||It has been suggested that portions of this article be moved into The Flashman Papers. (Discuss)|
||This article may be written from a fan's point of view, rather than a neutral point of view. (October 2011)|
Sir Harry Paget Flashman VC KCB KCIE is a fictional character created by George MacDonald Fraser (1925–2008), but based on the character "Flashman" in Tom Brown's School Days (1857), a semi-autobiographical work by Thomas Hughes (1822–1896). The character appears in a series of twelve books, collectively known as The Flashman Papers.
In Hughes' book, Flashman (a relatively minor character) is a notorious bully at Rugby School who persecutes Tom Brown, and who is finally expelled for drunkenness. Fraser decided to write Flashman's memoirs, in which the school bully would be identified with an "illustrious Victorian soldier": experiencing many 19th-century wars and adventures and rising to high rank in the British Army, acclaimed as a great soldier, while remaining by his unapologetic self-description "a scoundrel, a liar, a cheat, a thief, a coward—and oh yes, a toady." Fraser's Flashman is an antihero who runs from danger or hides cowering in fear, betrays or abandons acquaintances at the slightest incentive, bullies and beats servants with gusto, beds every available woman, carries off any loot he can grab, and gambles and boozes enthusiastically. Nevertheless, through a combination of luck and cunning, he usually ends each volume acclaimed as a hero.
Flashman's origins 
Fraser gave Flashman a lifespan from 1822 to 1915 and a birth-date of 5 May. Flashman's first and middle names were created for the character as Flashman's first name is not given in Hughes's novel. Fraser uses them to make an ironic allusion to Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey, and one of the heroes of Waterloo, who cuckolded the Duke of Wellington's brother Henry Wellesley and later - in one of the period's more celebrated scandals - married Wellesley's ex-wife.
In Flashman, Flashman says that the family fortune was made by his great-grandfather, Jack Flashman, in America trading in rum, slaves and "piracy too, I shouldn't wonder." Despite their wealth, the Flashmans "were never the thing": Flashman quotes the diarist Henry Greville's comment that "the coarse streak showed through, generation after generation, like dung beneath a rosebush." His father, Henry Buckley Flashman, appears in Black Ajax (1997). Buckley, a bold young officer in the British cavalry, was wounded in action at Talavera in 1809. He then tried to get into "society" by sponsoring bare-knuckle boxer Tom Molineaux (the first black man to contend for a championship) and subsequently married Flashman's mother Lady Alicia Paget, a fictional relation of the real Marquess of Anglesey. Buckley also served as a Member of Parliament but was "sent to the knacker's yard at Reform". Beside politics, his interests were drinking, fox hunting (riding to hounds) and women.
Style and layout of the stories 
The series is a classic use of false documents. In a preface to the first book, Fraser described the discovery of General Flashman's memoirs in an antique tea-chest in a Leicestershire saleroom in 1965. As the "editor" of the papers, Fraser produced a series of historical novels that give a largely picaresque (or arguably cynical) description of British and American history during the 19th century. Dozens of major and minor figures from history appear in the books, often in inglorious or hypocritical roles. Characters from other fictional works appear occasionally, notably Sherlock Holmes and some of the boys from Tom Brown's Schooldays.
Fraser's research was considerable. The books are heavily annotated, with end notes and appendices, as Fraser (in accordance with the pretence of the memoirs) attempts to "confirm" (and in some cases "correct") the elderly Flashman's recollections of events. In many cases, the footnotes serve to inform the reader that a particularly outlandish character really existed or that an unlikely event actually occurred.
In outline there are some similarities to Thomas Berger's 1964 novel Little Big Man, in which a 121-year-old man recounts his numerous adventures and escapades in the American Old West. William Thackeray's The Luck of Barry Lyndon made similar use of an unreliable first-person narrator and footnotes, with Thackeray using them to cast doubt on the protagonist's version of events. Another influence might be Mark Twain's short story Luck, about an illustrious British general who was actually a blundering fool, but whose mistakes in the Crimean War always ended in success.
The Brigadier Gerard series of comic short stories by the British writer Arthur Conan Doyle were also a major inspiration for the Flashman novels (George MacDonald Fraser even writing the introduction in the 2001 collection of Gerard short stories).
