Harvard–Yenching Classification

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Alfred Kaiming Chiu [1] (1898–1977) was a pioneer of establishing a library classification system for Chinese language materials in the United States of America. The system devised by him was known as Harvard–Yenching Classification System. The system was primarily created for the classification of Chinese language materials in the Harvard-Yenching Library which was founded in 1927 at the Harvard-Yenching Institute.[2]

During that early period other systems, such as the early edition of the Library of Congress Classification, did not consist of appropriate subject headings to classify the Chinese language materials, particularly the ancient published materials. As many American libraries started to collect the ancient and contemporary published materials from China, a number of American libraries subsequently followed Harvard University to adopt Harvard–Yenching classification system, such as the East Asian Library of the University of California in Berkeley, Columbia University, The University of Chicago, Washington University in St. Louis etc.

In addition to American libraries, the libraries of other universities in the world including England, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Singapore etc. also followed Harvard University to adopt the system. During the period from the 1930s to the 1970s, the use of the system became popular for classifying not only Chinese language materials but also other East Asian materials including Korean and Japanese language materials.

During the period from the 1970s to the 1980s, a comprehensive subset of subject headings for Chinese language materials was gradually established in the Library of Congress Classification System so that almost a full spectrum of ancient and contemporary Chinese topics can be widely covered. As a result of this, the Library of Congress Classification System eventually replaced the Harvard–Yenching Classification System for all Chinese language materials acquired after the 1970s in many American Libraries.

Though the system has largely been phased out, the system is still being used in some libraries for Chinese language materials acquired prior to the Library of Congress update. Such previously acquired books are normally stored in separate stacks in libraries. However, some of the university libraries in the Commonwealth countries of the United Kingdom such as England, Australia and New Zealand still continue to use the Harvard-Yenching system; for example, the Institute for Chinese Studies Library of the University of Oxford, University of Sydney, University of Melbourne, and University of Auckland.

The Harvard–Yenching classification system[edit]

The key classes of the system are listed as follows:

Key classes[edit]

    • 0100–0999 Chinese Classics
    • 1000–1999 Philosophy and Religion
    • 2000–3999 Historical Sciences
    • 4000–4999 Social Sciences
    • 5000–5999 Language and Literature
    • 6000–6999 Fine and Recreative Arts
    • 7000–7999 Natural Sciences
    • 8000–8999 Agriculture and Technology
    • 9000–9999 Generalia and Bibliography

Subjects of sub-classes[edit]

0100 to 0999 Chinese Classics[edit]

    • 0100–0199 Chinese classics in general
    • 0200–0299 I Ching
    • 0300–0399 Shu Ching
    • 0400–0499 Shih Ching
    • 0500–0669 San Li
    • 0680–0799 Ch’un Ch’iu
    • 0800–0849 Hsiao Ching
    • 0850–0999 Ssu Shu

1000 to 1999 Philosophy and Religion[edit]

    • 1000–1008 Philosophy & religion in general
    • 1010–1429 Chinese philosophy
    • 1470–1499 Hindu philosophy
    • 1500–1539 Occident philosophy
    • 1540–1569 Philosophical problems and systems
    • 1570–1609 Logic
    • 1610–1649 Metaphysics
    • 1650–1699 Ethics
    • 1700–1729 Religion in general
    • 1730–1738 Mythology
    • 1739–1749 Occultism numerology
    • 1750–1779 History of religions
    • 1780–1799 Chinese state cults
    • 1800–1919 Buddhism
    • 1920–1939 Taoism
    • 1975–1987 Christianity
    • 1988–1999 Other religions

2000 to 3999 Historical Sciences[edit]

    • 2000–2049 Archaeology, Antiquities in general
    • 2060–2159 China archaeology
    • 2200–2249 Ethnology, ethnography
    • 2250–2299 Genealogy and biography
    • 2300–2349 World history
    • 2350–2399 World geography
    • 2400–2440 Asian history and geography
    • 2450–2459 History of China in general
    • 2461–2469 Chinese historiography
    • 2470–2479 History of Chinese civilisation
    • 2480–2509 Diplomatic history of China
    • 2510–2519 General China history
    • 2520–2533 Ancient history of China in general
    • 2535 Ch’in, Han and 3 Kingdom in general
    • 2536–2543 Ch’in Dynasty
    • 2545–2559 Han Dynasty
    • 2560–2567 The Three Kingdom
    • 2570 Chin Dynasty and the Southern / Northern Dynasties
    • 2571–2578 Chin Dynasty (265–420)
    • 2581–2588 The Southern Dynasties
    • 2590–2599 The Northern Dynasties
    • 2605–2618 Sui, T’ang & the Five Dynasties in general
    • 2605–2619 Sui Dynasty
    • 2620–2639 T’ang Dynasty
    • 2640–2649 Epoch of the Five Dynasties (North)
    • 2650–2660 The Ten Kingdoms (South)
    • 2662 Sung, Liao, Chin and Yuan Dynasties in general
    • 2665–2684 Sung Dynasty (960–1279)
    • 2685–2688 The Liao Kingdom (916–1201)
    • 2690 The Chin Kingdom (1115–1234)
    • 2695 The Hsi Hsia Kingdom (982–1227)
    • 2700–2713 Yuan Dynasty (1280–1268)
    • 2718 Ming and Ching Dynasties in general
    • 2720–2739 Ming Dynasty
    • 2740–2969 Ch’ing Dynasty
    • 2970 Period of Republic, 1912
    • 3000–3019 China: geography & history in general
    • 3020–3031 General system treatises
    • 3032–3049 Special works of geography: China
    • 3507–3079 China: local description and travel
    • 3080–3109 Maps, Atlas of China
    • 3110–3299 Gazetteers of China
    • 3300–3479 Japanese history
    • 3400–3479 Japanese geography
    • 3480–3489 Korean history
    • 3490–3499 Hong Kong, Macau history and geography
    • 3500–3599 Other counties in Asia: history and geography
    • 3600–3799 Europe: history and geography
    • 3800–3899 America: history and geography
    • 3900–3999 Africa, Oceania: history and geography

