Harmon Trophy

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The Harmon Aviator Trophy
The Harmon Aviatrix Trophy

The Harmon Trophy is a set of three international trophies, to be awarded annually to the world's outstanding aviator, female aviator, and aeronaut (balloon or dirigible). A fourth trophy, the "National Trophy," was awarded from 1926 through 1938 to the most outstanding aviator in each of the twenty-one member countries and again from 1946-1948 to honor Americans who contributed to aviation. The award was established in 1926 by Clifford B. Harmon, a wealthy balloonist and aviator.

The awards are described by the Clifford B. Harmon Trust as:

"American awards for the most outstanding international achievements in the arts and/or science of aeronautics for the preceding year, with the art of flying receiving first consideration."[1]

World War II and Harmon's death[edit]

Prior to World War II, the award was administered by the International League of Aviators (Ligue Internationale des Aviateurs), an organization founded by Harmon to serve as "an agent for Peace and National security."[2] The League became defunct during the War and Harmon's death on June 25, 1945 in Cannes, France[3] put the awards in turmoil. Harmon left $55,000 of his estate to continue funding the award in "perpetuity," but Harmon's relatives challenged the bequest.[4] Ultimately, a trust fund of $48,431 was created in 1948.[5]

During the period the awards were in litigation (1945–1948), the American Section of the League awarded the International Aviator Trophy to three U.S. leaders in aviation. However, since the awards were not approved by other League Sections, the awards are technically invalid. Also, these three awards were given without consideration to the "art of flying" and the awards did not recognize a superlative aviation achievement, rather recognized American aviation industry leaders. President Truman's staff questioned the award to Alexander de Seversky, Secretary of the Air Force Stuart Symington stating, "he [de Seversky] did absolutely nothing to deserve it."[6] Truman also did not make time to present the 1948 award to Trans World Airlines CEO Ralph Damon[7] or Brazilian aviation pioneer Francisco Pignatari[8] The award to Pan American World Airways President Juan Trippe in 1946 was the only one presented without debate.

Since 1997 or 1998, the National Aeronautic Association has been responsible for awarding the trophies. With the exception of the Aeronaut trophy, all are inactive.

The trustees wrestled with how to treat space flight. Bound by the court to offer only three trophies, the trustees first agreed that "feats of piloting in both earth orbiting or outer space vehicles will be considered for the Harmon Awards provided the vehicles are controlled by their pilots rather from the ground."[9] The advisory committee directed the trustees to alternate awarding the aeronaut trophy between balloonists and astronauts, but the trustees decided to offer the aviator award to aviation and astronaut recipients.[10] A fifth trophy was created in 1969 to honor achievements in space flight.[11]

Some aviatrix awards from 1980-1990 were awarded by the Ninety-Nines based on research performed by Fay Gillis Wells. This work was not coordinated with the NAA or Smithsonian.

The original awards were 24-inch-tall bronze statues [1]. The aviator trophy depicts World War I flying ace Raoul Lufbery launching a biplane set next to an eagle about to take wing. The statuette was created by sculptor Roumanbona M'Divani. The Smithsonian Institution acquired the aviator's trophy in 1950 from the Clifford B. Harmon Trust. The aviatrix trophy (at right) depicts a winged goddess cradling a falcon with outstretched wings. The aeronaut trophy was lost in Germany between May 1940 and October 1953 and was believed to have been sold as scrap. The three-foot-tall, 150-pound statue of five aviators holding the globe on their shoulders was found in a junk store and subsequently given to the Smithsonian after the presentation of the 1952 awards.[12]

List of award winners[edit]

The following is an incomplete list compiled from several sources. The Aeronaut, National and Astronaut categories have not been listed in a central location. The NAA and the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum worked to assemble a complete list to be published in conjunction with the NAA's hundredth anniversary in 2005, however this project was not completed and it appears that the source documents for a period of awards were destroyed.