The half-scholarly tone has occasionally led to misunderstandings. When the first book, Flashman, was published in the United States, ten of 34 reviews took it to be an obscure but real memoir. Several of these were written by academics – to the delight of The New York Times, which published a selection of the more trusting reviews.
For the American publication, Fraser created a fictional entry for Flashman in the 1909 edition of Who's Who. The entry lists Flashman's laurels: VC, KCB, KCIE; Chevalier of the Légion d'Honneur; U.S. Medal of Honor; San Serafino Order of Purity and Truth, 4th Class. The entry also summarizes his military career, both in the British army and as a wandering adventurer. It notes encounters with the "White Rajah" of Sarawak, with Queen Ranavalona of Madagascar, and with Emperor Maximilian of Mexico; and service as a Union major and as a Confederate colonel during the American Civil War. (Allusions in Flash For Freedom and Flashman and the Redskins indicate that he did indeed fight on both sides in the war, but that it was part of some elaborate and dangerous intrigue instigated by Abraham Lincoln.)
Flashman the man 
Flashman is a large man, six feet two inches (1.88 m) tall and close to 13 stone (about 180 pounds or 82 kg). In Flashman and the Tiger, he mentions that one of his grandchildren has black hair and eyes, resembling him in his younger years. His dark colouring frequently enabled him to pass (in disguise) for a Pashtun. He claims only three natural talents: horsemanship, facility with foreign languages, and fornication. He becomes an expert cricket-bowler, but only through hard effort (he needed sporting credit at Rugby School, and feared to play rugby football). He can also display a winning personality when he wants to, and is very skilled at flattering those more important than himself without appearing servile.
As he admits in the Papers, Flashman is a coward, who will flee from danger if there was any way to do so, and on some occasions collapsed in funk. He has one great advantage in concealing this weakness: when he is frightened, his face turns red, rather than white, so that observers think he is excited, enraged, or exuberant - as a hero ought to be.
After his expulsion from Rugby School for drunkenness, the young Flashman looks for an easy life. He has his wealthy father buy him an officer's commission in the fashionable 11th Regiment of Light Dragoons. The 11th, commanded by Lord Cardigan, later involved in the Charge of the Light Brigade, has just returned from India and are not likely to be posted abroad soon. Flashman throws himself into the social life that the 11th offered and becomes a leading light of Canterbury society.
A duel with another officer over a French courtesan leads to his being temporarily stationed in Scotland. There he meets and deflowers Elspeth Morrison, daughter of a wealthy textile manufacturer, whom he has to marry in a "shotgun wedding". But marriage to the daughter of a mere businessman forces his resignation from the snobbish 11th Lights. He is sent to India to make a career in the army of the East India Company. Unfortunately, his language talent and his habit of flattery bring him to the attention of the Governor-General. The Governor does him the (very much unwanted) favour of assigning him as aide to General Elphinstone in Afghanistan. Flashman survives the ensuing debacle by a mixture of sheer luck and unstinting cowardice. He becomes an unwitting hero: the defender of Piper's Fort, where he is the only surviving white man, and is found by the relieving troops clutching the flag and surrounded by enemy dead. Of course, Flashman had arrived at the Fort by accident, collapsed in terror rather than fighting, been forced to stand and show fight by his subordinate, and is 'rumbled' for a complete coward. He had been trying to surrender the colours, not defend them. Happily for him, all inconvenient witnesses had been killed.
This incident sets the tone for Flashman's life. Over the following 60 years or so, he is involved in many of the major military conflicts of the 19th century — always in spite of his best efforts to evade his duty. He is often selected for especially dangerous jobs because of his heroic reputation. He meets many famous people, and survives some of the worst military disasters (the First Anglo-Afghan War, Charge of the Light Brigade, the Siege of Cawnpore, Battle of the Little Bighorn, Battle of Isandlwana), always coming out with more heroic laurels. The date of his last adventures seems to have been around 1900. He dies in 1915.