4000 to 4999 Social Sciences[edit]

    • 4000–4019 Social sciences in general
    • 4020–4099 Statistics
    • 4100–4299 Sociology
    • 4300–4599 Economics
    • 4600–4899 Politics and Law
    • 4900–4999 Education

5000 to 5999 Language and Literature[edit]

    • 5000–5039 Linguistics in general
    • 5040–5059 Literature in general
    • 5060–5069 Chinese language in general
    • 5070–5089 Semantic studies
    • 5090–5119 Graphic studies
    • 5120–5139 Phonological Studies
    • 5140–5149 Grammar
    • 5150–5159 Dialects
    • 5160–5169 Texts: learning the language
    • 5170–5199 Lexicography dictionaries
    • 5200–5209 Chinese literature in general
    • 5210–5217 Chinese literature: literary criticism
    • 5218–5229 Chinese literature: history & biography
    • 5230–5235 Chinese literature: collection of individual complete works
    • 5236–5241 Chinese literature: general anothlogies
    • 5242–5569 Collected Chinese literart works of individual authors
    • 5570–5649 Tz’u
    • 5650–5730 Lyrical works and drama
    • 5731–5769 Chinese Fiction
    • 5770–5779 Letters
    • 5780–5799 Miscellany: proverbs, fables, juv. lit.
    • 5800–5809 Minor languages in China
    • 5810–5859 Japanese language
    • 5860–5959 Japanese literature
    • 5973 Korean language and literature
    • 5975–5993 Indo-European language and literature
    • 5994–5999 Other language and literature

6000 to 6999 Fine and Recreative Arts[edit]

    • 6000–6019 Fine and recreative arts in general
    • 6020–6029 Aesthetics
    • 6030–6069 History of arts
    • 6070–6289 Chinese & Japanese Calligraphy and painting
    • 6290–6299 Materials & instruments
    • 6300–6349 Western painting
    • 6350–6359 Engraving Prints
    • 6360–6399 Photography
    • 6400–6499 Sculpture
    • 6500–6599 Architecture
    • 6600–6699 Industrial arts
    • 6700–6799 Music
    • 6800–6899 Amusements & games
    • 6900–6999 Physical training & sports

7000 to 7999 Natural Sciences[edit]

8000 to 8999 Agriculture and Technology[edit]

    • 8000–8009 Agriculture & technology in general
    • 8020–8239 Agriculture
    • 8240–8289 Home economics (Domestic)
    • 8290–8299 Technology in general
    • 8300–8349 Handicrafts & artisan trades
    • 8400–8499 Manufactures
    • 8500–8599 Chemical technology
    • 8600–8699 Mining & Metallurgy
    • 8700–8899 Engineering
    • 8900–8999 Military & Naval science

9000 to 9999 Generalia and Bibliography[edit]

    • 9000–9007 Generalia and bibliography in general
    • 9100 Chinese general series of composite nature
    • 9101–9109 Chinese general series of a special type
    • 9110 Chinese series of particular locality
    • 9111–9120 Chinese family & individual author
    • 9130–9163 Sinology
    • 9164–9179 Japanese general series
    • 9180–9199 Japanese individual polygraphic books
    • 9200–9229 General periodicals & society publications
    • 9230–9289 General congresses & museums
    • 9290–9339 General encyclopedias and reference books
    • 9401–9409 Bibliography in general
    • 9410–9510 Bibliography
    • 9511–9519 Subject bibliographies
    • 9520–9539 Chinese collective bibliographies
    • 9540–9549 Other general bibliographies of various countries
    • 9550–9559 Reading lists & best books, periodical index
    • 9562–9569 Special bibliographies
    • 9570–9579 Bibliographies of critical reviews
    • 9600–9629 Library catalogues
    • 9630–9639 Dealers’ & publishers’ catalogues
    • 9640–9684 Japanese bibliographies
    • 9696–9699 Bibliographies of Western countries
    • 9700–9929 Librarianship
    • 9930–9999 Journalism, newspapers

See also[edit]

The official library classification in China is:

The other library classifications for Chinese materials outside China are:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ simplified Chinese: 裘开明; traditional Chinese: 裘開明; pinyin: Qiú Kāimíng; Wade–Giles: Ch'iu2 K'ai1-Ming2.
  2. ^ Eugene W. Wu, "The Founding of the Harvard-Yenching Library," Journal of East Asian Libraries 101.1 (1993): 65-69. [1]

References[edit]

External links[edit]