Harry Potter in translation
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The Harry Potter series of fantasy novels by J. K. Rowling have become some of the most widely read works of children's literature in history, with readers of all ages and in many countries. In April 2011 worldwide sales of Harry Potter books were estimated to be about 450 million copies, and the books have been translated from the original English into at least 67 other languages. However, there are two separate Portuguese translations (one into European Portuguese and one into Brazilian Portuguese) as well as two separate Chinese translations (one using Traditional Chinese characters and the other Simplified Chinese characters). Therefore, editions of the books have been published in at least 70 distinct language versions. (This does not include the separate American English edition, nor the Valencian adaptation of the Catalan edition, nor the separate Serbian edition published in the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet.)
Translation process 
For an authorised translation, the publisher must first negotiate and sign a contract with the author's agents, The Blair Partnership. A list of authorised publishers can be read on J. K. Rowling’s website. The publishers select translators locally.
Translators were not granted access to the books before their official release date in English; hence, translation could start only after the English editions had been published, creating a lag of several months before the translations were made available. This necessary delay has boosted the sales of English language editions of the books to impatient fans, in countries where English is not the first language. Such was the clamour to read the fifth book that its English language edition became the first English-language book ever to top the bookseller list in France. In Italy, impatient Potter fans organised "Operation Feather", deluging the publisher Salani with feathers (reminiscent of Hogwarts' messenger owls) to demand expedited publication for the Italian translation of the seventh and final book in the series. This has also caused unauthorised translations and fake versions of the books to appear in many countries.
The high profile and demand for a high-quality local translation means that a great deal of care is often taken in the task. In some countries, such as Italy, the first book was revised by the publishers and issued in an updated edition in response to readers who complained about the quality of the first translation. In countries such as China and Portugal, the translation is conducted by a group of translators working together to save time. Some of the translators hired to work on the books were quite well known before their work on Harry Potter, such as Viktor Golyshev, who oversaw the Russian translation of the series' fifth book. Golyshev was previously best known for having translated William Faulkner and George Orwell, and was known to snub the Harry Potter books in interviews and refer to them as inferior literature. The Turkish translation of books two to five was undertaken by Sevin Okyay, a popular literary critic and cultural commentator.
List of translations by language 
The original British English versions of the book were published in the United Kingdom by Bloomsbury. There is no complete official list of authorised translations currently available. Editions exist in the following languages (including the original):
|Language||Country||Publisher(s) and distributor(s)||Translator(s)||Title(s)|
|1.||Afrikaans||South Africa||Human & Rousseau (pty) Ltd.||
|2.||Albanian||Albania||Publishing House Dituria||Amik Kasoruho||
|3.||Arabic||Arab world||Nahdet Misr||Muhammad Ibrahim||
|4.||Armenian||Armenia||Gasprint Publishing House||
|5.||Asturian||Spain (Asturias)||Trabe||Xesús González Rato||
|6.||Basque||Spain (Basque Country)||Elkarlanean||Iñaki Mendiguren (I-VII)||
|8.||Bosnian||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Buybook||
|9.||Breton||France (Brittany)||An Amzer||
|11.||Catalan||Editorial Empúries; Valencian adaptation published by Tàndem Edicions, S.L.||
|16.||Dutch||Standaard / Uitgeverij De Harmonie||Wiebe Buddingh'||
