Harvard Law School

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Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School
Established 1817
School type Private
Endowment US$1.7 billion
Parent endowment $32 billion
Dean Martha Minow
Location Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Enrollment 1,800
1680 JD
150 LLM
50 S.J.D.
Faculty 194[1]
USNWR ranking 2[2]
Bar pass rate 98.19%[1]
Website www.law.harvard.edu
ABA profile Harvard Law School Profile

Harvard Law School (also known as Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. Located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is the oldest continually-operating law school in the United States and is home to the largest academic law library in the world.[3][4] The law school is currently ranked as the second best law school in the United States by the U.S. News & World and Report, only behind Yale Law School. HLS is unusually large for a law school; each class in the three-year J.D. program has approximately 560 students, the largest of the top 150 ranked law schools in the United States.[5] With a current enrollment of 1,741, HLS has about as many students its three closest-ranked peer institutions (first-ranked Yale, third-ranked Stanford, and fourth-ranked Chicago) combined. The first-year (1L) class is broken into seven sections of approximately 80 students who take most first-year classes together.

The current Dean of Harvard Law School is Martha Minow, who assumed the role on July 1, 2009. Harvard Law has 246 faculty members.[6] Harvard Law School faculty are responsible for more papers downloaded on the Social Science Research Network than any other law school, a fact attributable both to the strong academic reputation of HLS and to the fact that it has a much larger faculty than peer institutions.[7]

According to Harvard Law's 2013 ABA-required disclosures, 86.9% of the Class of 2013 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation.[8] Harvard Law School graduates have accounted for 568 judicial clerkships in the past three years,[when?] including one-quarter of all Supreme Court clerkships.[9] Adjusted for its student body size (Harvard's class is roughly three times bigger than those of most peer institutions), this put Harvard in second place, with 1 percentage point more Supreme Court clerkships than third place University of Chicago Law School, and about half as many clerkships as Yale Law School.

Langdell Hall at night
Austin Hall
Langdell in the winter
Wasserstein Hall

Campus[edit]

Harvard Law School's campus is located just north of Harvard Yard, the historic center of Harvard University, and contains several architecturally significant buildings.

From 1849 to 1855, the Harvard Branch Railroad terminated within what would become the present Law School campus, close to its southwest edge. Austin Hall, the law school's oldest dedicated structure, designed by architect H. H. Richardson, was completed in that vicinity in 1884. The law school's student center, Harkness Commons, was designed by the Bauhaus's founder, Walter Gropius, and his firm, along with several law schools in the country. Together they make up the Harvard Graduate Center complex. Langdell Hall, the largest building on the law school campus, contains the Harvard Law School Library, the most extensive academic law library in the world.

History[edit]

Founding by Isaac Royal[edit]

Harvard Law School was established in 1817, making it the oldest continuously-operating law school in the nation. (William & Mary Law School opened first in 1779, but closed due to the American Civil War, reopening in 1920.[10] The University of Maryland School of Law was chartered in 1816, but did not begin classes until 1824, and also closed during the Civil War.[11])

Portrait of Isaac Royall, painted in 1769 by John Singleton Copley

Its origins can be traced to the estate of Isaac Royall, a wealthy Antiguan slaveholder who immigrated to Boston. His Medford estate, the Isaac Royall House, is now a museum which features the only remaining slave quarters in the northeast United States. The Royall chair was traditionally held by the Dean of the law school. However, because Royall was a slaveholder, Deans Elena Kagan and Martha Minow declined the Royall chair. The Royall family coat-of-arms was adopted as the school crest, which shows three stacked wheat sheaves beneath the university motto (Veritas, Latin "truth").[12]

Growth and the Langdell curriculum[edit]

By 1827, the school, which was down to one faculty member, was struggling. Nathan Dane, a prominent alumnus of the college, stepped in by endowing the Dane Professorship of Law and insisting that it be given to then Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story. For a while, the school was called "Dane Law School."[13] In 1829, John H. Ashmun, son of Eli Porter Ashmun and brother of George Ashmun, accepted a professorship and closed his Northampton Law School, with many of his students following him to Harvard.[14] Story's belief in the need for an elite law school based on merit and dedicated to public service helped build the school's reputation at the time, although the contours of these beliefs have not been consistent throughout its history. Enrollment remained low through the 19th century as university legal education was considered to be of little added benefit to apprenticeships in legal practice.

