|Type||Suburban rail, Heavy rail|
South East England
|Opening||1845–52 in stages|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge|
The Hastings Line is a secondary railway line in Kent and East Sussex, England, linking Hastings with the main town of Tunbridge Wells, and from there into London via Tonbridge and Sevenoaks. Although primarily carrying passengers now, there is still freight from a gypsum mine served by the railway.
The railway was constructed in the early 1850s across the difficult terrain of the High Weald. Supervision of the construction of the line was lax, enabling contractors to take short cuts in the construction of the tunnels. These deficiencies showed up after the line had opened. Rectifications led to a restricted loading gauge along the line, requiring the use of dedicated rolling stock. Served by steam locomotives from opening until the late 1950s, passenger services were then taken over by a fleet of diesel-electric multiple units built to the line’s loading gauge. Freight was handled by diesel locomotives, also built to fit the loading gauge. The diesel-electric multiple units served on the line until 1986, when the line was electrified and the affected tunnels were singled.
|Tonbridge to Hastings|
- 1 Background
- 2 Construction
- 3 Operation
- 4 Accidents and incidents
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The South Eastern Railway (SER) completed its main line from London to Dover, Kent in 1844, branching off the rival London, Brighton and South Coast Railway's (LBSC) line at Redhill. Construction of a single line branch from Tunbridge[Note 1] to Tunbridge Wells, a fashionable town where a chalybeate spring had been discovered in 1606, began in July that year, before Parliament had given assent for the railway, which was obtained on 31 July. The Act of Parliament enabling the construction of the line had its first reading in the House of Commons on 28 April 1845. The second reading of the bill was on 5 May, and its third reading on 14 July. The bill then passed to the House of Lords that day for its first reading there. Its second reading in the Lords was on 22 July, and the third reading was on 28 July, following which Royal Assent was granted on 31 July.
The engineer in charge of the construction was Peter W. Barlow and the contractors were Messrs. Hoof & Son. In April 1845, it was decided that the branch would be double track. A 410 yards (370 m) long tunnel was required 44 chains (890 m) after leaving Tunbridge. This was named "Somerhill Tunnel" after the nearby mansion. 1 mile 54 chains (2.70 km) after leaving Somerhill Tunnel, a 270 yards (250 m) long viaduct was required. Southborough Viaduct stands 40 feet (12 m) high and has 26 arches. A temporary station was built at Tunbridge Wells as the 823 yards (753 m) Wells Tunnel was still under construction. It was 4 miles 7 chains (6.58 km) from Tunbridge. This subsequently became a goods station. The first train, comprising four locomotives and 26 carriages arrived on 19 September. Trains from Tunbridge had to reverse before starting the climb to Somerhill Tunnel, as there was no facing junction at Tunbridge. This situation was to remain until 1857 when a direct link was built at a cost of £5,700. The old link remained in use until c. 1913.
Also in 1845, the SER was granted permission to build a line from Ashford, Kent to St Leonards, East Sussex. The LBSC reached St Leonards from Lewes in 1846. This gave the LBSC a shorter route to Hastings than the SERs route, then still under construction. The SER sought permission to extend their branch from Tunbridge Wells across the High Weald to reach Hastings. Authorisation for the construction of a 25 miles 60 chains (41.44 km) line to Hastings was obtained on 18 June 1846. The extension into Tunbridge Wells opened on 25 November 1846 without any public ceremony.
Parliament deemed the line between Ashford and St Leonards to be of military strategic importance. Therefore they stipulated that this line was to be completed before any extension was built from Tunbridge Wells. The SER unsuccessfully challenged this condition in 1847 and the line between Ashford and St Leonards was opened in 1851, making an end-on junction with the LBSC line from Lewes.
The Hastings Line is built over difficult terrain across the High Weald and sandstone Hastings Beds. As a result there are eight tunnels between Tonbridge and Hastings. The SER was anxious to construct the line as economically as possible, since it was in competition with the LBSC to obtain entry to the south coast seaside resort of Hastings and was not in a strong financial position in the mid 1840s. Climbing steeply out of the Medway Valley at gradients of between 1 in 47[Note 2] and 1 in 300 to a summit south of Tunbridge Wells, the line undulated as far as Wadhurst at gradients between 1 in 80 and 1 in 155 before descending into the Rother Valley, which it follows as far as Robertsbridge at gradients between 1 in 48 and 1 in 485. The line then climbs at gradients between 1 in 86 and 1 in 170 before a dip where it crosses the River Brede. This is followed by a climb to Battle with gradients between 1 in 100 and 1 in 227 before the line falls to Hastings at gradients of between 1 in 100 and 1 in 945.
