Hassan Pirnia

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Hassan Pirnia
Hassan Pirnia.jpg
Prime Minister of Iran
In office
20 May 1918 – 2 August 1918
Monarch Ahmad Shah Qajar
Preceded by Abdol Majid Mirza
Succeeded by Momtaz os-Saltaneh
In office
20 August 1918 – 16 October 1920
Monarch Ahmad Shah Qajar
Preceded by Momtaz os-Saltaneh
Succeeded by Fathollah Khan Akbar
In office
20 January 1922 – 11 June 1922
Monarch Ahmad Shah Qajar
Preceded by Malek Mansur Mirza Shao es-Saltaneh
Succeeded by Ahmad Qavam
In office
15 June 1923 – 28 October 1923
Monarch Ahmad Shah Qajar
Preceded by Mostowfi ol-Mamalek
Succeeded by Rezā Shāh
Personal details
Born 1871
Nain, Persia
Died 1935
Tehran, Iran
Political party Constitutional Movement
Religion Twelver Shia Islam

Hassan Pirnia (Persian: حسن پیرنیا‎ ‎; * 1872; † 1935) was a prominent Iranian politician of 20th-century Iran. He held a total of twenty-four posts during his political career, serving four times as Prime Minister of Iran. He is also credited as being one of the founders of the Society for the National Heritage of Iran.

Early life[edit]

Hassan was the eldest son of Mirza Nasrullah Khan, a Prime Minister during the Qajar era. Hassan also had a younger brother named Hossein. Hassan spoke fluent French, and went to school in Russia where he studied about law in Russia.

Career[edit]

Hassan became Iran's Minister to the Russian Court before returning to Iran, where he founded a school for political science in Tehran in 1899.

Upon his father's death, he assumed the title of Moshir al Dowleh, playing an important role in drafting the Persian Constitution of 1906. Hassan was given an Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George by the British crown in 1907. From 1907 to 1908, Hassan was the Minister of Foreign Affairs and later Minister of Justice. In 1918, Hassan became Prime Minister for the first time. He would re-assume the office in 1918, 1922 and 1923. Hassan also wrote the Anglo-Iranian agreement of 1919, which would Iran become a British protectorate.

However, this agreement with Great Britain resulted in a protest by a cleric named Mohammad Khiabani and other people. Khiabani shortly revolted and captured Tabriz and it's surrounding areas, calling it Azadistan ("land of liberty"); however, he was not a separatist.[1]

In order to suppress the revolt, Hassan appointed Mehdi Qoli Hedayat as the governor of Azerbaijan. In order to avoid slaughter, Hedayat first tried to negotiate with Khiabani, which Khiabani, however, refused to do. On 12 September 1920, Hedayat, with an army consisting of Cossacks, invaded the lands under Khiabani's control, and managed to defeat his supporters. According to some sources, Khiabani was killed during the invasion, while other sources state that he committed suicide.

In the Caspian coast, however, Hassan had less success in the suppression of the rebellion of Kuchik Khan, who sought to overthrow the weak Qajar monarchy which was under the influence of Great Britain and Russia.

Books and cultural contributions[edit]

Following his retirement, he published a three-volume olympian history of pre-Islamic Iran, entitled Tarikh-e Iran-e Bastan (History of Ancient Iran). Hassan's other significant contributions to the cultural life of Iran included helping to set up an Institute for the Preservation of National Heritage along with Abdolhossein Teymourtash and Mohammad Ali Foroughi in 1921.

Hassan's younger brother, Hossein (1875–1948), was also a notable statesman during this period. Known as Mo'tamen al Molk, he served as Minister of Education in 1918 and Minister without portfolio in 1920. He was elected to every session of the parliament (Majlis) from 1906 and served as its speaker for many years. In 1943 he was elected from Tehran to the 14th session of Parliament but declined to serve.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cosroe Chaqueri, The Soviet Socialist Republic of Iran, 1920-1921: Birth of the Trauma (Pittsburgh and London: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1995), p. 465.

Sources[edit]

  • Ghani, Cyrus, Iran and the Rise of Reza Shah: From Qajar Collapse to Pahlavi Power (I.B. Tauris: London, 2000). ISBN 1-86064-629-8
  • Jane Lewisohn, Flowers of Persian Song and Music: Davud Pirniā and the Genesis of the Golhā Programs, Journal of Persianate Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 79–101 (2008)
  • Marashi, Afshin, Nationalizing Iran: culture, power, and the state, 1870-1940 (University of Washington Press: 2008). ISBN 0295988207
Political offices
Preceded by
Abdol Majid Mirza
Prime Minister of Iran
1918
Succeeded by
Samad Khan Momtaz os-Saltaneh
Preceded by
Samad Khan Momtaz os-Saltaneh
Prime Minister of Iran
1918-1920
Succeeded by
Fathollah Khan Akbar
Preceded by
Malek Mansur Mirza Shao es-Saltaneh
Prime Minister of Iran
1922
Succeeded by
Ahmad Qavam
Preceded by
Mostowfi ol-Mamalek
Prime Minister of Iran
1923
Succeeded by
Reza Khan