(Original editions; not translations)
(edited for American readers)
|19.||Faroese||Faroe Islands||Bókadeild Føroya Lærarafelags||
|21.||French||Éditions Gallimard||Jean-François Ménard (plus the school books)||
|22.||West Frisian||Netherlands (Friesland)||Uitgeverij Bornmeer||Jetske Bilker||
|23.||Galician||Spain (Galicia)||Editorial Galaxia||
|24.||Georgian||Georgia||Bakur Sulakauri Publishing||
|25.||German||Carlsen Verlag||Klaus Fritz||
|26.||Low German||Germany||Verlag Michael Jung||
|27.||Modern Greek||Greece||Psichogios Publications||
|28.||Ancient Greek||Bloomsbury||Andrew Wilson (I)||
|29.||Greenlandic||Greenland||Atuakkiorfik Greenland Publishers||Stephen Hammeken||
|30.||Gujarati||India (Gujarat)||Manjul Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. ||
|31.||Hebrew||Israel||Miskal Ltd. (Yedioth Ahronoth and Sifrey Hemed) / Books in the Attic Ltd.||Gili Bar-Hillel||
|32.||Hindi||India||Manjul Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.||Sudhir Dixit (I-VII)||
|33.||Hungarian||Hungary||Animus Publishing||Tóth Tamás Boldizsár||
|35.||Indonesian||Indonesia||Penerbit PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama||Listiana Srisanti (I-V)||
|36.||Irish||Bloomsbury||Máire Nic Mhaoláin (I)||
|37.||Italian||Adriano Salani Editore||
Illustrated by Serena Riglietti
|38.||Japanese||Japan||Say-zan-sha Publications Ltd.||Yuko Matsuoka (松岡 佑子 Matsuoka Yūko )||
|39.||Khmer||Cambodia||University of Cambodia Press||Un Tim||
|40.||Korean||South Korea||Moonhak Soochup Publishing Co.||
|41.||Latin||Bloomsbury||Peter Needham (I-II)||
|43.||Lithuanian||Lithuania||Alma Littera Company Limited||Zita Marienė||
|44.||Luxembourgish||Luxembourg||Kairos Edition||Florence Berg||
|45.||Macedonian||Republic of Macedonia||Publishing House Kultura (I-V)
Mladinska kniga Skopje (VI-VII)
|46.||Marathi||India||Manjul Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.||
|47.||Bahasa Malaysia||Malaysia||Pelangi Books||
|48.||Malayalam||India (Kerala)||Manjul Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.||Radhika C. Nair||
|49.||Mongolian||Mongolia||Nepko Publishing||Д.Аюуш & Д.Батбаяр||
|50.||Nepali||Nepal||Sunbird Publishing House ||
|51.||Norwegian||Norway||N.W. Damm & Søn A.S.||Torstein Bugge Høverstad||
|52.||Occitan||France (Occitania)||Per Noste Edicions||
|53.||Persian||Iran||Tandis Books||Vida Eslamiyeh||
|54.||Polish||Poland||Media Rodzina||Andrzej Polkowski||
|56.||Romanian||Egmont Romania||Ioana Iepureanu||
|59.||Sinhala||Sri Lanka||Sarasavi Publishers (Pvt) Ltd ||
|62.||Spanish||Emece Editores / Salamandra||
|63.||Swedish||Tiden Young Books / Raben & Sjögren||Lena Fries-Gedin||
|65.||Tibetan||China (Tibet Autonomous Region)||Bod ljongs mi dmangs dpe skrun khang||
|68.||Urdu||Pakistan||Oxford University Press||Darakhshanda Asghar Khokhar(I-IV)||
|69.||Vietnamese||Vietnam||Youth Publishing House||Lý Lan||
|70.||Welsh||United Kingdom (Wales)||Bloomsbury||Emily Huws (I)||
Some translations, such as those to the dead Latin and Ancient Greek languages, were done as academic exercises, to stimulate interest in the languages and to provide students of those languages with modern reading texts. The Ancient Greek version, according to the translator, is the longest text written in Ancient Greek since the novels of Heliodorus of Emesa in the 3rd century AD, and took about a year to complete.
Note that in some countries, such as Spain and India, the book has been translated into several local languages (see section on publishers); sometimes the book has been translated into two dialects of the same language in two countries (for example, separate Portuguese versions for Brazil and for Portugal).
The impatience of the international Harry Potter fan community for translations of the books has led to the proliferation of unauthorised or pirate translations that are often hastily translated and posted on the internet chapter-by-chapter, or printed by small presses and sold illegally. The work may be done by multiple translators to speed the process. Such translations are often poorly written and filled with errors. Cases have occurred in many areas of the world, but China is one of the most common areas of the world for unauthorised translations and pirated editions to be sold.
