October 9, 1830|
|Died||February 21, 1908(aged 77)|
Harriet Goodhue Hosmer (October 9, 1830 - February 21, 1908) was an American sculptor, now rated as the most distinguished female sculptor in America during the 19th century. Among other technical innovations, she pioneered a process for turning limestone into marble. Hosmer once lived in an expatriate colony in Rome, befriending many prominent writers and artists.
Harriet Hosmer was born at Watertown, Massachusetts, and completed a course of study at Sedgewick School in Lenox, Massachusetts. She was a delicate child, and was encouraged by her father, Hiram Hosmer, a physician, to pursue a course of physical training by which she became expert in rowing, skating, and riding. She traveled alone in the wilderness of the western United States, and visited the Dakota Indians.
She showed an early aptitude for modeling, and studied anatomy with her father. Through the influence of family friend Wayman Crow she would attend the anatomical instruction of Dr. Joseph Nash McDowell at the Missouri Medical College (then the medical department of the state university.) She then studied in Boston and practiced modeling at home until November 1852, when, with her father and her friend Charlotte Cushman, she went to Rome, where from 1853 to 1860 she was the pupil of the Welsh sculptor John Gibson.
While living in Rome, she associated with a colony of artists and writers that included Nathaniel Hawthorne, Thorvaldsen, Thackeray, George Eliot and George Sand; and she was frequently the guest of Elizabeth Barrett and Robert Browning at Casa Guidi, in Florence.
The artists included lesbians Anne Whitney, Emma Stebbins, Edmonia Lewis and non-lesbians Louisa Lander, Margaret Foley, Florence Freeman, and Vinnie Ream. Hawthorne was clearly describing these in his novel The Marble Faun, causing Henry James to dismiss them as "The White Marmorean Flock". As Hosmer is now considered the most famous female sculptor of her time in America, she is credited with having 'led the flock' of other female sculptors.
She was devoted for 25 years to Lady Ashburton, widow of Bingham Baring, 2nd Baron Ashburton (died 1864). Lady Ashburton was born Louisa Caroline Stewart-Mackenzie, youngest daughter of James Alexander Stewart-Mackenzie, and had one daughter, the Hon. Mary Florence ("Maisie"), born 1860 in London.
She also designed and constructed machinery, and devised new processes, especially in connection with sculpture, such as a method of converting the ordinary limestone of Italy into marble, and a process of modeling in which the rough shape of a statue is first made in plaster, on which a coating of wax is laid for working out the finer forms.
Hosmer died at Watertown, Massachusetts, on February 21, 1908.
Hosmer made both large and small scale works and also produced work to specific order. Her smaller works were frequently issued in multiples to accommodate demand. Among her most popular were 'Beatrice Cenci', which exists in several versions.
- Hesper, The Evening Star, her first original sculpture (1852)
- Doctor McDowell, a portrait of a man who had a great impact on Hosmer's professional life (1852)
- The Clasped Hands of Robert Browning and Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1853)
- Daphne and Medusa, ideal heads (1853)
- Puck (1855), a spirited and graceful conception which she copied for the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Hamilton and others
- Oenone (1855), her first life-sized figure, now in the Saint Louis Art Museum
- Will-O-The-Wisp, three known variations (1856, 1858, 1864)
- Beatrice Cenci (1857), for the St. Louis Mercantile Library
- Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra (1857), Art Institute of Chicago
- Lady Constance Talbot, "the only known Hosmer medallion that is a bas relief portrait of a woman" (1857)
- Tomb of Judith Faconnet, the first American-made artwork that is now permanently installed in Sant'Andrea della Fratte (1857 - 1858)
- The Fountain of the Hylas and the Water Nymphs (1858)
- Zenobia (1859), owned by the St. Louis Art Museum in St. Louis, Missouri
- The Fountain of the Siren, her most well known fountain design (1861)
- Thomas Hart Benton, the first public monument in the state of Missouri (1862)
- Gate for an Art Gallery (1864)
- A Sleeping Faun (1865) is now being displayed at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Another version is in Iveagh House, Dublin, see Homan Potterton, 'An American Sculpture at the Dublin Exhibition of 1865: Hariet Hosmer's Sleeping Faun', The Arts in Ireland Autumn 1973.