Year Aviator[13] Aviatrix Aeronaut[14] National (until 1949) see below for Astronaut since 1967
1926 Lt. Col. Georges Pelletier d'Oisy, France[15] No Award Presented General Umberto Nobile, Italy Shirley J. Short, USA; Cdr. Hirosi Abe, Japan; Maj. Mario de Bernardi, Italy[16]
1927 Col. Charles A. Lindbergh, USA Lady Mary Bailey, UK Commander Charles E. Rosendahl, USA
1928 Col. Arturo Ferrarin, Italy Lady Mary Bailey, UK Dr. Hugo Eckener, Germany Carl Eielson;[17] Charles Kingsford-Smith Australia[18]
1929 Maj. Dieudonne Costes, France[19] Miss Winifred Spooner, UK Dr. Hugo Eckener, Germany Maj. James H. Doolittle, USA;[20] Hugh Grosvenor, Australia[18]
1930 Maj. Dieudonne Costes, France Miss Amy Johnson Mollison, UK Dr. Hugo Eckener, Germany (dirigible); Ward T. Van Orman, USA (spherical balloon) Lt. Cdr. Frank Hawks; Lt. Carlos de Haya González de Ubieta es:Carlos de Haya Gonzalez, Spain; Charles Kingsford-Smith, Australia[18]
1931 Air Marshal Italo Balbo, Italy[21] Mrs. Maryse Bastié, France[21] Dr. Hugo Eckener, Germany (dirigible); Prof. Auguste Piccard, Switzerland (spherical balloon)[21] Clyde Pangborn, USA; Hugh Herndon, USA; Ruth Nichols, USA; Air Commodore; Charles Kingsford-Smith Australia; Bert Hinkler, UK; Amy Johnson, UK; Peggy Salaman, UK; Captain von Gronau, Germany; Marga von Etzdorf, Germany[21]
1932 Wolfgang von Gronau; Germany[22] Mrs. Amelia Earhart Putnam, USA[22] Prof. Auguste Piccard, Switzerland (spherical balloon); Capt. Ernst A. Lehmann, (dirigible)[22] Roscoe Turner, USA; Warren D. Williams, USA (dirigible); Lt. Cdr. Charles E. C. Rosendahl, USA (dirigible); Lt. Thomas G. W. Settle, USA (spherical balloon);[22] Lt. Carlos de Haya González de Ubieta es:Carlos de Haya Gonzalez, Spain
1933 Wiley Post, USA[23] Maryse Hiltz, France[23] Lt. Cdr. Thomas G. W. Settle, USA (Spherical Balloon); Dr. Hugo Eckener, Germany (dirigible)[23] Mrs. Anne Morrow Lindbergh, USA; Lt. Cdr. Charles E. C. Rosendahl, USA (dirigible); Lt. Cdr. Thomas W. G. Settle, USA (spherical balloon); Francesco Agello, Italy; Mariano Barberan, Spain (posthumously); Herberts Cukurs, Latvia; Joaquin Collar, Spain (posthumously)[23]
1934 C. W. A. Scott; UK[24] Hélène Boucher, France (posthumously)[24] Capt. Ernst A. Lehmann, Germany (dirigible); Mme. Jeannette Piccard, Switzerland (United States) (spherical balloon)[24] Miss Laura Ingalls, USA; Dean C. Smith, USA; Lt. Cdr. H. V. Wiley, USA (dirigible); Maj. William E. Kepner, USA (spherical balloon); Edgardo Bonnet, Argentina; Maria Leloir de Udaondo, Argentina, Charles Kingsford-Smith, Australia, Teddy Franchomme, Belgium; E. Demuyter, Belgium, Mlle. S. Lippens, Belgium; Michael Hansen, Denmark; U. Makela, Finland; Jean Mermoz, France; Raymond Delmotte, France; Germain Bonnet, France; Heini Dittmar, Germany; Hans Kurt Fleming, Germany; Elly Beinhorn, Germany; K. D. Parmentier, Holland; Francesco Agello, Italy; Momosaburo Shinno, Japan; Kikuko Matsumoto, Japan; Capt. Jerzy Bajan, Poland; Franciszek Hynek, Poland; Humberto da Cruz, Portugal; Herman Baron, San Salvador; Luang Prung Prechakas, Siam; Ramon Torres, Spain; Walther Mittelholzer, Switzerland[24]
