Harry Powlett, 4th Duke of Cleveland
The Duke of Cleveland
|The Duke of Cleveland.|
|Born||19 April 1803|
|Died||21 August 1891
Cleveland House, 16 St James's Square, Westminster, London
|Spouse(s)||Lady Catherine Stanhope (1819–1901)|
|Alma mater||Oriel College, Oxford|
Harry George Powlett, 4th Duke of Cleveland KG (19 April 1803 – 21 August 1891), styled The Honourable Harry Vane until 1827 and Lord Harry Vane from 1827 to 1864, was an English Whig landowner, diplomat and statesman. During the crisis which led to the collapse of Lord Russell's government in 1866 over the question of parliamentary reform, he was considered a possible compromise Prime Minister in a Whig-Conservative anti-reform coalition government, but such plans came to nothing.
Background and education
Vane was the third son of William Vane, 1st Duke of Cleveland, by Lady Catherine Margaret Powlett, daughter of Admiral Harry Powlett, 6th Duke of Bolton. Henry Vane, 2nd Duke of Cleveland, and William Vane, 3rd Duke of Cleveland, were his elder brothers. He was educated at Oriel College, Oxford.
Vane entered the foreign service and held posts in Paris and Stockholm before entering the House of Commons in 1841 as a member for South Durham. He would represent Durham until 1859, when he switched to Hastings, which he represented until his accession to the dukedom on the death of his brother on 6 September 1864. Later the same year, on 18 November, he adopted by Royal Licence the surname of Powlett in lieu of that of Vane, in accordance with the will of his maternal grandmother (wife and Duchess to the 6th Duke of Bolton). He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1865. During the crisis which led to the collapse of Lord Russell's government in 1866 over the question of parliamentary reform, he was considered a possible compromise Prime Minister in a Whig-Conservative anti-reform coalition government, but such plans came to nothing.
In 1854 Cleveland married Lady Catherine Lucy Wilhelmina Stanhope (1819-1901), a historian known as the Duchess of Cleveland, the daughter of Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl Stanhope and widow of Archibald Primrose, Lord Dalmeny, by whom she was the mother of Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. The marriage was without progeny.
Although Cleveland had no legitimate progeny, he produced an illegitimate daughter by his mistress Mary Ann Raby. The daughter was called Charlotte (Lottie) Raby (1841-1919) and took the surname Raby so her parentage was not discovered.
Death & succession
Cleveland died in August 1891, aged 88, at his London townhouse Cleveland House, 16 St James's Square, Westminster, London. Thereupon the line of succession to his peerages became unclear. In 1891 the Committee of Privileges of the House of Lords declared the title of Duke of Cleveland extinct but declared Henry de Vere Vane to be the rightful heir of the title Baron Barnard and to the estates of Raby Castle and Barnard Castle, which latter had been purchased in 1626 by the Vane family.
|Ancestors of Harry Powlett, 4th Duke of Cleveland|
- thepeerage.com Harry George Powlett, 4th Duke of Cleveland
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "D" (part 4)[self-published source][better source needed]
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "H" (part 2)[self-published source][better source needed]
- The London Gazette: . 25 November 1864.
- The London Gazette: . 14 April 1865.
- Blake, Robert (1966). Disraeli, New York: St Martin's Press. ISBN 0-19-832903-2., page 439.
- The Official Gazette of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Durham 1908 to 1919. Durham Freemasons. 1919. p. 172.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Harry Powlett, 4th Duke of Cleveland.|
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Duke of Cleveland
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
|Member of Parliament for South Durham
1841 – 1859
With: John Bowes 1841–1847
James Farrer 1847–1857
Henry Pease 1857–1859
Patrick Francis Robertson
|Member of Parliament for Hastings
1859 – 1864
With: Frederick North
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|Duke of Cleveland
|Peerage of England|