Despite his admitted cowardice, Flashman is a dab hand at fighting when he has to. Though he dodges danger as much as he can, and runs away when no one is watching, after the Piper's Fort incident, he usually controls his fear and often performs bravely. Almost every book contains one or more incidents where Flashman has to fight or perform some other daring action, and holds up long enough to complete it. For instance, he is ordered to accompany the Light Brigade on its famous charge, and rides all the way to the Russian guns. However most of these acts of 'bravery' are performed only when he has absolutely no choice, and to do anything else would result in his being exposed as a coward and losing his respected status in society, or being shot for desertion. When he can act like a coward with impunity, he invariably does.
Flashman surrenders to fear in front of witnesses only a few times, and is never caught out again. During the siege of Piper's Fort, in the first novel, Flashman cowers weeping in his bed at the start of the final assault; the only witness to this dies before relief comes. He breaks down while accompanying Rajah Brooke during a battle with pirates, but the noise drowns out his blubbering, and he recovers enough to command a storming party of sailors (placing himself right in the middle of the party, to avoid stray bullets). After the Charge of the Light Brigade, he flees in panic from the fighting in the battery - but mistakenly charges into an entire Russian regiment, adding to his heroic image.
Volumes of The Flashman Papers 
Chronology of the character 
Fraser did not write his works on Flashman in chronological order, to trace the character's chronology one would have to read the stories in the following order:
- Flashman: 1839–1842. the First Anglo-Afghan War.
- Flashman's Lady: 1843–1845. Borneo, Madagascar.
- Flashman and the Mountain of Light: 1845–46. The First Anglo-Sikh War.
- Royal Flash: 1847–1848. the Revolutions of 1848.
- Flash for Freedom!: 1848–1849. The Atlantic slave trade; the Underground Railroad.
- Flashman and the Redskins Part I: 1849–1850, The Wild West: the Forty-Niners,
- Flashman at the Charge: 1854–1855. The Crimean War; the Charge of the Light Brigade.
- Flashman in the Great Game: 1856–1858. The Indian Mutiny.
- Flashman and the Angel of the Lord: 1858–1859. the Harper's Ferry Raid.
- Flashman and the Dragon: 1860. the Peking Expedition.
- Flashman on the March: 1868. British invasion of Abyssinia to rescue hostages.
- Flashman and the Redskins Part II: 1875–1876. the Battle of the Little Bighorn.
- Flashman and the Tiger
Flashman's women 
Flashman, an insatiable lecher, had great success with women. His size, good looks, winning manner, and especially his splendid cavalry-style whiskers won over many women, from low to high, including many famous women. He also frequently bought the services of prostitutes. In Flashman and the Great Game, about halfway through his life, he counted up his sexual conquests while languishing in a dungeon at Gwalior, "not counting return engagements", reaching a total of 478 up to that date. He was not above forcing himself on a partner by blackmail (e.g. the Russian countess in Flashman and the Dragon), but only once committed an actual rape (on Narreeman, in Flashman). He was a vigorous and exciting (if sometimes selfish and rapacious) lover, and some of his partners became quite fond of him - though by his own admission, others tried to kill him afterwards. The most memorable of these was Cleonie, a prostitute Flashman sold into slavery in Flashman and the Redskins. Passages in Royal Flash, Flashman and the Dragon, Flashman and the Redskins, and Flashman and the Angel of the Lord suggest that Flashman was "well-hung".
Flashman's stories are dominated by his numerous amorous encounters. Several of them are with prominent historical personages. These women are sometimes window dressing, sometimes pivotal characters in the unpredictable twists and turns of the books. Historical women Flashman bedded included:
- Jind Kaur, Dowager Maharani of Punjab (Flashman and the Mountain of Light).
- Lillie Langtry, actress and mistress of Edward VII (Flashman and the Tiger)
- Mangla, maid and confidant to Jind Kaur.
- Masteeat, Queen of the Wollo Gallas (Flashman on the March).
- Lola Montez (Marie Dolores Eliza Rosanna Gilbert James) (Royal Flash).
- Queen Ranavalona I of Madagascar (Flashman's Lady).
- The Silk One (aka Ko Dali's daughter), consort of Yakub Beg (Flashman at the Charge).
- Yehonala, Imperial Chinese concubine, later the Empress Dowager Cixi (Flashman and the Dragon).
He also lusted after (but never bedded):
- Fanny Duberly, a famous army wife.
