A milliner designs, makes, trims, or sells hats.
Millinery is sold to women, men and children, though some definitions limit the term to womens' hats. Historically, milliners, typically female shopkeepers, produced or imported for sale an inventory of garments for both men and women, including hats, shirts, cloaks, shifts, caps, and neckerchiefs. Customers would visit a millinery shop to examine and buy clothes (children's clothing, shirts, undergarments and caps, for example).
More recently, a milliner has become a hatter who designs, makes, sells or trims hats primarily for a female clientele.
Women's fascinators are a style of millinery: the use of feathers, materials, beads, pearls and crystals to make extravagant to petite fascinators for brides, weddings, christenings, ladies' day at the horse races and many other glamorous occasions.
Types of millinery
Many styles of hat have been popular through history and worn for different functions and types of event. They can be part of uniforms or worn to indicate social status. Styles include the top hat, hats worn as part of military uniforms, cowboy hat and cocktail hat.
Notable hatters and milliners
The names in this section represent those who had and/or continue to have a significant influence on hatmaking and millinery.
- John Cavanagh, an American hatter whose innovations included manufacturing regular, long and wide-oval fitting hats to enable customers to find better-fitting ready-to-wear hats.
- James Lock & Co. of London (founded 1676), is credited with the introduction of the bowler hat in 1849.
- John Batterson Stetson, credited with inventing the classic cowboy hat
- Anna Ben-Yusuf wrote The Art of Millinery (1909), one of the first reference books on millinery technique.
- Rose Bertin, milliner and modiste to Marie Antoinette, is often described as the world's first celebrity fashion designer.
- Lilly Daché was a famous American milliner of the mid-20th century.
- Mr. John was an American milliner considered by some to be the millinery equivalent of Dior in the 1940s and 50s.
- Stephen Jones of London, is considered one of the world's most radical and important milliners of the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
- Simone Mirman was known for her designs for Elizabeth II and other members of the British Royal Family.
- Caroline Reboux was a renowned milliner of the 19th and early 20th centuries.
- David Shilling is a renowned milliner, artist and designer based in Monaco.
- Philip Treacy of London is an award-winning milliner.
- "Millner". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2012-06-07.
- American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition
- Bowler hat makes a comeback Telegraph (London). Retrieved 9 June 2012
- Reynolds, William and Rich Rand (1995) The Cowboy Hat book. Pg 8 ISBN 0-87905-656-8
- Jones, Stephen & Cullen, Oriole (editor) (2009). Hats: An Anthology. V&A Publishing. ISBN 1-85177-557-9.
- Steele, Valerie (2010). The Berg Companion to Fashion. Berg. pp. 72–73. ISBN 1847885926. Retrieved 9 June 2012. More than one of
- New York Times obituary for Mr. John
- Biography of Stephen Jones on the V&A Museum website, accessed 01 April 2009
- Hillier, Bevis (October 13, 1985). "Hat Trick". LA Times. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
- All Sewn Up: Millinery, Dressmaking, Clothing and Costume
- 18th Century millinery
- Popular Science, November 1941, Pulling Hats Out Of Rabbits article on modern mass production hat making