The construction of the line between Tunbridge Wells and Robertsbridge was contracted to Messrs. Hoof & Wyths, subcontracted to Messrs. H Warden. By March 1851, the trackbed had been constructed as far as Whatlington, East Sussex, a distance of 19 miles (30.58 km). All tunnels had been completed and a single line of railway had been laid for a distance of 10 miles 40 chains (16.90 km) from Tunbridge Wells. When the 15 miles 40 chains (24.94 km) section from Tunbridge Wells to Robertsbridge opened on 1 September, a single line of track extended a further 4 miles (6.44 km) to Whatlington. On the 6 miles (9.66 km) section between Whatlington and St Leonards, 750,000 cubic yards (570,000 m3) out of 827,000 cubic yards (632,000 m3) had been excavated. Construction of the line between Tunbridge Wells and Bopeep Junction cost in excess of £500,000.
Supervision of the construction of the line was lax, which enabled the contractors to skimp on the construction of the tunnels. This manifested itself in March 1855 when part of the brickwork of Mountfield Tunnel collapsed. An inspection of Grove Hill, Strawberry Hill and Wells tunnels revealed that they too had been constructed with too few layers of bricks. Grove Hill Tunnel had been built with just a single ring of bricks and no filling above the crown of the brickwork. The SER took the contractors to court and were awarded £3,500 in damages. However, rectifying the situation cost the company £4,700. Although the contractors had charged for six rings of bricks, they had only used four. Due to the cost of reboring the tunnels, this had to be rectified by the addition of a further two rings of brickwork, reducing the width of the tunnels by 18 inches (460 mm). The result of this was that the loading gauge on the line was restricted, and special rolling stock had to be built, later becoming known as Restriction 0 rolling stock. This problem would affect the line until 1986.
Wadhurst Tunnel collapsed in 1862 and it was discovered that the same situation existed there too. Rectification cost £10,231. By 1877, only one train was permitted in Bopeep Tunnel at a time. The tunnel was partly widened in 1934–35 and was closed in 1949–50 for widening. Mountfield Tunnel was underpinned in 1938–39, remaining open with single-line working in operation. It partially collapsed on 17 November 1974, resulting in single-line working until 31 January 1975. The line was then closed until 17 March whilst the line was singled through the tunnel.
There are eight tunnels between Tonbridge and Hastings. In order from north to south they are:
|Somerhill.||410 yd (375 m).||Single||Between Tonbridge and High Brooms. Reduced to single track from 19 January 1986.|
|Wells.||823 yd (753 m).||Double||Between High Brooms and Tunbridge Wells.|
|Grove Hill.||287 yd (262 m).||Double||Between Tunbridge Wells and Frant.|
|Strawberry Hill.||286 yd (262 m).||Single||Between Tunbridge Wells and Frant. Reduced to single track from 21 April 1985.|
|Wadhurst.||1,205 yd (1,102 m).||Single||Between Wadhurst and Stonegate. Reduced to single track from 8 September 1985.|
|Mountfield.||526 yd (481 m).||Single||Between Robertsbridge and Battle. Reduced to single track from 17 March 1975.|
|Bo-Peep.||1,318 yd (1,205 m).||Double||Between West St Leonards and St Leonards Warrior Square.|
|Hastings.||788 yd (721 m).||Double||Between St Leonards Warrior Square and Hastings.|
The line was opened by the SER in three main stages:
- Tunbridge – Tunbridge Wells:
- Tunbridge Wells – Robertsbridge: 1 September 1851.
- Robertsbridge – Battle: 1 January 1852.
- Battle – St Leonards (Bo-peep Junction): 1 February 1852.
