Harwich (UK Parliament constituency)

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Harwich
Former County constituency
for the House of Commons
Outline map
Boundary of Harwich in Essex in 2005.
Outline map
Location of Essex within England.
County Essex
before 1660–2010
Number of members one (two before 1868)
Replaced by Clacton, Harwich and North Essex
European Parliament constituency East of England

Harwich was a parliamentary constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Until its abolition for the 2010 general election it elected one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election.

Boundaries[edit]

Harwich in Essex, showing boundaries used from 1918 to 1945.

From 1997 to 2010 the Harwich constituency included the towns of Clacton-on-Sea, Holland-on-Sea, Frinton-on-Sea, Walton-on-the-Naze and Harwich itself. It also included the villages of Beaumont-cum-Moze, Great Holland, Great Oakley, Jaywick, Kirby Cross, Kirby-le-Soken, Little Clacton, Little Oakley, Parkeston, Ramsey and Thorpe-le-Soken.

Boundary review[edit]

Following their review of parliamentary representation in Essex, the Boundary Commission for England created a new constituency of Clacton, which is based on the current Harwich seat.

Harwich will be moved into a new constituency called Harwich and North Essex.

Members of Parliament[edit]

Constituency founded 1604

1604 to 1660[edit]

Parliament First member Second member
1604 Richard Browne Thomas Trevor
1605 John Panton
1614 Sir Harbottle Grimston Sir Robert Mansell
1614 (Apr) Sir Charles Montagu
1620 Sir Thomas Cheek Edward Grimston
1624 Sir Nathaniel Rich Christopher Herrys
1625 Sir Edmund Sawyer Christopher Herrys
1626 Sir Nathaniel Rich Christopher Herrys
1628–1629 Sir Nathaniel Rich Christopher Herrys
1629–1640 No Parliaments convened
1640 (Apr) Sir Thomas Cheek Sir John Jacob, 1st Baronet
1640 (Nov) Sir Harbottle Grimston, 1st Baronet Sir Thomas Cheek
1645 Sir Harbottle Grimston, 1st Baronet, died
replaced 1647 by
Harbottle Grimston, 2nd Baronet
who was secluded Dec 1648 in Pride's Purge
Sir Thomas Cheek
1648 Sir Thomas Cheek
1653 Harwich not represented in Barebone's Parliament
1654 Harwich not represented in First Protectorate Parliament
1656 Harwich not represented in Second Protectorate Parliament
1659 John Sicklemore Thomas King

1660–1868[edit]

Year First member[1] First party Second member[1] Second party
1660 Sir Capel Luckyn, Bt Sir Henry Wright, Bt
1661 Thomas King
1664 Sir Capel Luckyn, Bt
February 1679 Sir Anthony Dean Samuel Pepys
August 1679 Sir Philip Parker, Bt Sir Thomas Middleton
1685 Sir Anthony Dean Samuel Pepys
1689 Sir Thomas Middleton John Eldred
1690 The Viscount Newhaven
1695 Sir Thomas Davall
1698 Samuel Atkinson
1699 Sir Thomas Middleton
1701 Dennis Lydell
1702 John Ellis
May 1708 Sir John Leake Thomas Frankland
December 1708 Kenrick Edisbury
1713 Carew Hervey Mildmay Sir Thomas Davall
May 1714 Thomas Heath
June 1714 Benedict Calvert
1715 Sir Philip Parker-a-Morley-Long, Bt Thomas Heath
1722 Humphrey Parsons
1727 The Viscount Perceval
1734 Carteret Leathes Charles Stanhope
1741 John Phillipson Hill Mussenden
1747 Viscount Coke
1753 Wenman Coke
1756 Viscount Duncannon
1758 Thomas Sewell
1761 Charles Townshend John Roberts
1767 Thomas Bradshaw
1768 Edward Harvey
1772 Charles Jenkinson
1774 John Robinson
1778 George North
1784 Thomas Orde Tory
1796 Richard Hopkins
1799 Henry Dillon-Lee
1802 Thomas Myers
January 1803 John Hiley Addington Tory
April 1803 James Adams
1806 William Henry Fremantle
March 1807 James Adams
May 1807 William Huskisson Tory
1812 Nicholas Vansittart
1818 Charles Bathurst
1823 George Canning Tory John Charles Herries Tory
1826 Nicholas Conyngham Tindal Tory
1827 Sir William Rae, Bt
1830 George Robert Dawson
1832 Christopher Thomas Tower
1835 Francis Robert Bonham
1837 Alexander Ellice
1841 John Attwood William Beresford Conservative
1847 John Bagshaw
1848 by-election Sir John Cam Hobhouse, Bt Whig
March 1851 by-election Henry Thoby Prinsep
May 1851 by-election Robert Wigram Crawford
April 1852 by-election Sir Fitzroy Kelly Conservative
May 1852 by-election Isaac Butt Conservative
July 1852 George Montagu Warren Sandford Conservative David Waddington
1853 by-election John Bagshaw
March 1857 George Drought Warburton
December 1857 by-election Robert John Bagshaw
March 1859 by-election Henry Jervis-White-Jervis
May 1859 Hon. William Campbell
1860 by-election Richard Thomas Rowley
1865 John Kelk
1868 Constituency reduced to one member