1935 Capt. Edwin Musick, USA[25] Jean Batten, UK (New Zealand); Amelia Earhart, USA[25] Capt.Orvil Arson Anderson, USA; Capt.Albert William Stevens USA;(spherical balloon); Capt. Hans von Schiller, Germany (dirigible)[25] Arnold Looz-Corswarem, Belgium; Michael Hansen, Denmark; Capt. J. F. Broadbent, UK; André Japy, France; Bertha Alisch, Germany; Elly Beinhorn, Germany; Mario Stoppani, Italy; Casimiro Babbi, Italy; Marchesa Carina Negrone, Italy; Hoja Dzenitis, Lithuania; Gomez Namorado, Portugal; Juan Ignacio Pombo, Spain[25]
1936 Howard Hughes, USA[26] Jean Batten, UK (New Zealand)[26] Capt. Ernest A. Lehmann, Germany; Ernest De Muyter, Belgium Mrs. Louise Thaden, USA; James Diamond, USA;[26] Carl Gotze, Jr., Germany
1937 Henry T. Merrill, USA[27] Jean Batten, UK (New Zealand)[27] No Award Presented Miss Jacqueline Cochran, USA; Howard Hughes, USA[27]
1938 Howard Hughes, USA;[28] Jacqueline Cochran, USA[28] No Award Presented Lt. Col. Robert Olds, USA (Diploma of Honor); Roscoe Turner, USA; Capt. Kellett and crew, UK; Michael Hansen, Denmark; Maurice Rossi, France; Elizabeth Lion, France; Capt. Alfred Henks, Germany; Hanna Reitsch, Germany; Lt. Col. Mario Pezzi, Italy; Maj. Yuzo Fujita, Japan; Capt. Viktors Eglitis, Latvia; Victor Alfredo Lara, San Salvador; Maj. Tonnard, Belgium (spherical balloon); Capt. Max Pruss, Germany (dirigible); Capt. Antoni Janusz, Poland (spherical balloon)[28]
1939 Maj. Alexander P. de Seversky, USA[29] Jacqueline Cochran, USA[30] No Award Presented
1945 Francisco Pignatari, Brazil
1946 Juan T. Trippe, USA[31]
1947 Alexander P. de Seversky, USA[32]
1948 Ralph S. Damon[33]
1949 Louis A. Johnson[34]
1940
to 1949[35]
Lt. Gen. James H. Doolittle, USA; Geoffrey de Havilland, UK (posthumously) (Citation of Honorable Mention); Capt. Charles E. Yeager, USA (Citation of Honorable Mention)[36] Jacqueline Cochran, USA; Pauline Gower, UK (posthumously) (Citation of Honorable Mention)[36] Vice Admiral Charles E. Rosendahl, USA; M. Charles Dollfus, France (Citation of Honorable Mention); Lt. Howard R. Walton, USA (posthumously) (Citation of Honorable Mention)[36]
1950 Col. David C. Schilling, USA[37] No Award Presented[37] National prize not awarded after 1949
1951 Capt. Charles F. Blair Jr, USA[38] Jacqueline Auriol, France[38] Lt. Carl J. Seiberlich, USA[38]
1952 Col. Bernt Balchen, USA (Norwegian-born)[39] Jacqueline Auriol, France[39] Walter L. Massic, USA[39]
1953 Maj. Charles E. Yeager, USA[40] Jacqueline Cochran, USA[40] No Award Presented[40]
1954 J. F. Coleman, USA[41] No Award Presented Capt. Marion H. Eppes, USA[41]
1955 Group Captain John Cunningham, UK[42] Jacqueline Auriol, France[42] Lt. Cdr. Charles A. Mills, USA[42]
1956 Lt. Col. Frank K. Everest Jr., USA[43] Jacqueline Auriol, France Lt. Cdr. Malcolm D. Ross, USA; Lt. Cdr. Morton L. Lewis, USA[43]
1957 Gen. Curtis E. LeMay, USA[44] No Award Presented Cdr. Jack R. Hunt, USA[44]
1958 Maj. André Edouard Turcat, France[45] No Award Presented
1959 Capt. Joe B. Jordan, USA[46] No Award Presented Capt. Joseph Kittinger, USA[46]
1960 A. Scott Crossfield, USA; Capt. Joseph A. Walker, USA; Maj. Robert M. White, USA[47] No Award Presented
1961 Lt. Col. William R. Payne, USA[48] Jacqueline Cochran, USA[48] Cdr. Malcolm D. Ross, USA; Lt. Cdr. Victor E. Prather, USA (posthumously)[48]