In the 1870s, under Dean Christopher Columbus Langdell, HLS introduced what has become the standard first-year curriculum for American law schools—including classes in contracts, property, torts, criminal law, and civil procedure. At Harvard, Langdell also developed the case method of teaching law, now the dominant pedagogical model at U.S. law schools. Langdell's notion that law could be studied as a "science" gave university legal education a reason for being distinct from vocational preparation. Critics at first defended the old lecture method because it was faster and cheaper and made fewer demands on faculty and students. Advocates said the case method had a sounder theoretical basis in scientific research and the inductive method. Langdell's graduates became leading professors at other law schools where they introduced the case method. The method was facilitated by casebooks. From its founding in 1900, the Association of American Law Schools promoted the case method in law schools that sought accreditation.[15][16]

20th century: Institutional criticism[edit]

Throughout most of the 20th century, HLS was often believed to be a competitive environment. For example, Dean Berring of University of California, Berkeley School of Law once stated that he "view[ed] Harvard Law School as a samurai ring where you can test your swordsmanship against the swordsmanship of the strongest intellectual warriors from around the nation."[17] When Langdell developed the original law school curriculum, Harvard University President Charles Eliot told him to make it "hard and long."[18][19] The school's competitive culture gave rise to the urban legend of a dean at the school telling incoming students, "Look to your left, look to your right, because one of you won't be here by the end of the year."[20] Scott Turow's memoir One L and John Jay Osborn's novel The Paper Chase describe such an environment.

In addition, Eleanor Kerlow's book Poisoned Ivy: How Egos, Ideology, and Power Politics Almost Ruined Harvard Law School criticized the school for a 1980s political dispute between newer and older faculty members over accusations of insensitivity to minority and feminist issues. Divisiveness over such issues as political correctness lent the school the title "Beirut on the Charles."[21]

In Broken Contract: A Memoir of Harvard Law School, Richard Kahlenberg criticized the school for driving students away from public interest and toward work in high-paying law firms. Kahlenberg's criticisms are supported by Granfield and Koenig's study, which found that "students [are directed] toward service in the most prestigious law firms, both because they learn that such positions are their destiny and because the recruitment network that results from collective eminence makes these jobs extremely easy to obtain."[22] The school has also been criticized for its large first year class sizes (at one point there were 140 students per classroom; in 2001 there were 80), a cold and aloof administration,[23] and an inaccessible faculty. The latter stereotype is a central plot element of The Paper Chase and appears in Legally Blonde.

In response to the above criticisms, HLS eventually implemented the once-criticized[19] but now dominant approach pioneered by Dean Robert Hutchins at Yale Law School, of shifting the competitiveness to the admissions process while making law school itself a more cooperative experience. Robert Granfield and Thomas Koenig's 1992 study of Harvard Law students that appeared in The Sociological Quarterly found that students "learn to cooperate with rather than compete against classmates," and that contrary to "less eminent" law schools, students "learn that professional success is available for all who attend, and that therefore, only neurotic 'gunners' try to outdo peers."[22]

The 21st century[edit]