1868–2010[edit]

Election Member[1] Party
1868 Representation reduced to one member
1868 Henry Jervis-White-Jervis Conservative
1880 Henry Whatley Tyler Conservative
1885 James Round Conservative
1906 Arthur Levy Lever Liberal
1910 Harry Newton Conservative
1922 Albert Ernest Hillary Liberal
1924 Sir Frederick Gill Rice Conservative
1929 Sir John Pybus Liberal
1931 National Liberal
1935 Sir Stanley Holmes National Liberal
1954 by-election Julian Ridsdale National Liberal
1968 Conservative
1992 Iain Sproat Conservative
1997 Ivan Henderson Labour
2005 Douglas Carswell Conservative
2010 Constituency abolished: see Clacton and Harwich and North Essex

Elections[edit]

Elections in the 2000s[edit]

General Election 2005: Harwich
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Douglas Carswell 21,235 42.1 +1.9
Labour Ivan Henderson 20,315 40.3 −5.3
Liberal Democrat Keith Tully 5,913 11.7 +3.2
UKIP Jeffrey Titford 2,314 4.6 −0.5
Respect John Tipple 477 0.9 N/A
Independent Christopher Humphrey 154 0.3 N/A
Majority 920 1.8
Turnout 50,408 62.6 +0.5
Conservative gain from Labour Swing -3.6
General Election 2001: Harwich
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Ivan Henderson 21,951 45.6 +6.9
Conservative Iain Sproat 19,355 40.2 +3.7
Liberal Democrat Peter Wilcock 4,099 8.5 -4.6
UKIP Tony Finnegan-Butler 2,463 5.1 N/A
Independent Clive Lawrance 247 0.5 N/A
Majority 2,596 5.4 +3.1
Turnout 48,115 62.1 -8.4
Labour hold Swing +5.3

Elections in the 1990s[edit]

General Election 1997: Harwich
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Ivan Henderson 20,740 38.8 +14.1
Conservative Iain Sproat 19,524 36.5 -15.2
Liberal Democrat A.M. Elvin 7,037 13.1 -10.0
Referendum Party Jeffrey Titford 4,923 9.2 N/A
Independent R. Knight 1,290 2.4 N/A
Majority 1,216 2.3
Turnout 53,514 70.5 -3.3
Labour gain from Conservative Swing -14.7

[2]

General Election 1992: Harwich[3]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Iain Sproat 32,369 51.9 +0.1
Liberal Democrat Mrs Pauline A. Bevan 15,210 24.4 −6.1
Labour Ralph Knight 14,511 23.3 +5.8
Natural Law Mrs Eileen P. McGrath 279 0.4 N/A
Majority 17,159 27.5 +6.2
Turnout 62,369 77.7 +4.2
Conservative hold Swing +3.1