Tunbridge station had opened in May 1842. Following the opening of the branch to Tunbridge Wells in 1845, it was renamed Tunbridge Junction in January 1852. The original station stood to the east of the road bridge, whereas the current station, opened in 1864, stands to the west. Trains leaving Tunbridge had to reverse to reach Tunbridge Wells. This arrangement lasted until 1857, when a new section of line was constructed enabling trains to reach the Hastings Line without reversal. The station is 29 miles 42 chains (47.52 km) from Charing Cross via Orpington.
Southborough station opened on 1 March 1893. It was renamed High Brooms on 21 September 1925 to avoid confusion with Southborough station on the Chatham Main Line, which had already been renamed to Bickley. The station is 32 miles 70 chains (52.91 km) from Charing Cross.
- Tunbridge Wells
The first station at Tunbridge Wells was a temporary station north of Wells Tunnel. It opened on 19 September 1845 and was replaced by the present Tunbridge Wells Station on 25 November 1846. It subsequently became Tunbridge Wells Goods station, later renamed Tunbridge Wells Central Goods station. The goods station closed in 1980, with a siding retained for engineers use. The original station was 44 miles 23 chains (71.27 km) from London Bridge via Redhill.[Note 3]
The building on the up side of the station was built in the Italianate style. A new building by A. H. Blomfield was constructed on the down side in 1911. The station was renamed Tunbridge Wells Central on 9 July 1923 with the ex-LBSC station being renamed Tunbridge Wells West. Following the closure of the Tunbridge Wells – Eridge railway on 6 July 1985, the name reverted to Tunbridge Wells. The station is 34 miles 32 chains (55.36 km) from Charing Cross.
Wadhurst station opened on 1 September 1851. The station building is in the Italianate style, with a later one-bay extension. The 1893-built signal box, decommissioned on 20 April 1986, was purchased by the Kent and East Sussex Railway. The station is 39 miles 23 chains (63.23 km) from Charing Cross.
Witherenden station opened on 1 September 1851. It was renamed Ticehurst Road in December 1851. The station was renamed Stonegate on 16 June 1947. The station is 43 miles 66 chains (70.53 km) from Charing Cross.
Robertsbridge station opened on 1 September 1851. On 26 March 1900, it became a junction with the opening of the Rother Valley Railway to freight. That line opened to passengers on 2 April 1900. and was renamed the Kent and East Sussex Railway in 1904.  The Kent and East Sussex Railway closed to passengers on 2 January 1954 and to freight on 12 June 1962, except a short section serving a mill at Robertsbridge which closed on 1 January 1970. The station is 49 miles 37 chains (79.60 km) from Charing Cross.
- Mountfield Halt
Mountfield Halt opened in 1923. It closed on 6 October 1969. The platforms were built of sleepers and were demolished in the early 1970s. The station was 53 miles 37 chains (86.04 km) from Charing Cross.
A siding had existed at Crowhurst from 1877. The station opened on 1 June 1902. It was the junction for the Bexhill West Branch Line, which also opened that day. Despite the closure of that line on 14 June 1964, Crowhurst station remains open. The station is 57 miles 45 chains (92.64 km) from Charing Cross.
- West St Leonards
- St Leonards Warrior Square
St Leonards Warrior Square station opened on 13 February 1851. along with a new section of line between Hastings and the LBSCs Hastings & St Leonards station. This gave the LBSC better access to Hastings. It lies between Bopeep Tunnel and Hastings Tunnel. The station is 61 miles 55 chains (99.28 km) from Charing Cross.
Hastings station opened on 13 February 1851 along with the SER branch from Ashford. The station was rebuilt and enlarged by the SER in 1880 as it was then inadequate for the increasing seasonal traffic. In 1930, the station was rebuilt by the Southern Railway. This entailed closure of the engine sheds at Hastings, with locomotives being transferred to St Leonards. The original station building, by Tress, was demolished and a new Neo-Georgian station building by J. R. Scott was erected. The rebuilt station was completed on 5 July 1931. The station was rebuilt in 2003 by Railtrack. The 1931-built building was demolished and a new structure erected in its place. The station is 62 miles 33 chains (100.44 km) from Charing Cross via Orpington.
Links to other lines
In the late 1860s, a single track link was built between the SERs Tunbridge Wells station and the LBSCs Tunbridge Wells station, which had opened in 1866. It was 1875 before powers were granted to run a passenger service over this section of line. The junction with the main line was Grove Junction. It was removed on 7 July 1985, following closure of the Tunbridge Wells Central – Eridge line the previous day.