- Portrait of Wayman Crow (1866), John Gibson (1866)
- A Waking Faun; a bronze statue of Thomas H. Benton (1866 - 1867) for Lafayette Park, St. Louis. It was created as a companion to "The Sleeping Faun".
- Lincoln Memorial, sometimes known as "Freedmen's Monument" (1867 - 1868)
- Queen of Naples, "the second of the three full size statues of celebrated female sovereigns Hosmer chose to represent over the course of her career"  (1868)
- Sentinel of Pompeii (1878)
- Crerar Lincoln Memorial - The African Sibyl, made in attempt to win a Lincoln Memorial competition (1888 - 1896)
- Bronze gates for the Earl of Brownlow's art gallery at Ashridge Hall]].
- The Staghound, commissioned by the Empress of Austria
- Dolphin Fountain (1892), the male companion to Hosmer's The Mermaid's Cradle, Hosmer's only remaining complete fountain (1892 - 1893)
- Queen Isabella of Castile, Hosmer's last known completed work that was commissioned by the Daughters of Isabella (1893)
- An alternate Emancipation Memorial—designed but not constructed
- Statues of the queen of Naples as the heroine of Gaeta, and of Queen Isabella of Spain for the Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893.
A book of poetry, Waking Stone: Inventions on the Life Of Harriet Hosmer, by Carole Simmons Oles, was published in 2006.
Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, 1857, Art Institute of Chicago
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hosmer, Harriet Goodhue". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Culkin, Kate. Harriet Hosmer: A Cultural Biography. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2010.
- Harriet Hosmer: One of the First Women Artists in the United States
- Harriet Goodhue Hosmer, Encyclopædia Britannica
- Harriet Hosmer and the Triumph over Captivity
- "History". Lenox, MA. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John, eds. (1892). "Hosmer, Harriet". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.
- MacLean, Maggie. "Harriet Hosmer: One of the First Women Artists in the United States". CIvil War Women. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- Hosmer, Harriet Goodhue (1912). Harriet Hosmer letters and memories. New York: Moffat, Yard and Company. p. 8.
- Williams, Carla (2002). "Whitney, Anne". glbtq.com. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- Cronin, Patricia. Harriet Hosmer • Lost and Found.
- Dolly Sherwood, Harriet Hosmer, University of Missouri Press, pp.102-3; 270-3.
- Sherwood, Dolly, ‘’Harriet Hosmer, American Sculptor: 1830-1908’’ University of Missouri Press, Columbia MO, 1991 p. 31
- "Beatrice Cenci, (1857) by Harriet Hosmer :: The Collection :: Art Gallery NSW". nsw.gov.au. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
- "Puck on a toadstool, (circa 1856) by Harriet Hosmer :: The Collection :: Art Gallery NSW". nsw.gov.au. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
- Williams, Janette (March 6, 2008). "Gift helps Huntington acquire American art". Pasadena Star-News.
- Cronin, Patricia. Harriet Hosmer - Lost and Found.
- Maclean, Maggie. "Harriet Hosmer: One of the First Women Artists in the United States". Civil War Women. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Harriet Goodhue Hosmer". Encyclopedia Britanica. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- "Harriet Hosmer and the Triumph over Captivity". Radford University. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- Charles Colbert. Harriet Hosmer and Spiritualism. American Art, Vol. 10, No. 3 (Autumn, 1996), pp. 28–49
- Patricia Cronin, preface by Maura Reilly and an essay by William H. Gerdts. (2009). Harriet Hosmer: Lost and Found, A Catalogue Raisonné. Milan: Edizioni Charta. ISBN 9788881587322.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Harriet Goodhue Hosmer.|
- The Winterthur Library Overview of an archival collection on Harriet Hosmer.
- Hosmer, Harriet; Carr, Cornelia. Harriet Hosmer letters and memories (1913) (Internet Archives).
- Artcyclopedia entry for Harriet Hosmer
- Harriet Goodhue Hosmer, 1830-1908. A Finding Aid. Watertown Free Public Library, Watertown, MA 2008
- Entry for Harriet Hosmer in the Union List of Artist Names
- Papers, 1834-1959. Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University.