1962 Maj. Fitzhugh L. Fulton Jr., USA[49] No Award Presented[49] Mrs. Nini Boesman, Netherlands (subsequently canceled[50])[49]
1963 Maj. L. Gordon Cooper, USA[49] Betty Miller, USA[49] No Award Presented[49]
1964 Max Conrad, USA[51] Joan Merriam Smith, USA (posthumously)[51] No Award Presented[51]
1965 Commander James Lovell Jr.; Lt. Col. Frank Borman; Captain Wally Schirra; Maj. Thomas P. Stafford (all USA)[52] No Award Presented
1966 Cmdr. James Lovell Jr.; Maj. Edwin E. Aldrin; Maj. Edward H. White II (all USA)[53] Sheila Scott, UK[53] No Award Presented[10]
1967 Major William J. Knight, USA[54] No Award Presented Astronaut
1968 Maj. Jerauld R. Gentry, USA[11] No Award Presented Col. Frank Borman; Capt. James A. Lovell; Lt. Col. William A. Anders (all USA)[11]
1969 Squadron Leader Thomas Lecky-Thompson, UK; Squadron Leader Graham Williams, UK[55] Turi Widerøe; Norway[55] No Award Presented[55] Neil Armstrong; Edwin E. Aldrin; Michael Collins[55]
1970 Brian Trubshaw, UK; Major André Edouard Turcat, France[56] Sheila Scott, UK No Award Presented
1971 Lt. Col. Thomas B. Estes, USA; Lt. Col. Dewain C. Vick, USA[56] Geraldyn Cobb, USA[56] No Award Presented
1972 Lt. Col. Edgar L. Allison, USA[57] No Award Presented No Award Presented
1973 Col. Edward J. Nash, USA[57] No Award Presented Malcolm S. Forbes, Sr., USA[57] Captain Charles Conrad, Jr.; Captain Paul J. Weitz; Captain Joseph Kerwin (all USA)[57]
1974
1975 Lt. Col. Herbert M. Fix, USA Marion Rice Hart, USA
1976 No Award Presented
1977
1978
1979 Byran Allen, USA No Award Presented
1980 Lt. (jg) John Currier, USCG No Award Presented
1981 Jerry Foster, USA[58] Janice Lee Brown, USA[58] John W. Young; Capt. Robert L. Crippen, Col. Joseph H. Engle; Capt. Richard Truly (all USA)[58]
1982 Dormon Cannon, USA; No Award Presented
1983 No Award Presented Dr. Sally Ride, USA
1984 Senator Barry Goldwater Brooke Knapp, USA
1985 No Award Presented No Award Presented
1986 Chief Warrant Officer Jon Iseminger, USA Jeana Yeager, USA
1987 Allen E. Paulson, USA Lois McCallin, USA
1988 Kanellos Kanellopoulos; Greece Anne Baddour, USA Per Lindstrand
1989 Capt. George A. Hof Jr., USA; Dr. Max E. Shauck, USA Gaby Kennard, Australia
1990 No Award Presented No Award Presented Vladimir Titov and Musa Manarov, both Russia
1991 No Award Presented No Award Presented
1992 No Award Presented No Award Presented
1993 No Award Presented Vance D. Brand, USA
1994 No Award Presented No Award Presented
1995 No Award Presented Eileen M. Collins, USA
1998 No Award Presented Steve Fossett
1999 Don Cameron Dr. Bertrand Piccard; Switzerland; Brian Jones, UK
2000 No Award Presented David Hempleman-Adams
2001 Jennifer Murray, UK (USA) Richard Abruzzo
2002 No Award Presented Steve Fossett
2003 No Award Presented Richard Abruzzo
2004 No Award Presented David Hempleman-Adams
2005 No Award Presented Carol Rymer Davis, Richard Abruzzo
2006 No Award Presented No Award Presented
2007 No Award Presented David Hempleman-Adams
2008 No Award Presented
2009 No Award Presented
2010 No Award Presented
2011 John Petrehn[59]
2012 No Award Presented
2013 No Award Presented
Year Aviator[13] Aviatrix Aeronaut[14] Astronaut