In 1900, the Rother Valley Railway opened from Robertsbridge to Tenterden. It was extended in stages to Tenterden Town and Headcorn, which was reached in 1905. The line closed to passengers on 2 January 1954 and freight on 12 June 1962. In 1902, a branch line was built to Bexhill West, with a new station at the junction with the main line at Crowhurst. This line closed on 14 June 1967.
In 1856, it was proposed to build a 6-mile (9.66 km) long branch from Witherenden to Mayfield, East Sussex.[Note 4] In 1882, an 18-mile-40-chain (29.77 km) long railway was proposed from Ticehurst Road to Langney, East Sussex, giving access to Eastbourne. Stations were proposed at Burwash, Dallington, Bodle Street Green, Boreham Street, Pevensey and Langney.
Bopeep Junction is the junction of the Hastings Line with the East Coastway Line. It lies east of Bopeep Tunnel. There is a pub in Bulverhythe called The Bo Peep. The name was a nickname for Customs and Excise men.
Electrification of the Hastings Line was first considered by the SER as early as 1903. Lack of finance meant that no decision had been made by the time World War I broke out in 1914. It was stated in 1921 that electrification was a long term aim. In the mid-1930s, the Southern Railway, which had been formed from the SER, LBSC, London and South Western Railway and London, Chatham and Dover Railway in 1923 under the Railways Act 1921, electrified a number of lines. The East Coastway Line was electrified in 1935, with a depot being built at Ore, East Sussex. In 1937, it was proposed to electrify the line between Sevenoaks and St Leonards Warrior Square at a cost of £1,500,000. The scheme was deferred, with another proposal in 1937 costing £1,300,000 also failing to gain favour before World War II broke out. One of the main reasons that electrification was not given the go-ahead was the fact that non-standard rolling stock would be required. The Southern Railway had provided with line with 104 new carriages and six Pullman Cars between 1929 and 1934. Two electric locomotives were built in 1937 to the Hastings Line loading gauge.
In October 1946, the Southern Railway announced a programme to electrify all lines in Kent and East Sussex in three stages. The Hastings Line between Tonbridge and Bopeep Junction was to be part of the third stage. Following the nationalisation of railways in the United Kingdom under the Transport Act 1947, the Southern Region of British Railways shelved new electrification schemes, concentrating on the construction of new steam locomotives. In 1952, the possibility of operating standard rolling stock on the line had been examined, but the Operating Department objected to the use of single line sections through the various tunnels. The 1930s stock was refurbished with the aim of extending its service by a further ten years. The first two phases of the Southern Railways' electrification scheme were revived in 1955. This did not include the Hastings Line and it was announced in 1956 that a fleet of diesel-electric trains would be constructed to operate the service until the line was electrified. The rolling stock built in the 1930s being by then overdue for replacement.
From the opening of the line, passenger stock comprised 4-wheel carriages. In 1845, there were eight passenger trains a day from Tunbridge Wells to London, with half that number on Sundays. On 23 June 1849, the Royal Train took Queen Victoria and Prince Albert to Tunbridge Wells to visit Queen Adelaide, the Queen Dowager. The train, consisting the Royal Saloon, two first class carriages and a brake van made the journey from Bricklayers Arms to Tunbridge Wells in 75 minutes. It was driven by James Cudworth, the Locomotive Superintendent of the SER. The return journey took 70 minutes. The Royal Train visited the line again on 18 December 1849 conveying Queen Victoria and Princess Alice from Windsor, Berkshire to Tunbridge Wells on a visit to Princess Louise. The journey via Waterloo took 100 minutes. The train was driven by William Jacomb, Resident Engineer of the London and South Western Railway (LSWR) and Edgar Verringer, Superintendent of the LSWR. At Waterloo, driving of the train was taken over by John Shaw, General Manager of the SER and Mr. Cockburn, Superintendent of the SER. The return journey took 105 minutes.