Elena Kagan
Dean Minow

Under the stewardship of newly elected Dean Elena Kagan, the second half of the 2000s saw Harvard Law School's most dramatic academic changes since the implementation of the Langdell curriculum. In 2006, the faculty voted unanimously to approve a new first-year curriculum, placing greater emphasis on problem-solving, administrative law, and international law. The new curriculum was implemented in stages over the next several years,[24][25] with the last new course, a first year practice-oriented problem solving workshop, being instituted in January 2010. In late 2008, the faculty decided that the school should move to an Honors/Pass/Low Pass (H/P/LP) grading system, much like those in place at Yale and Stanford Law Schools. The system applies to half the courses taken by students in the Class of 2010 and fully starting with the Class of 2011.[26]

In 2009, Kagan was appointed Solicitor General of the United States by President Barack Obama and resigned the deanship. On June 11, 2009, Harvard University President Drew Gilpin Faust announced that Martha Minow would become the new dean, and she assumed the position on July 1, 2009.

Programs[edit]

Berkman Center for Internet & Society[edit]

The Harvard Law School was the original home of the Berkman Center for Internet & Society, which focuses on the study and construction of cyberspace. The Center sponsors conferences, courses, visiting lecturers, and residential fellows. Members of the Center do research and write books, articles, and weblogs with RSS 2.0 feeds, for which the Center holds the specification. Charles Nesson, Lawrence Lessig, Jonathan Zittrain, John Palfrey, William W. Fisher, and Yochai Benkler hold appointments at the Center.

The Center's present location is a small Victorian wood-frame building which sits next to the larger-scale buildings of the Harvard Law School campus. It is in the process of relocating to a larger site on the campus' perimeter after being elevated to the status of an interfaculty center for all of Harvard University in 2008.

Its newsletter, "The Filter", is on the Web and available by e-mail, and it hosts a blog community of Harvard faculty, students and Berkman Center affiliates. The Berkman Center is funding the Openlaw project. One of the major initiatives of the Berkman Center is the OpenNet Initiative, which is a joint worldwide study of the filtering of the web, along with the Universities of Toronto and Cambridge (UK). It is also home to Global Voices Online and Herdict, worldwide blog-monitoring websites. The Berkman Center was a co-sponsor of Wikimania 2006.

Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race and Justice[edit]

Established in the fall of 2005 by Professor Charles Ogletree, the Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race and Justice seeks to honor the contributions of Charles Hamilton Houston. The Institute carries forth Houston's legacy by serving as a hub for scholarship, legal education, policy analysis, and public forums on issues central to current civil rights struggles.

Labor and Worklife Program[edit]

The Labor and Worklife Program is a forum for research and teaching on the world of work and its implications for society. The program brings together scholars and policy experts from a variety of disciplines, including scholars of labor studies and an array of international intellectuals, to analyze critical labor issues in the law, economy, and society. As a multidisciplinary research and policy network, the LWP organizes projects and programs that seek to understand critical changes in labor markets and labor law, and to analyze the role of unions, business, and government as they affect the world of work. It also provides unique education for labor leaders throughout the world via the Harvard Trade Union Program, founded in 1942, which works closely with trade unions around the world to bring excellence in labor education to trade union leadership. By engaging scholars, students, and members of the labor community, the program coordinates legal, educational, and cultural activities designed to improve the quality of work life. It regularly holds forums, conferences, and discussion groups on labor issues of concern to business, unions, and the government.

Harvard Legal Aid Bureau[edit]

The Harvard Legal Aid Bureau is the oldest student-run legal services office in the country, founded in 1913.[27] The Bureau's mission is to provide an important community service while giving student attorneys the opportunity to develop professional skills as part of the clinical programs of Harvard Law School.

The Harvard Legal Aid Bureau is a student-run law firm. The Bureau serves clients in housing law (landlord-tenant relations, public housing, subsidized housing), family law (divorce, custody, paternity, child support), government benefits (Social Security, unemployment benefits, Veterans' benefits, welfare), and wage and hour cases (including unpaid or underpaid wages, benefits, and overtime). The Bureau employs eight supervising attorneys and elects approximately twenty-five student members annually. Students practice under the supervision of admitted attorneys; however, students are primarily casehandlers on all matters. As a result, students gain firsthand experience appearing in court, negotiating with opposing attorneys, and working directly with clients. Students receive both classroom and clinical credits for their work at the Bureau.