- Angela Burdett-Coutts, who became the richest woman in England in her twenties. She nearly dislocated his thumb repelling a friendly grope at a house-party. (Flashman's Lady)
- Lakshmibai, Dowager Rani of Jhansi (Flashman in the Great Game) (a dancing girl may have taken the rani's place)
His fictional amours included:
- An-yat-heh, an undercover agent of Harry Smith Parkes (Flashman and the Dragon).
- Aphrodite, one of Miss Susie's "gels" (Flashman and the Redskins).
- Cassy, an escaped slave who accompanied Flashman up the Mississippi (Flash for Freedom!).
- Elspeth Rennie Morrison, his wife.
- Fetnab, a dancing girl Flashy bought in Calcutta (Flashman).
- Lady Geraldine.
- Gertrude, niece of Admiral Tegetthoff (Flashman on the March).
- Cleonie Grouard (aka Mrs Arthur B. Candy), one of "Miss Susie's gels" (Flashman and the Redskins).
- Irma, Grand Duchess of Strackenz (Royal Flash).
- Josette, mistress of Captain Bernier of the 11th Light Dragoons (Flashman).
- Mrs Leo Lade, mistress of a violently jealous duke (Flashman's Lady).
- "Lady Caroline Lamb", a slave on board the slaver Balliol College (Flash for Freedom!).
- Mrs Leslie, an unattached woman in the Meerut garrison (Flashman in the Great Game).
- Mrs Madison (Flashman and the Mountain of Light).
- Malee, a servant of Uliba-Wark (Flashman on the March).
- Mrs Mandeville, a Mississippi planter's wife (Flash for Freedom! and again in Flashman and the Angel of the Lord).
- Mrs Betty Parker (Flashman; unconsummated).
- Judy Parsons, his father's mistress (Flashman).
- Baroness Pechmann, a Bavarian noblewoman (Royal Flash).
- Penny/Jenny, a steamboat girl (Flash for Freedom!).
- Lady Plunkett, wife of a colonial judge (not quite consummated: Flashman and the Angel of the Lord).
- Mrs Popplewell, agent of a Southern slaveholders' conspiracy (Flashman and the Angel of the Lord).
- Sara (Aunt Sara), sister-in-law of Count Pencherjevsky (Flashman at the Charge).
- Sonsee-Array (Takes-Away-Clouds-Woman), an Apache savage 'princess', daughter of Mangas Coloradas (Flashman and the Redskins).
- Miranda Spring, daughter of John Charity Spring (Flashman and the Angel of the Lord).
- Szu-Zhan, a six-foot-eight Chinese bandit leader (Flashman and the Dragon).
- Uliba-Wark, an Abyssinian chieftainess and warrior (Flashman on the March).
- Valentina (Valla), daughter of Count Pencherjevsky (Flashman at the Charge).
- White Tigress and Honey-and-Milk, two concubines of the Chinese merchant Whampoa (Flashman's Lady).
- Susie Willinck (aka "Miss Susie"), New Orleans madam (Flash for Freedom! and Flashman and the Redskins).
The one woman he raped was Narreeman, an Afghan dancing girl (Flashman).
He had a special penchant for royal ladies, and noted that his favourite amours (apart from his wife) were Lakshmibai, Ci Xi and Lola Montez: "a Queen, an Empress, and the foremost courtesan of her time: I dare say I'm just a snob." He also noted that, while civilized women were more than ordinarily partial to him, his most ardent admirers were among the savage of the species: "Elspeth, of course, is Scottish." And for all his raking, it was always Elspeth to whom he returned and who remained ultimately top of the list.
His lechery was so strong that it broke out even in the midst of rather hectic circumstances. While accompanying Thomas Kavanaugh on his daring escape from Lucknow, he paused for a quick rattle with a local prostitute, and during the battle of Patusan, he found himself galloping one of Sharif Sahib's concubines without even realizing it.
A script for a Flashman film adaptation was written by Frank Muir in 1969, to star John Alderton, and is mentioned in his autobiography A Kentish Lad. A film version of Royal Flash was released in 1975. It was directed by Richard Lester and starred Malcolm McDowell as Flashman, Oliver Reed as Otto von Bismarck and Alan Bates as Rudi von Sternberg.