One notable case involved a French 16-year-old who published serialised translations of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows online. He was arrested and his site was later shut down; however, the wife of the official translator noted that these works do not necessarily hurt the official translation.
Another example occurred in Venezuela in 2003, when an illegal translation of the fifth book, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, appeared soon after the release of the English version and five months before the scheduled release of the Spanish translation. The pirate translation was apparently so bad that the translator added messages, including "Here comes something that I'm unable to translate, sorry," and "I'm sorry, I didn't understand what that meant" in some sections. Two people were arrested in connection with the pirated version.
Another case involved the internet fan translation community, Harry auf Deutsch, formed to translate the Harry Potter books into German more rapidly. The German publisher of the Harry Potter books, Carlsen Verlag, asked them to stop immediately and threatened them with legal action; they complied, taking down the translations.
In some countries, there have been no authorised translations into the local language, but translations not sanctioned by J. K. Rowling have been prepared and published. Such was the case, for example, in Sri Lanka, where the books have been unofficially translated into Sinhala and possibly into Tamil. However, the more recent translations into Sinhala published by Sarasavi Bookshop are authorised by J. K. Rowling.
In Iran, several unauthorised translations of the Harry Potter books exist side by side. According to one source, there may be as many as 16 Persian translations in existence concurrently. Iran is not a member of the Universal Copyright Convention, so publishers are not prosecuted for publishing foreign books without respecting copyright or paying royalties.
A team consisting of seven Esperantist volunteers completed the translation of Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone into Esperanto (under the title Hari Poter kaj la ŝtono de la saĝuloj) in 2004. Rowling's representatives did not respond to offers from Esperanto-USA to make the translation available for publication. An on-line petition aimed at raising interest in the Esperanto translation has obtained support from approximately 800 individuals.
Agents representing J. K. Rowling have stated in the past that they cannot and do not intend to prevent individuals from translating Rowling's books for their own personal enjoyment, as long as the results are not made available to the general public.
Fake translations 
Whereas "pirate translations" are unauthorised translations of true Harry Potter books, "fake translations" have also appeared, which are published pastiches or fanfics that a foreign publisher has tried to pass off as the translation of the real book by Rowling. There have been several such books, the most famous of which is probably Harry Potter and Bao Zoulong which was written and published in China in 2002, before the release of the fifth book in Rowling's series, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix.
Other fake Harry Potter books written in Chinese include Harry Potter and the Porcelain Doll (哈利・波特与瓷娃娃 or Hālì Bōtè yǔ Cíwáwa), Harry Potter and the Golden Turtle, and Harry Potter and the Crystal Vase. In August 2007, The New York Times noted that the publication of Rowling's Deathly Hallows had inspired "a surge of peculiarly Chinese imitations," and included plot synopses and excerpts from a number of derivative works, among them Harry Potter and the Chinese Overseas Students at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry and Harry Potter and the Big Funnel.  In a period of time leading up to 2003, legal pressure from the licensors of Harry Potter led an Indian publisher to stop publication of Harry Potter in Calcutta, a work in which Harry meets figures from Bengali literature.
Americanisation as translation 
The differences between the British and American editions of the books have sometimes been referred to as "translation" into American English. The most noted example of this is the difference in the titles of the first book in the series: Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone in the United Kingdom, versus Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone in the United States. A comprehensive list of differences between the American and British editions of the books is collected at the Harry Potter Lexicon web site. The changes are mostly simple lexical switches to reflect the different dialects and prevent American readers from stumbling over unfamiliar Briticisms. Changes of this sort are common when adapting any text from British to American editions but in the case of the Harry Potter books, this standard practice has occasionally drawn criticism from readers who feel that the British English adds flavour to the series. Rowling herself expressed regret after changing the first book's title, as the Philosopher's Stone has been an age-old legend.
In an Associated Press interview, Rowling described how the alterations to the American editions came about:
Rowling pretended to bang her head against the sofa in mock frustration. "SO much has been made of that," she groans, noting that it was only done where words had been used that really meant something very different to Americans. Her American editor pointed out that the word jumper — British for pullover sweater — means a kind of dress in American. She had had no idea. "He asked, 'Can we change it to sweater,' which is just as British?" That was fine with Rowling.
