Harrison County, Texas
|Harrison County, Texas|
Harrison County Courthouse in Marshall, Texas
Location in the state of Texas
Texas's location in the U.S.
|Named for||Jonas Harrison|
|• Total||916 sq mi (2,372 km2)|
|• Land||900 sq mi (2,331 km2)|
|• Water||16 sq mi (41 km2), 1.7%|
|• Density||70/sq mi (27/km²)|
|Time zone||Central: UTC-6/-5|
Harrison County is a county of the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 65,631. The county seat is Marshall. It is named for Jonas Harrison, a lawyer and Texas revolutionary. It is located in the Ark-La-Tex region.
American settlement began in present-day Harrison County during the 1830s. In 1835, the Mexican authorities granted a dozen land grants to Americans. After the Texas Revolution, the Congress of the Texas Republic established Harrison County, formed from Shelby County, in 1839. Harrison County was named for Texas Revolutionary Jonas Harrison. The county was organized in 1842. The county's area was reduced in 1846, following the establishment of Panola and Upshur Counties. Marshall was established in 1841, and became the county seat in 1842.
The area was settled by predominately by natives from the Southern United States, who brought the slave-holding cotton-plantation society with them. By 1850, the county had more slaves than any other county in Texas until the end of the Civil War. The census of 1860 counted 8,746 slaves, 59% of the county's population.
In 1861, the county's voters overwhelmingly supported secession. Defeat at the end of the war brought Reconstruction. The white minority bitterly resented federal authority and the Republican party county government that continued even after the Democratic party gained control of the state government in 1874. In 1878, the Citizen's Party of Harrison County, amid charges of fraud and coercion, gained firm control of the county government after winning on a technicality involving the placement of a key ballot box. In 1951, Harrison County's Jim Crow laws were struck down with the Perry v. Cyphers decision.
From 1880 to 1930, Harrison County remained primarily agricultural and rural. The county maintained its black majority through these years. In the 1870s the county's non-agricultural sector increased when the Texas and Pacific Railway located its headquarters and shops in Marshall. In 1928, oil was discovered in the county, and made a significant contribution to the economy.
The Great Depression of the 1930s hit the county hard, decimating the agricultural sector. World War II brought an end to the depression, but brought a significant emigration of blacks from the county. The population of the county declined until 1980, when the trend reversed, and the white population increases put whites in the majority.
- Marion County (north)
- Caddo Parish, Louisiana (east)
- Panola County (south)
- Rusk County (southwest)
- Gregg County (west)
- Upshur County (northwest)
National protected area
As of the census of 2000, there were 62,110 people, 23,087 households, and 16,945 families residing in the county. The population density was 69 people per square mile (27/km²). There were 26,271 housing units at an average density of 29 per square mile (11/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 71.35% White, 24.03% Black or African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2.86% from other races, and 1.06% from two or more races. 5.34% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 23,087 households out of which 34.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.00% were married couples living together, 13.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.60% were non-families. 23.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.09.
In the county, the population was spread out with 26.80% under the age of 18, 10.00% from 18 to 24, 27.10% from 25 to 44, 23.00% from 45 to 64, and 13.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 94.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.90 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $33,520, and the median income for a family was $41,112. Males had a median income of $32,451 versus $20,913 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,702. 16.70% of the population and 12.90% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 21.80% of those under the age of 18 and 14.60% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.
The following school districts serve Harrison County:
- Elysian Fields ISD (partly in Panola County)
- Hallsville ISD
- Harleton ISD
- Marshall ISD
- Longview ISD (mostly in Gregg County)
- New Diana ISD (mostly in Upshur County)
- Ore City ISD (mostly in Upshur County, small portion in Marion County)
- Waskom ISD
- Karnack ISD
- Elysian Fields (unincorporated)
- Gill (unincorporated)
- Harleton (unincorporated)
- Jonesville (unincorporated)
- Karnack (unincorporated)
- Latex (unincorporated)
- Longview (partially in county)
- Nesbitt (unincorporated)
- Woodlawn (unincorporated)
- List of museums in East Texas
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Harrison County, Texas
- Campbell, Randolph B. "Harrison County - The Handbook of Texas Online". Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 17, 2013.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved December 17, 2013.
- Texas Almanac: County Population History 1850-2010 Retrieved December 17, 2013
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
- TxDoT, TTC Section E, Detailed Map 1, 2007-12-21
- TxDoT, TTC Section F, Detailed Map 2, 2007-12-28
- Harrison County government's website
- Harrison County from the Handbook of Texas Online
- Historic materials about Harrison County, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
||Upshur County||Marion County|
|Gregg County||Caddo Parish, Louisiana|
|Rusk County||Panola County|