Sobered by his experience with Lester, Fraser said that further film adaptations of the Flashman books have not been made because he "will not let anyone else have control of the script ... and that simply does not happen in Hollywood." He also pointed to a lack of a suitable British actor to portray Flashman; Errol Flynn was always his favourite for the role (although Flynn was Australian): "It wasn't just his looks and his style. He had that shifty quality." The suggestion of Daniel Day-Lewis struck a chord with him and he said that although "He's probably getting on a bit," he "might make a Flashman ... He's big, he's got presence and he's got style."
In 2007 Celtic Films indicated on their website that they had a series of Flashman TV films in development. In 2010 Picture Palace announced they were developing Flashman at the Charge for TV and that the script had been prepared by George Macdonald Fraser himself. Both companies took an extensive role in developing Bernard Cornwell's Sharpe (TV series). No further news has been forthcoming since this time and the project has been removed from both companies' websites.
Playwright Patrick Rayner produced the radio play adaptation Flash for Freedom which was broadcast in 2002 and again in 2008 on BBC Radio 4. In it the older Flashman was played by Joss Ackland and the young Flashman was played by Rhys Meredith. This was followed by a radio dramatisation of Flashman At The Charge in 2005, with Ackland reprising the older Flashman and Angus Wright as the younger Flashman.
All of the novels are available as unabridged audiobooks read by David Case, with alternative versions of most being available read by either Timothy West or Jonathan Keeble.
- In 2012 Norlights published SCOUNDREL! The Secret Memoirs of General James Wilkinson by Keith Thompson, to mostly positive reviews. The book was advertised as "The American Flashman", and purports to be the memoirs of real-life scoundrel James Wilkinson, who, the author claims, could have been Flashman's role-model. The author had written a Flashman screenplay and two audio adaptations, had corresponded with George MacDonald Fraser, and the novel is written very much in the Flashman style.
- Writer Keith Laidler gave the Flashman story a new twist in The Carton Chronicles by revealing that Flashman is the natural son of Sydney Carton, hero of the Charles Dickens classic, A Tale of Two Cities. Laidler has Sydney Carton changing his mind at the foot of the guillotine, escaping the axe and making a wayward and amorous progress through the terrors of the French Revolution, during which time he spies for both the British and French, causes Danton's death, shoots Robespierre, and reminisces on a liaison among the hayricks at the "Leicestershire pile" of a married noblewoman, who subsequently gave birth to a boychild—Flashman—on 5 May 1822.
- American military historian Raymond M. Saunders created an homage to the Flashman persona in a series of Fenwick Travers novels, set among the US military adventures in the Indian wars, Spanish-American war in Cuba, Boxer Rebellion in China, piracy and Muslim rebellion in the Philippines, and the creation of the Panama Canal. These novels never received the popularity or acclaim of the original Flashman.
- Peter Bowen's four-book series based on the exploits of Luther Sage "Yellowstone" Kelly is clearly influenced by Flashman. Basing his series loosely on the career of an actual frontier scout, Bowen presents Kelly as a womanizer, heavy drinker, and something of a coward. Like Flashman, Kelly is a victim of his own legend, and is often dragged into exploits against his will by actual historical personages such as U. S. Grant, Buffalo Bill Cody, and Theodore Roosevelt. Eventually he is forced to behave heroically, at times even nobly. Although the novels have a decided comic edge, there is an element of dark tragedy in them, often related to the despoiling of frontiers and the subjugation of native peoples. The books include Yellowstone Kelly: Gentleman and Scout (1987), Kelly Blue (1991), Imperial Kelly (1992), and Kelly and The Three-Toed Horse (2001).
- Sandy Mitchell's Warhammer 40,000 character Commissar Ciaphas Cain is partially inspired by Flashman.
- Eric Nicol's Dickens of the Mounted, a fictional biography of Francis Jeffrey Dickens, the real life third son of novelist Charles Dickens who joined the North-West Mounted Police in 1874, has an alternate and less than flattering take on Flashman—the book itself is something of an homage to the Flashman series.
- Adrienne Mayor's The Poison King: The Life and Legend of Mithradates, Rome's Deadliest Enemy (Princeton University Press 2010), p 420 note 29, dispels the rumour that Harry Paget Flashman had discovered the "true grave" of Mithradates VI of Pontus while in the Crimea 1854–55.