I wasn't trying to, quote, "Americanize" them... What I was trying to do is translate, which I think is different. I wanted to make sure that an American kid reading the book would have the same literary experience that a British kid would have."
The same article, however, points out that some British dialect was retained in the books, and in some cases certain phrases were replaced with more stereotypical British phrases, such as "spanking good" for "cracking."
Issues in translation 
The Harry Potter series presents many challenges to translators, such as rhymes, acronyms, dialects, culture, riddles, jokes, invented words, and plot points that revolve around spellings or initials. These have been dealt with by various translators with different degrees of modification to the meaning of the original text.
Translation strategies 
The books carried a number of words that are considered loaded names by linguists and translators, meaning that they carry a semantic load, and that their morphology (structure) and phonology (sound) need to be adapted when translating them to a foreign language, for example the house names (Ravenclaw = raven + claw), or Voldemort's name ("flight of death" or "theft of death" in French). These words were translated at different countries using several translation strategies, such as copying the names with no attempt to transmit the original English meaning, transliterating even if the name lost its original meaning, replacing the name with another given name from the target language, or translating the name using native words that conveyed the same meaning. For example, in the Russian first book the transliterating strategy was used for some names because the "th" sound does not exist in Russian, so "Slytherin" was transliterated as "Slizerin". The translator of the second book chose the translating strategy instead, and he renamed the houses, "Hufflepuff" becoming "Puffendui" and "Ravenclaw" becoming "Kogtevran" (from the Russian word for claw, "kogot'").
Culture and language 
Many of the nuances of British culture and language will be unfamiliar to international readers. Such things require careful and creative translating. Nonstandard English present in the book also had to be given careful consideration. The character Rubeus Hagrid's West Country dialect, for example, needed to be rendered in other languages to reflect the fact that he speaks with an accent and uses particular types of slang. In the Japanese translation, he speaks in the Tōhoku dialect, which to a Japanese reader conveys a similar provincial feel. For the Hebrew translation, some of the Christian references were changed, because Israelis have less familiarity with cultural Christianity than readers elsewhere: a scene in which Sirius Black sings a parody of "God Rest Ye Merry Gentlemen" replaced the song with a parody of "Mi Y'malel," a Chanukah song. In the French translation, explanations of certain features of British schools unfamiliar to French students were inserted in the dialogues (e.g., "Prefect" and "Head Boy"), but they were not distinguished from explanations in the original text of differences between ordinary British schools and wizarding schools. This could mislead readers into thinking that these features of the house and boarding systems didn't exist in real-world British schools.
Rhymes, anagrams, and acronyms 
The series involves many songs, poems, and rhymes, some of which proved difficult to translators. One rhyme, a riddle told by a sphinx in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, posed a particular problem.[note 1] The riddle involves taking words from a poem and using them to form a longer word, "spider," in answer to the riddle. In the Taiwanese translation, the English words are simply put in parentheses. In other translations, the riddle is changed to provide different words that can be put together to make up the translated version of "spider."
Some acronyms also proved difficult; the abbreviations O.W.L.s (Ordinary Wizarding Levels) and N.E.W.T.s (Nastily Exhausting Wizarding Tests) needed to be translated to reflect the fact that their abbreviations spelled out the names of animals associated with the wizarding world, which did not always work in other languages. N.E.W.T.s was translated into Swedish as F.U.T.T. (Fruktansvärt Utmattande Trollkarls-Test, Terribly Exhausting Wizard's Test). Futt means measly in Swedish. Another issue was the translation of "The Mirror of Erised," since "Erised" is created by reading English desire backwards. In German the word desire is spelled Begehren, so the mirror was called "Der Spiegel Nerhegeb. The Finnish translation also follows this formula of reversing a word; the mirror is called Iseeviot-peili "iseeviot" being "toiveesi" (your wish) written backwards. In Polish the mirror is called Lustro Ain Eingarp (Mirror = Lustro; Pragnienia = Desire in genetivus). In Indonesian, The Mirror of Erised is called "Cermin Tarsah" (Mirror = Cermin; Desire = Hasrat), while D.A. (Dumbledore's Army) is changed to L.D. (Laskar Dumbledore; Laskar = Army).