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Harmon International Trophies Origin and Purpose". Personal Collection of Charles E. Rosendahl. University of Texas, Dallas. 
  2. ^ "Clifford B. Harmon to President Herbert Clark Hoover". Hoover Papers, Hoover Library. 1929-11-23. 
  3. ^ "Col.Harmon Dies; Aviation Pioneer; Donor of Aeronautic Trophy a Leader in Modern Technique --Suggested World Force Turned to Ballooning Wanted International Air Force Part in Naval Bombing" (fee required). New York Times. 1945-07-03. p. 13. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  4. ^ "3 Endorse Fund for Air Awards; Harmon Trophy Winners Testify in Fight of Heirs Against Bequest of $55,000" (fee required). New York Times. 1948-04-21. p. 56. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  5. ^ "$48,431 to Harmon Fund; Sum Willed by Air Enthusiast to Maintain Trophy Awards" (fee required). New York Times. 1948-10-27. p. 54. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  6. ^ "RB to Matthew J. Connelly". Truman Papers, Truman Library. 1947-06-14. p. WHCF: OF 1049 357R. 
  7. ^ "Estelle Friedrichs to Matthew J. Connelly". Truman Papers, Truman Library. 1946-12-02. p. WHCF: OF 1049 357R. 
  8. ^ "Matthew J. Connelly to Joseph P. Rowan". Truman Papers, Truman Library. 1949-07-25. p. WHCF: OF 1049 357R. 
  9. ^ "Raphael H. Beauduy to Charles E. Rosendahl". Personal Collection of Charles E. Rosendahl. University of Texas, Dallas. 1962-02-21. 
  10. ^ a b "Edward F. X. Ryan to Mary V. Brosnahan". Personal Collection of Charles E. Rosendahl. University of Texas, Dallas. 1967-08-03. 
  11. ^ a b c "Maj. Gentry Gets Harmon Trophy" (fee required). New York Times. 1969-09-08. p. 82. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  12. ^ "Missing Air Trophy is Returned to U.S." (fee required). New York Times. 1953-11-06. p. 14. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  13. ^ a b Awards from 1926-1952 from Significant American and International Awards in Aviation, Bureau of Aeronautics, Department of the Navy, Revised February 1954
  14. ^ a b Aeronaut awards from 1998 on provided by the National Aeronautic Association's Recent aeronaut list
  15. ^ "Peace Ace". Time. 1927-01-24. Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  16. ^ "Air Mail Ace Wins Harmon 1926 Trophy; Aviation Award to Pilot Short Is for Merit of Consistent Flying Over Spectacular Performances". New York Times. 1927-01-14. Retrieved 2007-02-16. [dead link]
  17. ^ Carl "Ben" Eielson Biography, National Aviation Hall of Fame
  18. ^ a b c The Harmon National Trophy for Australia, Airways Museum Virtual Tour
  19. ^ Time Magazine, March 17, 1930
  20. ^ Aviation Trophy Given to Doolittle; He Receives Harmon Award at Cleveland for His Work in "Blind" Flying, New York Times, April 8, 1931
  21. ^ a b c d General Balbo Wins the Harmon Trophy; Declared 1931 World Aviation Champion -- Ruth Nichols, Pangborn and Herndon Honored, New York Times March 5, 1932
  22. ^ a b c d Amelia Earhart Honored; Receives Award of Harmon Trophy for Transatlantic Flight, New York Times April 15, 1933
  23. ^ a b c d Post and Settle Win Flying Prizes; Gain Harmon International Trophies for 1933 for World and Stratosphere Flights. Mrs. Lindbergh Honored Takes Award as Leading U.S. Aviatrix Last Year -- Rosendahl and Eckener Also Named, New York Times April 22, 1934
  24. ^ a b c d Harmon Air Prize is Won by Scott; Briton Gets the International Award for Best Aviator -- Capt. Lehmann Honored, New York Times March 11, 1935
  25. ^ a b c d World's Air Title is Won by Musick; Veteran Pilot of Pan American Clipper Ships Is Named to Get the Harmon Trophy, New York Times, April 18, 1936
  26. ^ a b c Air Prize for Hughes; Jean Batten Honored; American Cross-Country Flier and New Zealand Girl Get Harmon Trophies, New York Times, March 1, 1937