Unlike most clinical programs at Harvard (or other schools), the Bureau is a two-year commitment. This gives students a chance to have a much more sustained and in-depth academic experience. In addition to the substantive legal experience, students gain practical experience managing a law firm. The student board of directors makes all decisions regarding case intake, budget management, and office administration.

Famous participants include Supreme Court Justice William J. Brennan, Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick, activist and first lady Michelle Obama, and professors Erwin Chemerinsky and Laurence Tribe.[28]

Harvard Negotiation and Mediation Clinical Program[edit]

The Harvard Negotiation and Mediation Clinical Program was founded in 2006 by Professor Robert Bordone, who saw a growing need at Harvard Law School for practical opportunities where students could hone their negotiation and dispute management skills.[29] The vision for the clinic was that by working directly with clients facing real-world problems, students would learn to look beyond litigation as the sole means of resolving disputes. From the start, student initiative and engagement have been crucial in shaping the nature of this clinic. The result is the nation's first legal clinic focusing on dispute systems design and conflict management.

Since 2006, the clinic has continued to grow. HNMCP expanded its capacity by hiring additional staff to support the program and to help develop and supervise clinical projects. Currently, in addition to Professor Bordone, the clinic employs two full-time teaching fellows and a part-time program coordinator. This gives the clinic one of the best student-to-supervisor ratios at Harvard and ensures that the clinic will continue to develop its promise as a place where negotiation and mediation theory and practice come together.

Harvard Law School Parody[edit]

The Harvard Law School Parody is a student written, produced, and directed musical that takes a light-hearted look at the people, classes, and events that make Harvard Law School a fun and exciting place to study law. The show is the biggest event on campus, with nearly every student in attendance.[30]

The Petrie-Flom Center[edit]

With an initial gift from The Carroll and Milton Petrie Foundation and the late Joseph H. Flom, the Petrie-Flom Center for Health Law Policy, Biotechnology, and Bioethics was founded in 2005 as an interdisciplinary program intended to respond to the need for leading legal scholarship in these fields. Today, we advance this mission through academic publications and commentary; course offerings intended to train the next generation of practitioners and scholars; and conferences, panel discussions, and lectures on current issues at the intersection of law and medicine. Professor Einer Elhauge was Center's the Founding Director; it is currently co-directed by Professors I. Glenn Cohen and Benjamin Roin.

The Center has four main areas of activity. First, it runs an academic fellowship program for aspiring law professors, which has had great success, as well as a student fellowship for Harvard graduate students interested in pursuing their own independent scholarship. Second, it hosts extensive programming each year, ranging from lunchtime panels to a major annual conference. Third, its faculty affiliates and fellows offer courses in a range of areas broadly falling under the health law heading. And fourth, it supports the scholarship of its prolific affiliated faculty.

The Center periodically issues updates through its email list serve, as well as more comprehensive summaries of its work through its newsletter, The Petrie Dish.

WilmerHale Legal Services Center[edit]

Located in Boston's Jamaica Plain neighborhood, the WilmerHale Legal Services Center (formerly the Hale and Dorr Legal Services Center) is Harvard Law School's oldest and largest clinical teaching facility. Students working at the Center are placed in one of its clinics housed in five substantive practice groups and work with clinical instructors, experienced practitioners and mentors, who supervise student work and provide guidance as students build and manage their own caseload. The Center provides substantive training in each practice area and also offers general instruction on topics such as client interviewing and intake, case management, legal investigation and discovery, creative legal analysis, research and drafting. In June 2009, Harvard Law School eliminated at least three staff positions at the WilmerHale Legal Services Center.[31]

Other programs[edit]