Elections in the 1980s[edit]

General Election 1987: Harwich
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sir Julian Errington Ridsdale 29,344 51.8 -2.8
SDP–Liberal Alliance (Liberal) Liz Lynne 17,262 30.4 +0.9
Labour Ralph Knight 9,920 17.5 +1.1
Independent C.A. Humphrey 161 0.3 N/A
Majority 12,082 21.4 -3.2
Turnout 56,687 73.5 +3.3
Conservative hold Swing -1.9
General Election 1983: Harwich[4]

Electorate

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sir Julian Errington Ridsdale 27,422 54.1 -0.2
SDP–Liberal Alliance (Liberal) R.M. Goodenough 14,920 29.5 +9.2
Labour Ralph Knight 8,302 16.4 -8.1
Majority 12,502 24.6 -5.2
Turnout 50,644 70.2 -4.5
Conservative hold Swing -4.7

Elections in the 1970s[edit]

General Election 1979: Harwich[5]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Julian Errington Ridsdale 37,685 54.3 +7.6
Labour CW Brooks 16,998 24.5 -5.3
Liberal R.M. Goodenough 14,094 20.3 -3.2
National Front A Pearson 597 0.9 N/A
Majority 20,687 29.8 +12.9
Turnout 69,374 74.7 +2.4
Conservative hold Swing +6.5
General Election October 1974: Harwich[6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Julian Errington Ridsdale 29,963 46.7 +1.1
Labour JB Fryer 19,135 29.8 +3.5
Liberal T Kellock 15,048 23.5 -4.6
Majority 10,828 16.9 -0.6
Turnout 64,146 72.3 -8.4
Conservative hold Swing -1.2
General Election February 1974: Harwich[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Julian Errington Ridsdale 32,452 45.6 -7.9
Liberal D Cadman 19,989 28.1 +14.2
Labour JB Fryer 18,697 26.3 -6.3
Majority 12,463 17.5 -3.5
Turnout 71,138 80.7 +6.2
Conservative hold Swing -11.1
General Election 1970: Harwich[8]

Electorate 82,198

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Julian Errington Ridsdale 32,754 53.5
Labour Andrew Wyndham Phillips 19,923 32.6 -2.3
Liberal Thomas E Dale 8,519 13.9 -3.7
Majority 12,831 21.0 +8.4
Turnout 61,196 74.5 +0.1
Conservative hold Swing +4.0

Elections in the 1960s[edit]

General Election 1966: Harwich[9]

Electorate 70,597

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Julian Errington Ridsdale 24,975 47.6 -2.8
Labour Stephen R Hatch 18,335 34.9 +5.0
Liberal Thomas E Dale 9,219 17.6 -2.1
Majority 6,640 12.6 -7.9
Turnout 52,529 74.4 -0.7
Conservative hold Swing -3.9
General Election 1964: Harwich[10]

Electorate 66,350

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Julian Errington Ridsdale 25,102 50.4
Labour David Julian Winnick 14,877 29.9
Liberal Thomas E Dale 9,824 19.7
Majority 10,225 20.5
Turnout 49,803 75.1
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1950s[edit]

General Election 1959: Harwich

Electorate 58,194

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Julian Errington Ridsdale 23,653 53.2
Labour William Oscar James Robinson 11,588 26.0
Liberal Thomas E Dale 5,507 12.4
Independent Leonard F Rose 3,744 8.4
Majority 12,065 27.1
Turnout 44,492 76.4
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1955: Harwich

Electorate 56,003

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Julian Errington Ridsdale 23,889 56.4
Labour Shirley Vivian Teresa Brittain Catlin 14,425 34.1
Liberal WI Akst 4,010 9.5
Majority 9,464 22.4
Turnout 42,234 75.6
Conservative hold Swing
Harwich by-election, 1954[11]

Electorate

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Julian Errington Ridsdale 19,532 59.1
Labour Shirley Vivian Teresa Brittain Catlin 13,535 40.9
Majority 5,997 18.1
Turnout 33,067
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1951: Harwich