- In comics, writer John Ostrander took Flashman as his model for his portrayal of the cowardly villain Captain Boomerang in the Suicide Squad series. In the letters page to the last issue in the series (#66), Ostrander acknowledges this influence directly. Flashman's success with the ladies is noticeably lacking in the Captain Boomerang character.
- In Kim Newman's alternate history novel The Bloody Red Baron (part of the Anno Dracula series), Flashman is cited as an example of a dishonourable officer in a character's internal monologue. In the later novella Aquarius (set in 1968, one year before the first volume of the Flashman Papers was published), it is mentioned that the fictional St Bartolph's College at the University of London had previously been home to the Harry Paget Flashman Refectory, until its recent renaming to Che Guevara Hall in an attempt to pacify campus activists.
- Flashman's portrait (unnamed, but with unmistakable background and characteristics) hangs in the home of the protagonist of The Peshawar Lancers, an alternate history novel by S. M. Stirling: the family claims to have had an ancestor who held Piper's Fort, as Flashman did; the protagonist claims his sole talents are for horsemanship and languages and has an Afghan in his service named "Ibrahim Khan" (cf. Ilderim Khan); late in the book, he plays with Elias the Jew on a "black jade chess set" matching the description of the one Flashman stole from the Summer Palace in Flashman and the Dragon; the book's chief antagonist is named Ignatieff. Another allusion to Flashman by Stirling occurs in his short story "The Charge of Lee's Brigade", which appeared in the alternate-history anthology Alternate Generals (1998, ed. by Harry Turtledove). Here, Sir Robert E. Lee is a British general in the Crimean War who orders an officer, obviously Flashman (Cherrypicker trousers, rides like a Comanche in battle), to take part in a better-planned Charge of the Light Brigade. Flashman dies in the attack, demonstrating some courage despite what Lee perceives only as nervousness. So, in this version Flashman again ends up a hero. But—as he himself would have been quick to point out—he is a dead hero.
- Terry Pratchett is a fan of the Flashman series and the Discworld character Rincewind is an inveterate coward with a talent for languages who is always running away from danger, but nevertheless through circumstance emerges with the appearance of an unlikely hero, for which reason he is then selected for further dangerous enterprises. In this he strongly resembles Flashman, although he is totally dissimilar in most other aspects. The Discworld novel Pyramids has a character named Fliemoe, the bully at the Ankh-Morpork Assassins' Guild school, who is a parody of the original version of Flashman from Tom Brown's Schooldays (including "toasting" new boys). In the Assassins' Guild Yearbook and Diary, Fliemoe is described as having grown up to be "an unbelievable liar and an unsuccessful bully". His name is a play on that of Flashman's crony Speedicut—both "Speedicut" and "Flymo" are brand names of British lawn mowers.
- In Bernard Cornwell's novel about 9th-century England during the reign of Alfred The Great, The Pale Horseman—which is dedicated to George MacDonald Fraser—the character of Prince Æthelwold (who actually existed, was Alfred's younger nephew and rightful heir to the throne of Wessex) is described as tall, handsome, looking like a warrior king, but also addicted to fornication and drink, duplicitous, amoral and a cowardly shirker in a fight, usually trying to get as far from the bloodshed as possible. Æthelwold is also a brilliant actor when it suits him. In spite of being aware of these faults the main protagonist, Uhtred of Bebbanbergh, finds him likable and good company and saves his skin more than once.
- An editorial piece in the 14 May 2011 edition of The Guardian newspaper on the subject of British Prime Minister David Cameron being labelled a "Flashman" was given a Harry Flashman by-line and was written in the style of Flashman's narrative.
- Flashman's son, Harry II, is used as a character in some of the short stories created for the "Tales of the Shadowmen" series. He first appeared in the eighth volume. His son has several of the characteristics of his father, but appears to be less a coward.
Historical characters referenced in the Flashman novels 
The Flashman books are littered with references to a vast number of notable historical figures. Although many have but a brief mention, some feature prominently and are portrayed "warts-and-all". They include the following:
- Thomas Hughes, Thomas Arnold, Lord Cardigan, Lord Auckland, Sir Robert Henry Sale, Paolo Di Avitabile, Willoughby Cotton, Alexander Burnes, Sher Afzul, General John Nicholson, William Hay Macnaghten, General Elphinstone, Akbar Khan, William Nott, Henry Havelock, Duke of Wellington, Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, Thomas Babington Macaulay
- Royal Flash
- Flash for Freedom!