Pound Hall
Classroom in Pound Hall

Two additional programs affiliated with Harvard Law School are the Ames Foundation and the Selden Society.[citation needed] Harvard Law School also co-founded CALI in 1982 with University of Minnesota Law School.[32]

Publications[edit]

Students of the Juris Doctor (JD) program are involved in preparing and publishing the Harvard Law Review, one of the most highly cited university law reviews, as well as a number of other law journals and an independent student newspaper. The Harvard Law Review was first published in 1887 and has been staffed and edited by some of the school's most notable alumni.[33] In addition to the journal, the Harvard Law Review Association also publishes The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, the most widely followed authority for legal citation formats in the United States. The student newspaper, the Harvard Law Record, has been published continuously since the 1940s, making it one of the oldest law school newspapers in the country, and has included the exploits of fictional law student Fenno for decades. The Harvard Law School Forum on Corporate Governance and Financial Regulation, formerly known as the Harvard Law School Corporate Governance Blog, is one of the most widely read law websites in the country.

Hauser Hall

The law journals are:

Employment[edit]

According to Harvard Law's official 2013 ABA-required disclosures, 86.9% of the Class of 2013 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation.[8] Harvard Law's Law School Transparency under-employment score is 5%, indicating the percentage of the Class of 2013 unemployed, pursuing an additional degree, or working in a non-professional, short-term, or part-time job nine months after graduation.[34] By this metric, HLS has the 7th lowest underemployment rate among American law schools.

More than 120 from the last five graduating classes have obtained tenure-track law teaching positions.[35] Adjusted for student body size, this puts Harvard in second place among U.S. law schools, about 2 percentage points ahead of Stanford and Chicago (which tied for third place) but well behind Yale, which (adjusted for class size) had three times as many graduates appointed to tenure track teaching positions.

ABA Employment Summary for 2013 Graduates [36]
Employment Status Percentage
Employed - Bar Passage Required
  
88.06%
Employed - J.D. Advantage
  
7.79%
Employed - Professional Position
  
0.35%
Employed - Non-Professional Position
  
0.0%
Employed - Undeterminable
  
0.0%
Pursuing Graduate Degree Full Time
  
1.38%
Unemployed - Start Date Deferred
  
0.0%
Unemployed - Not Seeking
  
0.17%
Unemployed - Seeking
  
2.08%
Employment Status Unknown
  
0.17%
Total of 578 Graduates

Costs[edit]

The total cost of attendance (indicating the cost of tuition, fees, and living expenses) at Harvard Law for the 2014-2015 academic year is $81,900.[37] The Law School Transparency estimated debt-financed cost of attendance for three years is $303,878.[38]

Notable alumni[edit]

Barack Obama

Rutherford B. Hayes, the 19th President of the United States, and Barack Obama, the 44th and current President of the United States, graduated from HLS. Obama was the first African-American president of the Harvard Law Review and is now the first African-American President of the United States. His wife Michelle Obama is also a graduate of Harvard Law School. Past presidential candidates who are HLS graduates include Michael Dukakis, Ralph Nader and Mitt Romney. The plurality of sitting U.S. Senators with law degrees graduated from HLS, including Ted Cruz, Mike Crapo, Tim Kaine, Carl Levin, Jack Reed, Chuck Schumer and Mark Warner.

Other legal and political leaders who attended HLS include current President of the Republic of China (Taiwan), Ma Ying-jeou, and former Vice President Annette Lu; former Chief Justice of the Republic of the Philippines, Renato Corona; Chief Justice of Singapore Sundaresh Menon; former President of the World Bank Group, Robert Zoellick; current United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Navanethem Pillay; and the former President of Ireland, Mary Robinson.

Dr. Lobsang Sangay is the first elected Sikyong of the Tibetan Government in Exile. In 2004 he earned a S.J.D. degree from Harvard Law School and was a recipient of the 2004 Yong K. Kim' 95 Prize of excellence for his dissertation Democracy in Distress: Is Exile Polity a Remedy? A Case Study of Tibet's Government-in-exile.