Areas in which anagrams are present do not make the transition easily into other languages. The name "Tom Marvolo Riddle", first mentioned in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, is rearranged to spell "I am Lord Voldemort". This has required translators to alter Riddle's name to make the anagram work. Sometimes translators manage to alter only one part of the name. For example, Tom Riddle's middle name of Marvolo was changed to Marvolodemus in the Serbian second edition; the first edition had lacked the anagram and the original name Tom Marvolo Riddle had simply been copied. In the Bulgarian translation his middle name becomes "Mersvoluko" so the whole name forms an anagram for "And here I am, Lord Voldemort" (instead of "I am Lord Voldemort" as in the original English). Analogous alterations of the middle name Marvolo have been made in several other languages; for example; it became Servolo in Brazilian Portuguese, Vandrolo in Hebrew, Marvoldo in Turkish, Vorlost in German, Narvolo in Russian, Sorvolo in Spanish, Rojvol in Czech, Marvoloso in Slovak, and Orvoloson in Italian.
In other languages, translators replaced the entire name to preserve the anagram. In French, Riddle's full name becomes Tom Elvis Jedusor (i.e. phonetically "game of fate") which forms an anagram for "Je suis Voldemort" ("I am Voldemort"). In Norwegian, his name is Tom Dredolo Venster, an anagram of "Voldemort den store", which means "Voldemort the Great". In Greek, his name is "Anton Marvolo Hurt" (Άντον Μαρβόλο Χέρτ), anagram of "Άρχον Βόλντεμορτ" which means "Lord Voldemort". In Icelandic, his name is Trevor Delgome, which becomes "(Ég)Eg er Voldemort" ("I am Voldemort"), but his middle name is not used for the anagram and stays as Marvolo. In Finnish his name is "Tom Lomen Valedro"; the corresponding anagram is "Ma(ä) olen Voldemort", "I am Voldemort". In Dutch, his name is "Marten Asmodom Vilijn", an anagram of "Mijn naam is Voldemort", or "My name is Voldemort". In Swedish, his name is "Tom Gus Mervolo Dolder", an anagram of "Ego sum Lord Voldemort", where "ego sum" is Latin, not Swedish, for "I am".
In Slovenian, both names are completely changed. Tom Marvolo Riddle is Mark Neelstein and Lord Voldemort is translated as Lord Mrlakenstein. When the name Mark Neelstein is rearranged in the scene, it spells Mrlakenstein. Because the books in Slovenia were released with a three-year delay, the translation of Voldemort is consistent throughout the series. The film series corresponds with the book translation.
In Hungarian, Voldemort's name becomes "Tom Rowle Denem", which is an anagram of "Nevem Voldemort" ("My naame is Voldemort"), with the "w" in the name becomes two "v"s. This caused a name collision with the character Thorfinn Rowle, who first appears in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, but who is not related to Voldemort. Because of this collision, in the Hungarian translation his family name was altered to Rowle. The Arabic version avoids the issue entirely by having Riddle directly write out, "I am Lord Voldemort" (أنا لورد فولدمورت). These changes to the name created problems in later books however; in the English edition, a line of dialogue mentions that Tom Riddle shares his given name with the bartender of the Leaky Cauldron, and this becomes a plot point. However, this is not the case in all translations. In the Latin version his name is Tom Musvox Ruddle, which is an anagram of "Sum Dux Voldemort", or "I am the leader Voldemort".
Invented words, proper nouns, and names 
Rowling invented a great number of words and phrases for the books such as spells, incantations, magical words, items, and place names. Many of these words involve wordplay, rhyming, and historical references that are difficult to translate. A large number of spells are drawn from or inspired by Latin, and have a certain resonance with English speakers. For example, priori incantatem (a spell which causes the last spells performed by a wand to be reproduced in reverse order) would be familiar to many English-speaking readers as the words prior (previous) and incantation (spell, charm). To create a similar effect in the Hindi version, the Sanskrit, typical in mantras, has been used for the spells. Some translators have created new words themselves; others have resorted to transliteration.