- Flashman at the Charge
- Prince Albert, Lord Raglan, Lord Cardigan, Lord Palmerston, George Brown, Jacques Leroy de Saint Arnaud, William Howard Russell, Louis Edward Nolan, George de Lacy Evans, François Certain Canrobert, Richard Airey, Lord Lucan, Sir Colin Campbell, James Yorke Scarlett, Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev, Tsar Nicholas I, Yakub Beg
- Flashman in the Great Game
- Lord Cardigan, Florence Nightingale, Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, Lord Palmerston, Lord Ellenborough, Charles Wood, Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev, General John Nicholson, Rani Lakshmi Bai, Nana Sahib, Tantya Tope, Azimullah Khan, Henry Havelock, James Outram, Thomas Henry Kavanagh, Robert Napier, Colin Campbell, Sam Browne, William Howard Russell, Fred Roberts, William Stephen Raikes Hodson, Hugh Rose, Harry Hammon Lyster, Clement Walker Heneage, James Hope Grant, Lord Canning, Thomas Hughes
- Flashman's Lady
- Flashman and the Redskins
- Helen Hunt Jackson, Jim Bridger, Alexander MacKenzie, Spotted Tail, Charley Reynolds, William Bent, Ceran St. Vrain, John Joel Glanton, Mangas Coloradas, Geronimo, Kit Carson, Philip Sheridan, William Tecumseh Sherman, John Pope, George Crook, Crazy Horse, Ulysses S. Grant, William B. Allison, Alfred Terry, Red Cloud, Hamilton Fish, George Armstrong Custer, Elizabeth Bacon Custer, Thomas Custer, Boston Custer, Lawrence Barrett, Sitting Bull, William W. Belknap, Rufus Ingalls, Marcus Reno, Frederick Benteen, Myles Keogh, James Calhoun, Henry Armstrong Reed, John Gibbon, George Yates, Chief Gall, Wild Bill Hickock, Frank Grouard, Richens Lacey Wootton
- Flashman and the Dragon
- James Hope Grant, Richard Cobden, Lord Palmerston, Frederick Townsend Ward, Hong Xiuquan, Harry Smith Parkes, John Arbuthnot Fisher, Garnet Joseph Wolseley, Charles Montauban, Lord Elgin, Li Xiucheng, Hong Rengan, Chen Yucheng, Charles George Gordon, Dighton MacNaghton Probyn, Henry Loch, John C Heenan, Thomas Sayers, Anthony Trollope, Charles Darwin, Felice Beato, George Bernard Shaw, Prince Yi, Sushun, Xianfeng Emperor, Empress Dowager Ci'an, Empress Dowager Cixi, Tongzhi Emperor, Prince Gong
- Flashman and the Mountain of Light
- Queen Victoria, Buffalo Bill, Abdul Karim (the Munshi), Ranjit Singh, Kharak Singh, Nau Nihal Singh, Sher Singh, Chand Kaur, Duleep Singh, Gulab Singh, Jind Kaur, Mangla, Robert Henry Sale, Hugh Gough, Henry Hardinge, Henry Havelock, George Broadfoot, Josiah Harlan, Alexander Gardner, Thomas Love Peacock, Harry Smith, Henry Montgomery Lawrence, James Hope Grant, Herbert Benjamin Edwardes, Robert Napier, William Stephen Raikes Hodson
- Flashman and the Angel of the Lord
- Jack Johnson, Julia Ward Howe, John Brown, Benjamin Franklin, James Outram, George Edward Grey, Moshoeshoe I, Richard Francis Burton, John Brown (servant), David Rice Atchison, Charles Sumner, Hugh Forbes, James Buchanan, Abraham Lincoln, Denmark Vesey, Nat Turner, Stephen A. Douglas, Allan Pinkerton, Richard Lyons, William H. Seward, Franklin Benjamin Sanborn, William Wilberforce, Robert Marcellus Stewart, Henry David Thoreau, Henry Wilson, Samuel Gridley Howe, George Luther Stearns, John Henrie Kagi, Dangerfield Newby, Barclay Coppock, Frederick Douglass, J.E.B. Stuart, Robert E. Lee, Henry A. Wise
- Flashman and the Tiger
- The Road to Charing Cross