Dr. Lobsang Sangay, Tibetan Prime Minister in Exile

Fourteen of the school's graduates have served on the Supreme Court of the United States of America, more than any other law school. Five of the current nine members of the court attended HLS: Chief Justice John Roberts, and Associate Justices Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, Stephen Breyer and Elena Kagan, who also served as the Dean of Harvard Law School from 2003 to 2009. Ruth Bader Ginsburg attended Harvard Law School for one year but transferred to and graduated from Columbia Law School. Past Supreme Court justices from Harvard Law School include David Souter, Harry Blackmun, William J. Brennan, Louis Brandeis, Felix Frankfurter, Lewis Powell (LLM), and Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., among others.

Attorneys General Alberto Gonzales and Janet Reno, among others, and noted federal judges Richard Posner of the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals, Judge Michael Boudin of the First Circuit Court of Appeals, Judge Joseph A. Greenaway of the Third Circuit Court of Appeals, Laurence Silberman of the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals, and Pierre Leval of the Second Circuit Court of Appeals, among many other judicial figures, graduated from the school. The former Commonwealth Solicitor General of Australia and current Justice of the High Court of Australia, Stephen Gageler SC graduated from Harvard with an LL.M.[39]

Many HLS alumni have also become leaders and innovators in the business world. Its graduates include the current Chairman and CEO of Goldman Sachs, Lloyd Blankfein; current Chairman of the Board and majority owner of National Amusements (and billionaire) Sumner Redstone; current President and CEO of TIAA-CREF, Roger W. Ferguson, Jr.; current CEO and Chairman of Toys "R" Us, Gerald L. Storch; and former CEO of Delta Air Lines, Gerald Grinstein, among many others.

Famous legal academics who graduated from Harvard Law include Erwin Chemerinsky, Ronald Dworkin, Susan Estrich, Arthur R. Miller, Richard Posner, Jeannie Suk, John Sexton, Kathleen Sullivan, Cass Sunstein, Michael Kinsley, Gerald L. Neuman, and Laurence Tribe.

Notable professors[edit]

Notable former professors[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

Books[edit]

The Paper Chase is a novel set amid a student's first ("One L") year at the school. It was written by John Jay Osborn, Jr., who studied at the school. The book was later turned into a film and a television series (see below).

Scott Turow wrote a memoir of his experience as a first-year law student at Harvard, One L.

Richard Kahlenberg's account of his experiences, Broken Contract: A Memoir of Harvard Law School. Kahlenberg breaks from the other two authors and describes the experience of the final two years at the school, claiming that the environment drives students away from their public interest aspirations and toward work in high-paying law firms.

The book Brush With the Law, by Robert Byrnes and Jaime Marquart, is an account of the authors' three years in Stanford and Harvard Law Schools. The authors indulge in alcohol, drugs, womanizing, and gambling before passing their exams and moving on to successful legal careers.

Film and television[edit]

Several movies and television shows take place at least in part at the school. Most of them have scenes filmed on location at or around Harvard University. They include:

Many popular movies and television shows also feature characters introduced as Harvard Law graduates. Some of these include:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Harvard Law School Official ABA Data[dead link]
  2. ^ http://grad-schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-graduate-schools/top-law-schools/harvard-university-03074
  3. ^ About. Law.harvard.edu. Retrieved on 2010-12-20.
  4. ^ Library Tours - 67th IFLA Council and General Conference. Ifla.org. Retrieved on 2010-12-20.
  5. ^ U.S. News and World Report, Best Law Schools 2015 http://grad-schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-graduate-schools/top-law-schools/law-rankings Retrieved 2014-04-15.
  6. ^ "HLS Faculty Directory". Retrieved 2007-07-05. 
  7. ^ Harvard Law Faculty Lead SSRN Rankings. Law.harvard.edu (2010-03-18). Retrieved on 2010-12-20.
  8. ^ a b "Employment Summary for 2013 Graduates". 
  9. ^ Brian Leiter's Law School Rankings (2000-2010)
  10. ^ "Quick Facts: W&M Law School". Marshall-Wythe School of Law. Retrieved 2007-08-24. 
  11. ^ "The University of Maryland School of Law: Our History and Mission". The University of Maryland School of Law. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  12. ^ A Royall Find. Law.harvard.edu. Retrieved on 2010-12-20.
  13. ^ "Law School Has Fine Portrait Collection”, Harvard Crimson (1930-01-23).
  14. ^ Clark, Solomon, Antiquities, Historicals and Graduates of Northampton, 1882, page 277
  15. ^ Bruce A. Kimball, "The Proliferation of Case Method Teaching in American Law Schools: Mr. Langdell's Emblematic 'Abomination,' 1890-1915," History of Education Quarterly (2006) 46#2 pp 192-240 in JSTOR
  16. ^ Bruce A. Kimball, '"Warn Students That I Entertain Heretical Opinions, Which They Are Not To Take as Law': The Inception of Case Method Teaching in the Classrooms of the Early C.C. Langdell, 1870-1883," Law and History Review 17 (Spring 1999): 57-140.
  17. ^ Interview with Former Dean Robert Berring of U.C. Berkeley's Boalt Hall School of Law. Top-law-schools.com. Retrieved on 2010-12-20.
  18. ^ Harvard Law School Oral History. Paulcarrington.com. Retrieved on 2010-12-20.
  19. ^ a b Learning Law in New Haven. Paulcarrington.com. Retrieved on 2010-12-20.
  20. ^ Kahlenberg, Richard D. (1992), Broken Contract: A Memoir of Harvard Law School, New York: Hill and Wang, ISBN 0-8090-3165-5 
  21. ^ www. Legaled.com (2003-09-21). Retrieved on 2010-12-20.
  22. ^ a b Granfield, Robert; Koenig, Thomas (2005), "Learning Collective Eminence: Harvard Law School and the Social Production of Elite Lawyers", Sociological Quarterly 33 (4): 503–520, doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.1992.tb00140.x 
  23. ^ Glater, Jonathan D. (April 16, 2001). "Harvard Law Tries to Increase Appeal". The New York Times. Retrieved May 4, 2010. 
  24. ^ HLS: Bulletin: A Curriculum of New Realities. Law.harvard.edu. Retrieved on 2010-12-20.
  25. ^ Glater, Jonathan D. (October 7, 2006). "Harvard Law Decides to Steep Students in 21st-Century Issues". The New York Times. Retrieved May 4, 2010. 
  26. ^ HLS Grade Reform: Splitting the Baby Was the Only Call, Above the Law, 28 Oct 2008
  27. ^ About Us. Harvardlegalaid.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-15.
  28. ^ [1][dead link]
  29. ^ Local index - HTTrack Website Copier. Law.harvard.edu. Retrieved on 2010-12-20.
  30. ^ "Harvard Law School Parody". Retrieved 2013-03-07. 
  31. ^ "Layoffs at Harvard rattle law school," Massachusetts Lawyer Weekly, July 6, 2009
  32. ^ Drake, Miriam A. (2003). Encyclopedia of library and information science, Volume 1. Dekker Encyclopedias Series 1. CRC Press. p. 654. ISBN 0-8247-2077-6. 
  33. ^ Harvard Law Review: About
  34. ^ "Harvard University Profile". 
  35. ^ Brian Leiter's Law School Rankings (2000-2010)
  36. ^ "Employment Summary for 2013 Graduates". 
  37. ^ "Student Budget". 
  38. ^ "Harvard University Profile". 
  39. ^ [2][dead link]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 42°22′41″N 71°7′7″W / 42.37806°N 71.11861°W / 42.37806; -71.11861