Electorate 56,381

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal National Sir Joseph Stanley Holmes 26,169 58.9
Labour Morris Janis 18,244 41.1
Majority 7,925 17.8
Turnout 78.8
Liberal National hold Swing
General Election 1950: Harwich

Electorate 55,052

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal National Sir Joseph Stanley Holmes 22,814 50.6
Labour Morris Janis 16,756 37.1
Liberal L Train 5,536 12.3
Majority 6,058 13.4
Turnout 81.9
Liberal National hold Swing

Elections in the 1940s[edit]

General Election 1945[12]

Electorate 42,888

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal National Sir Joseph Stanley Holmes 16,452 55.7 -14.6
Labour Ald. Joseph Hewitt 13,067 44.3 +14.6
Majority 3,385 11.5 -29.2
Turnout 68.8 +4.8
Liberal National hold Swing -14.6

General Election 1939/40: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1940. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1939 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected;

Elections in the 1930s[edit]

General Election 1935: Harwich[12]

Electorate 48,299

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal National Joseph Stanley Holmes 21,716 70.3 -16.1
Labour Ambrose Erie Applebe 9,170 29.7 +16.1
Majority 12,546 40.6 -32.2
Turnout 30,886 63.9 -8.7
Liberal National hold Swing -16.1
General Election 1931: Harwich[12]

Electorate 43,794

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal National Percy John Pybus 26,818 86.4 +33.6
Labour E L McKeag 4,229 13.6 n/a
Majority 22,589 72.8 +64.1
Turnout 31,047 72.6 -3.7
Liberal National hold Swing n/a

Elections in the 1920s[edit]

General Election 1929: Harwich[12]

Electorate 40,478

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Percy John Pybus 16,309 52.8 +11.1
Unionist John Dixon Mayhew 13,609 44.1 -7.4
Independent Unionist J Elliott 946 3.1 n/a
Majority 2,700 8.7 18.5
Turnout 76.3 -2.7
Liberal hold Swing +9.5
General Election 1924: Harwich[12]

Electorate 30,047

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Unionist Sir Frederick Gill Rice 12,219 51.5 +5.8
Liberal Albert Ernest Hillary 9,904 41.7 -12.6
Labour Alfred Barton 1,604 6.8 n/a
Majority 2,315 9.8 18.4
Turnout 79.0 +2.8
Unionist gain from Liberal Swing +9.2
General Election 1923: Harwich[12]

Electorate 29,126

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Albert Ernest Hillary 12,059 54.3 +2.4
Unionist Sir Frederick Gill Rice 10,142 45.7 -2.4
Majority 1,917 8.6 +4.8
Turnout 76.2 +4.6
Liberal hold Swing +2.4
General Election 1922: Harwich[12]

Electorate 28,432

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Albert Ernest Hillary 10,556 51.9 +5.8
Unionist Geoffrey St John Strutt 9,792 48.1 -5.8
Majority 764 3.8 11.6
Turnout 71.6 +15.7
Liberal gain from Unionist Swing +5.8

Elections in the 1910s[edit]

General Election 1918: Harwich[12]

Electorate 27,421

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Unionist 8,261 53.9
Liberal Com. Edward Aylmer Digby 7,064 46.1
Majority 1,197 7.8
Turnout 55.9
Unionist hold Swing
  • denotes candidate who was endorsed by the Coalition Government.

Elections in the 1900s[edit]

Arthur Lever
General Election 1906 Harwich[14]

Electorate 13,144

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Arthur Levy Lever 5,650 51.6 n/a
Conservative Harry Kottingham Newton 5,308 48.4 n/a
Majority 342 3.2 n/a
Turnout 10,958 83.4 n/a
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing n/a

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Craig, F. W. S. (1983). British parliamentary election results 1918-1949 (3 ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X.

Notes and references[edit]

Coordinates: 51°52′N 1°14′E / 51.86°N 1.24°E / 51.86; 1.24