- Henri Blowitz, Ulysses S. Grant, Sir Richard Francis Burton, Benjamin Disraeli, Patrice MacMahon, Otto von Bismarck, W. S. Gilbert, Arthur Sullivan, Lord Salisbury, Gyula Andrássy, William Henry Waddington, Alexander Mikhailovich Gorchakov, Pyotr Andreyevich Shuvalov, Chlodwig, Prince Hohenlohe, William Tecumseh Sherman, Garnet Wolseley, Charles George Gordon, William Hicks, Muhammad Ahmad, Wilhelm I of Germany, Georges Nagelmackers, Valentine Baker, Franz Joseph I of Austria, Elisabeth of Bavaria, Maximilian I of Mexico, Lajos Kossuth, Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria, Alexander II of Russia, William Ewart Gladstone, Jules Grévy, Anthony Hope, H. H. Asquith, Johann Strauss II, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, Lord Granville
- The Subtleties of Baccarat
- Flashman and the Tiger
- Henry Pulleine, Lord Chelmsford, Anthony Durnford, Cetshwayo, Paul Kruger, John Chard, Gonville Bromhead, Oscar Wilde, Edward VII, George Edwardes, Mrs Patrick Campbell, Aubrey Beardsley, William Ewart Gladstone, Duchess of Connaught. Also in an unusual departure from the rest of the Flashman series, Flashman encounters the fictitious characters of Sherlock Holmes, Doctor Watson and Sebastian Moran created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.
- The Road to Charing Cross
- Flashman on the March
- Maximilian I of Mexico, Benito Juárez, Napoleon III of France, Franz Joseph I of Austria, James Bruce, Ali II of Yejju, Tewodros II of Ethiopia, Walter Plowden, Edward VII of the United Kingdom, Alexandra of Denmark, Hormuzd Rassam, Benjamin Disraeli, Prester John, G. A. Henty, Johann Ludwig Krapf, Henry Morton Stanley, Robert Napier, Yohannes IV of Ethiopia (King Kussai), Menelek II of Ethiopia, James Augustus St. John, Richard Francis Burton, Tekle Giyorgis II of Ethiopia (Gobayzy), Alexander Roberts Dunn, Charles Fraser, Queen Masteeat, Tristram Speedy
- Gen. Sir Harry Flashman And Aide Con the Experts, by Alden Whitman, The New York Times, 29 July 1969 Whitman's review is quoted in the Times's Fox, Margalit (3 January 2008). "Obituary for Fraser". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 October 2010., noting, "So far, Flashman has had 34 reviews in the United States. Ten of these found the book to be genuine autobiography."
- David, Saul (16 April 2006). "Flash man". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- David, Saul (16 April 2006). "Flash man". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- "Celtic Films Entertainment". Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- "Picture Palace - projects". Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- "radio plays, bbc,drama review, DIVERSITY WEBSITE,bbc, classic". ukonline.co.uk. Retrieved 2 February 2008.
- "BBC - Radio 4 - Daily Schedule". BBC. 2 February 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2008.
- Aziloth Books The Carton Chronicles: The Curious Tale of Flashman's true father http://azilothbooks.com/title_details.php?ID=4
- Laidler, Keith,The Carton Chronicles: The Curious Tale of Flashman's true father (Aziloth, 2010, ISBN 978-1-907523-01-4)
- Mitchell, Sandy (30 April 2007). Ciaphas Cain, Hero of the Imperium. The Black Library. ISBN 978-1-84416-466-0.
- "In the Words of the Master". Retrieved 5 October 2010. Excerpts from interviews with Terry Pratchett
- "Annotated Pratchett File - Pyramids". Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- "Unthinkable? Flashman and the prime minister – Editorial". The Guardian (London). 14 May 2011.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Harry Flashman|
- Cannadine, David (9 December 2005). "How I inspired Thatcher". BBC News. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
- Ramsay, Allan (June 2003). "Flashman and the Victorian social conscience". Contemporary Review.