Names that involve wordplay, such as Knockturn Alley and Pensieve are also difficult to translate. The former, an unsavoury area in London's magical market, is semi-homophonous with "nocturnally," suggesting darkness and evil. The latter is a magical bowl into which memories and thoughts can be placed and examined, and is a portmanteau of two words: pensive, meaning "musingly or dreamily thoughtful," and sieve, a type of bowl with perforations through which fine particles of a substance (such as flour) may be passed to separate them from coarser ones. Translators must creatively render such names. If the words are simply transliterated, the shades of meaning are lost; but, when new word-games are invented, they can end up sounding quite different from the original, and often reflect the translator's personal interpretation and preferences. For instance, the Turkish version of Pensieve is Düşünseli, which is a portmanteau of the words Düşünmek (to think, to imagine) and sel (a flood of water). The German version of Pensieve is Denkarium with denken, meaning "to think," and "aquarium." The Swedish version of Pensieve is Minnessåll which means memory's sieve. The Norwegian translation of Pensieve is tanketank which translates to Thought-tank. The Hebrew version achieves a similar effect to the English in its translation of Pensieve; Pensieve is הגיגית (Hagigit), which is a combination of the word הגיג (hagig) meaning thought, and the word גיגית (gigit) meaning tub. In the Czech translation, Pensieve is "Myslánka" (from "myslet" – think) and Knockturn Alley is Obrtlá ulice, a rather complex neologism with many meanings and associations, but based on the word "obrtlík" (swivel) and the phrase "otočit se na obrtlíku" (run away suddenly). The "Nocturnal" wordplay is not used in the Czech translation. The Vietnamese version of "Pensieve" is "Tưởng Ký", which is a combination word of "tư tưởng" ("thought" or "mind") and "ký" (literally means something to keep thoughts, like a diary.)
Often, names in Harry Potter have historical or linguistic significance in English, which may create problems if the translator does not recognise or misjudges it. Rowling commented on this phenomenon in Conversations with J.K. Rowling, in which she complained that the Italian translation of Professor Dumbledore's last name was "Silente"; rather than recognizing that "Dumbledore" was an old Devon word for "bumblebee," the translator took the word "dumb" and translated it as "silent". In contrast, the Czech translator used the Old Czech word for bumblebee – Brumbál (in modern Czech čmelák).
Plot points 
In some cases, English-speaking fans have sought clues to the story's mysteries by examining the way certain parts of the books have been translated in foreign editions. A case in point is the identity of a character mentioned by initials only in the book Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. The English initials R.A.B. could have belonged to several minor characters from the books, but variations on the initials in other languages gave evidence to the true identity of the mystery character: in the Dutch edition of the book R.A.B. was translated into R.A.Z., 'zwart' being Dutch for 'black'; in the Norwegian edition, R.A.B. translates to 'R.A.S.', svart being Norwegian for 'black'; and in the Finnish edition the initials were R.A.M., 'musta' being Finnish for 'black'. Fans took this to mean that the character was Regulus Black, the brother of Sirius Black; when Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows was published, this was revealed to be the case.
Similarly, the title for Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix did not make it obvious whether the word "Order" referred to a group of people or to a directive. The information that it was a group of people was then determined by viewing the title in other languages.
Rowling released an alternative title for Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows for use by translators finding difficulty translating its meaning. The alternative title (in English) is Harry Potter and the Relics of Death.
Character gender 
A few characters in the series are identified with a title and last name, or with a gender-neutral name. In some languages—for example, those where adjectives are gendered—it was necessary for the translator to guess the character's gender. The Hebrew translation initially made Blaise Zabini a girl, though the character was revealed to be a boy in later books. To avoid this problem, Isabel Nunes, the Portuguese translator, asked Rowling about the gender of some of the characters—Zabini, Professor Sinistra, and "R.A.B."—while working on her translations.
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