With the opening of the extension to Robertsbridge, there were three trains a day, with two on Sundays. These were augmented by an additional train daily when the extension to Bo-peep Junction opened. In 1860, there were seven up trains and six down trains daily; Hastings to London via Redhill taking two hours. From 1861, Cudworth 2-2-2 "Little Mail" class locomotives were introduced. In 1876, the Sub-Wealden Gypsum Co built a 1 mile (1.6 km) long line from a junction south of Mountfield Tunnel to a gypsum mine located in Great Wood, Mountfield. This line was still in operation as of 2007. Bogie carriages entered service on the line in 1880. In 1890, the winter service was eleven trains each way, of which five were fast.[Note 5] An addition two trains daily operated between Tunbridge Wells and Wadhurst. By 1910, this had increased to twenty trains each way, of which twelve were fast, plus the extra two Wadhurst services. Four trains ran on Sundays. The service was reduced during World War I, but Sunday services had increased to seven by 1922.
By the 1930s the line was worked by L and L1 class 4-4-0 locomotives. The Schools class 4-4-0s were introduced in 1930. The service was again reduced during World War II, with fourteen trains daily in 1942, of which four were fast; there were seven trains on Sundays. By 1948, the service was sixteen trains, of which seven were fast. An additional three trains ran as far as Wadhurst. In 1957, the service was eighteen trains daily, of which nine were fast. There were nine trains on Sundays. The Schools Class locomotives worked the line until 1957 when steam was withdrawn on the Hastings Line. diesel-electric multiple units of what became British Rail Class 201, 202 and 203 (the "Hastings Diesels") took over working the route.
Under British Railways, classes D1, E1, H, N1, M7, Q, Q1, Std 3 2-6-2T, Std 4 2-6-0 Std 4 2-6-4T and U1 were permitted to work between Tonbridge and Grove junction. Freight trains from Tonbridge West Yard were not permitted to depart until the line was clear as far as Southborough Viaduct. Other classes of locomotive known to have worked over this section of line include C, and E4.
Special narrow bodied diesel electric multiple units were introduced in 1957–58 to replace steam traction. British Rail Class 201 (6S), 202 (6L) and 203 (6B) (the "Hastings Diesels") took over working the route. These units were constructed of narrow rolling stock. They were delivered in six-car formations (the 6Bs including a buffet car) and two units were often operated in multiple to form twelve-car trains. In latter years some of the units were reduced to five, and later still, to four cars.
The 6S units were intended to be introduced into service in June 1957. On 5 April a fire at Cannon Street signal box disabled all signalling equipment there. As a result, locomotive-hauled trains were banned from the station. A temporary signal box was commissioned on 5 May and the 6S units were introduced on peak services the next day. Two units coupled together formed the 06:58 and 07:26 Hastings – Cannon Street services in the morning, and the 17:18 and 18:03 Cannon Street – Hastings services in the evening. From 17 June the 6S and 6L units were working services throughout the day. The 6B units entered service between May and August 1958. The Hastings Diesels had almost completely replaced steam by June 1958. With the introduction of the Hastings Diesels, an hourly service was provided. This split at Tunbridge Wells, with the front portion running fast to Crowhurst and the rear portion stopping at all stations. The service ran every two hours on Sundays. The Hastings Diesels also worked services on the Bexhill West Branch Line until closure on 14 June 1964. On 22 December 1958, 6L unit 1017 collided with 6B unit 1035 at Tunbridge Wells Central.
In 1962, twelve Class 33/2 diesel locomotives, were also built with narrow bodies for the Hastings line. These enabled the last steam workings, overnight newspaper trains, to be withdrawn from the Hastings Line. Nineteen British Rail Class 207 (3D) diesel electric multiple units were built in 1962. They operated over the Tonbridge – Grove Junction section of the line as part of a Tonbridge – Eastbourne (later Tonbridge – Eridge) service. In 1963, Frant, Stonegate, Wadhurst and Mountfield Halt were proposed to be closed under the Beeching Axe. One special working took place on 3 April 1966 when one of the ex-Great Western Railway diesel railcars, W20W, was worked between Tonbridge and Robertsbridge as an out of gauge load. The railcar had been purchased by the Kent and East Sussex Railway for £415 including delivery to Robertsbridge. After trying to wriggle out of the deal, British Railways eventually found a solution. The vehicle was ballasted so that it leant away from the tunnel walls by some 3 inches (76 mm) and was worked to Robertsbridge at a maximum of 20 miles per hour (32 km/h). From 1977, there were two trains an hour, one fast and one slow. In May 1980, the buffet cars were withdrawn from the 6B units, which were recoded as 5L, but retaining the Class 203 designation. The fast trains were withdrawn in January 1981, with trains now stopping at all stations.
