it in English. In 2009, nearly all the students passed the math test.
HCZ's after-school college advice office has helped place 650 students in college. Its asthma initiative has drastically reduced emergency room visits and missed school days among its 1,000 participants. Preschool students have made bounds in kindergarten readiness. Parent satisfaction in the charter schools, as measured by city surveys, is high.
It will take many decades to know for certain whether the HCZ has decreased generational poverty trends. A Brookings report has found that the HCZ has increased middle school math test scores more than other academic indicators, yet it finds inconclusive data to support the holistic approach taken by the HCZ. For elementary school years, however, some research has concluded that the HCZ has positive impacts on both math and English language arts.
A March 2010 report in City Limits discusses the "stunning rate of teacher turnover the Promise Academies have posted. In 2006-07, a third of Promise Academy I’s teachers left or were dismissed. The year before 48 percent were fired or quit. Only one of the original teachers is still with the Promise Academy middle school." It goes on to quote the treasurer of the board of the HCZ, Mitch Kurz as saying, “We developed a lot of grand plans, educational philosophies, and we overlooked sort of the fundamental aspect of running a successful school, and that is managing the culture of the school."
- "Forbes report for FY ending 06/30/07". 2008-11-19. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
- "Harlem Children's Zone History". Retrieved 2008-10-12.[dead link]
- "The Harlem Children's Zone Project: 100 Blocks, One Bright Future". The Harlem Children's Zone website. Retrieved 2008-10-12.[dead link]
- Sharon Otterman (October 12, 2010). "Lauded Harlem Schools Have Their Own Problems". The New York Times (New York). Retrieved October 26, 2010.
- An Inconvenient Superman: Davis Guggenheim's New Film Hijacks School Reform by Rick Ayers, The Huffington Post, September 17, 2010
- Grassroots Education Movement (NYC)
- Focusing on Results in Promise Neighborhoods: Recommendations for the Federal Initiative. A Discussion Paper by Harlem Children's Zone, The Center for the Study of Social Policy, & PolicyLink. Authors: Betina Jean Louis, Frank Farrow, Lisbeth Schorr, Judith Bell, & Kay Fernandez Smith
- "Barack Obama and Joe Biden's Plan to Combat Poverty". Obama-Biden website. Fall 2008. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
- "Promise Neighborhoods Applicant Information". U.S. Department of Education. 22 July 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
- "Update on the Promise Neighborhoods Program". PolicyLink. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
- "The Harlem Children's Zone Project - Programs". The Harlem Children's Zone website. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
- "Learning from the Harlem Children's Zone". Center for American Progress. 2008-10-23. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
- "Harlem Children's Zone". Advocates for Children and Youth. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
- "KidZone Philadelphia website". KidZone Philadelphia. Retrieved 2009-06-06.
- Renee Michelle Harris (2008-06-05). "Gov. Crist to sign bill for Liberty City children". Retrieved 2009-06-06.
- "Commissioner Edmonson's 'Magic City Children's Zone' gets $3.5 million in state funding". US Fed News Service, Including US State News (access via Highbeam Research, Inc.). 2008-06-10. Retrieved 2009-06-06.
- Forte, Lorraine (2009-09-30). "Harlem Children's Zone for Chicago?". Catalyst Chicago.
- Banchero, Stephanie (2009-12-27). "At-risk kids: Successful New York program a possible solution for Chicago". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-12-28.
- "Cleveland Promise Neighborhood". Sisters of Charity Foundation of Cleveland. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
- Bernstein, Margaret (24 August 2010). "Harlem Children's Zone founder visits Cleveland, finds an audience eager to copy his success". Cleveland.com. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
- Paul Tough (2008-09-29). "Replication". Schoolhouse Rock. Slate (magazine). Retrieved 2009-09-23.
- Paul Tough (Spring/Summer 2009). "Redesigning Urban Education". Catalyst: Strategic Design Review. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
- "Changing the Odds: Learning from the Harlem Children’s Zone Model". Harlem Children's Zone. 2009-11-09. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
- "U.S. Education Secretary Arne Duncan and White House Domestic Policy Council Director Melody Barnes to speak at first national conference on replicating Harlem Children’s Zone Project". Press release. Harlem Children's Zone. 2009-09-22. Retrieved 2009-09-23.[dead link]
- Daniel Schorn, reported by Ed Bradley (2006-05-14). "The Harlem Children's Zone: How One Man's Vision To Revitalize Harlem Starts With Children". CBS 60 Minutes television program. Retrieved 2009-01-26.
- "Charlie Rose Guests - Geoffrey Canada". Charlie Rose Inc. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
- Colbert Nation: Geoffrey Canada (T.V.). 2008-12-08. Retrieved 2009-06-07.
- Colbert Nation: Geoffrey Canada - Reversing Racism (T.V.). 2009-07-20. Retrieved 2009-08-12.
- Colbert Nation: Geoffrey Canada (T.V.). 2011-01-04. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
- Sharon Otterman (2010-10-12). "Lauded Harlem Schools have their own Problems". New York Times news paper. Retrieved 2012-10-27.
- "Going Big". This American Life radio broadcast. 2008-09-26. Retrieved 2009-01-26.
- "Barack Obama on the Harlem Children's Zone". YouTube. 2008-08-06. Retrieved 2009-01-26.
- "Remarks of Senator Barack Obama: Changing the Odds for Urban America". Obama-Biden Website. 2007-07-18. Retrieved 2009-01-26.
- Spector, Mike (2009-01-24). "Bear Market for Charities: A Harlem Education Project That Won Big Corporate Backing Now Faces Cutbacks as Donors Close Their Wallets". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2009-01-26. (requires paid subscription)
- "Harlem Children's Zone Kicks Off Public Service Campaign". NY1 News. 2009-01-23. Retrieved 2009-01-26.
- Paul Tough (2009-01). "Harlem's Man With the Plan". Mother Jones. Retrieved 2009-01-27.
- Paul Tough (2008-08-12). Whatever It Takes: Geoffrey Canada's Quest to Change Harlem and America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0-618-56989-8.
- "Harlem Children's Zone Breaks Poverty Pattern". Talk of the Nation. National Public Radio. 2009-07-28. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
- Shulman, Robin (2009-08-02). "Harlem Program Singled Out as Model". Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- Perry, Suzanne (2009-05-08). "Obama Proposes $10-Million to Expand Harlem Children's Zone Approach". The Chronicle of Philanthropy. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- Connolly, Kevin (18 March 2010). "Harlem's success story". Today (BBC). Retrieved 29 August 2010.
- "Let’s not dismiss the Harlem Children’s Zone just yet...".
- "The Harlem Children’s Zone, Promise Neighborhoods, and the Broader, Bolder Approach to Education".
- Will Dobbie, Roland G. Fryer, Jr. "Are High Quality Schools Enough to Close the Achievement Gap? Evidence from a Social Experiment in Harlem". Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- Helen Zelon (March 2010). "Is the Promise Real: The Harlem Children’s Zone Becomes a Template for National Change". Retrieved 2012-10-27.