  27. ^ a b c Merrill, Jean Batten Win Harmon Awards; Aviation Honors American and New Zealander-Hughes and Miss Cochran, Named, New York Times, February 18, 1938
  28. ^ a b c Hughes is Named Aviation Champion; Round-the-World Flier Gets Harmon Trophy--Olds of Army Wins Medal and Diploma, New York Times, March 25, 1939
  29. ^ De Seversky Honored for Plane Advances; Receives Harmon Trophy From President--Sees Air Navies, New York Times, December 20, 1940
  30. ^ Trophy Presented to Miss Cochran; Flier Receives the Clifford Burke Harmon Award From Mrs. Roosevelt, New York Times, November 9, 1940
  31. ^ Harry S. Truman - The President's Day, February 27, 1947
  32. ^ Harry S. Truman - Truman presenting aeronautics award to Alexander de Seversky, June 24, 1947
  33. ^ Ralph S. Damon Honored, New York Times June 24, 1949
  34. ^ "RLK to Matthew J. Connelly". Truman Papers, Truman Library. 1950-03-22. p. WHCF: OF 1049 357R. 
  35. ^ The Harmon Trophy was presented once for the entire decade. Time Magazine, November 13, 1950
  36. ^ a b c Harry S. Truman - The President's Day, November 2, 1950
  37. ^ a b Harmon Prize Won by Col. Schilling; Leading Fighter Pilot in Last War Named World's Top Aviator of 1950, New York Times, July 5, 1951
  38. ^ a b c Airline Pilot Wins Top Harmon Prize; Capt. C. F. Blair Jr. Is Named 'Outstanding Aviator' - Award to Mme. Auriol, New York Times, July 5, 1952
  39. ^ a b c 3 Fliers Selected for Harmon Prizes; Col. Balchen, Jacqueline Auriol and Blimp Test Pilot Named Winners of 1953 {presented in 1953 for 1952} Trophies, New York Times, July 5, 1953
  40. ^ a b c Yeager, Cochran Win Air Trophies; Harmon Judges Pick Major and Aviatrix for Flights Topping Speed of Sound, New York Times, July 5, 1954
  41. ^ a b Harmon Prizes go for 2 Air 'Firsts'; Vertical-Flight Test Pilot and Airship Endurance Captain Are 1955 Winners, New York Times, July 5, 1955
  42. ^ a b c 3 Aviators to get Harmon Trophies; British Test Pilot, French Woman Flier and American Navy Officer Picked, New York Times, August 5, 1956
  43. ^ a b Three Fliers Win Harmon Awards; Honored for Aerial Achievements, New York Times, August 11, 1957
  44. ^ a b LeMay and Navy Blimp Man Get Harmon Air Prize, New York Times, November 13, 1958
  45. ^ Frenchman Cited as Flier of Year, New York Times, December 12, 1959
  46. ^ a b 2 Air Force Pilots Win Harmon Prizes, New York Times, July 3, 1960
  47. ^ John F. Kennedy - Remarks Upon Presenting the Harmon Trophy to Three Test Pilots of the X-15 Rocket Plane, November 28, 1961
  48. ^ a b c President Gives Harmon Trophies; Three Pilots and Widow of Another Get Awards, New York Times, October 19, 1962
  49. ^ a b c d e f Astronaut to get a Harmon Trophy; Cooper Will Be Honored for Orbital Trip in 1963, New York Times, August 2, 1964
  50. ^ Award to Dutch Balloonist Canceled by Harmon Trust, New York Times, September 7, 1964
  51. ^ a b c 2 Named Winners of Harmon Prizes; Max Conrad and Late Mrs. Smith Hailed for Flights, New York Times, August 8, 1965
  52. ^ Astronauts Names for Harmon Award, New York Times, August 7, 1966
  53. ^ a b Harmon Winners for 1967 {presented in 1967 for 1966} are Named, New York Times September 10, 1967
  54. ^ Lyndon B. Johnson, Remarks Upon Presenting the Harmon Trophy to Maj. William J. Knight, USAF, December 3, 1968
  55. ^ a b c d Two R.A.F. Pilots to Share Harmon Aviator's Trophy, New York Times September 7, 1970
  56. ^ a b c 5 Top Pilots Cited, New York Times, September 21, 1973
  57. ^ a b c d Gerald R. Ford - Remarks Upon Presenting the Harmon International Aviation Trophies, May 2, 1975
  58. ^ a b c The Daily Diary of President Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan Library, December 7, 1982
  59. ^ NAA Announces John Petrehn to Receive 2011 Harmon Trophy for Ballooning

External links[edit]