On 28 October 1983, it was announced that the Hastings Line was to be electrified. Reasons that decided the issue included a commitment by British Rail to eliminate asbestos from all stock in service by 1988 and the increasing cost of maintaining the then ageing Hastings Diesels. The scheme was to cost £23,925,000. Electrification was finally completed in 1986, the line was electrified using 750 V DC third rail using standard rolling stock, and the expedient of singling the track through the narrow tunnels. The line was declared to conform to the standard C1 loading gauge on 14 March. The first passenger carrying train comprising C1 stock to use the line was a railtour on 15 March. It was organised by the Southern Electric Group and ran from Paddington to Folkestone Harbour. The train was hauled by 50 025 Invincible. A preview service of electric trains ran on 27 April 1986 and the full timetabled service commenced on 12 May 1986. The Royal Train visited the line on 6 May, conveying Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother. It was stabled at Wadhurst whilst she ate lunch. The train was hauled by a Class 73 diesel-electric locomotive. Upon electrification, services were operated by 4CEP, 4CIG and 4VEP electric multiple units. Class 508 electric multiple units also operated services on the line. When these units were withdrawn in the mid-2000s, they were replaced by Class 375 Electrostar, Class 465 Networker and Class 466 Networker units.
Train services on the line are provided by Southeastern, and are mostly operated by Class 375 Electrostar or occasionally Class 465/466 Networker units. The line still sees a freight service to and from British Gypsum's sidings at Mountfield.
Accidents and incidents
- On 4 October 1852, a passenger train was derailed between Ticehurst Road and Etchingham when the formation was flooded and washed away. Both engine crew were injured.
- On 21 June 1856, a passenger train derailed between Tunbridge Wells and Tunbridge Junction, killing the driver and injuring the fireman and a passenger.
- On 22 February 1892, a SER locomotive was run into by a LBSC passenger train at Hastings. The passenger train had overrun a danger signal. Both locomotives were damaged.
- On 29 August 1896, the locomotive of a Charing Cross to Hastings train was derailed near Etchingham when it collided with a traction engine and threshing machine using an occupation crossing.
- On 6 January 1930, the rear carriages of a passenger train from Hastings to London were partially buried by a landslip near Wadhurst tunnel. The train was divided and the front part continued on to Tunbridge Wells, where it arrived 100 minutes late.
- On 23 December 1958, 6L unit 1017 collided with 6B unit 1035 at Tunbridge Wells Central. Eighteen people were injured, with three of them admitted to hospital.
- On 23 December 2013, a landslip at Wadhurst meant that trains on the Hastings Line were replaced by buses. The line reopened on 8 January 2014, with a 5 miles per hour (8 km/h) speed restriction at Wadhurst. On 30 January, there were two further landslips, at Crowhurst and West St Leonards, which closed the line between St Leonards Warrior Square and Robertsbridge. The line was reopened the next day with a 40 miles per hour (64 km/h) speed restriction in place. On 2 February, there were two further landslips between Battle and Robertsbridge. The line was closed between these two stations and a bus service replaced the trains. The closure was later extended to the Wadhurst – Battle section. Although it was initially reported that the line would be reopened at the end of February, this was later revised to 3 March but was again postponed. Southeastern was criticized by Hastings and Rye MP Amber Rudd over poor customer service during this period. By 12 March, the section between Wadhurst and Robertsbridge had reopened, but it was stated that the line between Robertsbridge and Battle would remain closed "until further notice". The line reopened on 31 March 2014.
- ^ The modern spelling of "Tonbridge" was not adopted as the official spelling until 1870.
- ^ A gradient of 1 in 47 means that the line climbs by 1 foot in 47 feet, or 1 metre in 47 metres.
- ^ This was the route of the line during the time that Tunbridge Wells Central Goods served as a passenger station. The line between Tunbridge and Orpington did not open until 1 May 1868.
- ^ Mayfield was reached by railway in 1880, with the opening of the Cuckoo Line.
- ^ Trains designated as "fast" did not call at every station. "Slow" trains called at all stations.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hastings Line.|
- Hastings & St Leonards: Railways and Stations, at 1066 online