Wikipedia:Hatnote

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For hatting an unproductive discussion, see Template:Hat.
For hatnote templates documentation, see Template:Hatnote templates documentation.

Hatnotes are short notes placed at the top of an article or section of an article (hence the name "hat"). Hatnotes help readers locate a different article they might be seeking. Readers may have arrived at the article containing the hatnote because they were redirected, because the sought article uses a more specific, disambiguated title, or because the sought article and the article with the hatnote have similar names. Hatnotes provide links to the possibly sought article or to a disambiguation page.

For more information about methods of disambiguating articles, see Wikipedia:Disambiguation.

Contents

Placement[edit]

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Hatnotes are placed at the very top of the article, before any other items such as images, navigational templates and maintenance templates (like the "cleanup", "unreferenced", and "POV" templates). Text-only browsers and screen readers present the page sequentially. If a reader has reached the wrong page, they typically want to know that first.

Format[edit]

In most cases, hatnotes should be created using a standard hatnote template as illustrated below. This permits the form and structure of hatnotes to be changed uniformly across the encyclopedia as needed and the templates to be excluded in print.

Current Wikipedia style is to italicize and to indent each note, without a bullet before the item. A horizontal dividing line should neither be placed under a note nor after the final item in a list.

When determining the content of the hatnote, keep in mind that it forms part of the user interface rather than the article content. Two applicable user interface design principles are clarity and conciseness. The hatnote should not overload the user with extraneous information, and the content should be imparted quickly and accurately. These design goals are conveyed succinctly in the artistic principle less is more.

Length[edit]

Shortcuts:

As hatnotes separate the reader from the content they are looking for, hatnotes should generally be as concise as possible. Long explanations are generally discouraged; the article's lead text, not the hatnote, should explain what the article is about. In almost all cases, the hatnote is intended only to direct readers to other articles in case they were actually looking for something they will not find in the article containing the hatnote.

To shorten hatnotes, generally they should only list disambiguation pages (X (disambiguation)) if the article is at X or if X redirects to that article. If X is a disambiguation page and the article is at X (letter), then X (letter) generally needs no hatnote. Direct links to other articles should be limited to circumstances immediately following a page move or redirect change or if the other article could be reasonably expected by a significant amount of readers to be at the title in question: for instance, Turkey is about the country, but many readers reasonably expect to find the article on the bird at that title; therefore, the hatnote there correctly reads

{{two other uses|the country|the bird|Turkey (bird)}}

which renders

This article is about the country. For the bird, see Turkey (bird). For other uses, see Turkey (disambiguation).

One single hatnote is greatly preferred to two (or worse, more). There are many different templates that can easily accommodate several links; use one of them rather than two hatnote templates.

Summarize or not?[edit]

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Some hatnote disambiguation templates include a brief summary of the present article's topic; others do not have a summary. For instance, in the article Honey, one might use the template {{about|the insect-produced fluid}} to produce:

This article is about the insect-produced fluid. For other uses of the term, see Honey (disambiguation).

Alternatively, one might use {{other uses}} to produce:

For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation).

Either of these two styles is acceptable. The choice of style in a given article is based on editors' preferences and on what is likely to be clearer and easier for the reader. (In this particular instance, most English speakers will know what honey is, and the second, more concise hatnote is preferable.) Where an article already has a hatnote in one of these styles, editors should not change it to the other style without good reason.

Examples of proper use[edit]

Two articles with similar titles[edit]

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This article is about the village in England. For H. P. Lovecraft's fictional town, see Dunwich (Lovecraft).

Dunwich (/ˈdʌnɪ/) is a town in the county of Suffolk in England, the remnant of what was once a prosperous seaport and centre of the wool trade during the early middle ages, with a natural harbour formed by the mouths of the River Blyth...

When two articles share the same title, except that one is disambiguated and the other not, the undisambiguated article should include a hatnote with a link to the other article. It is not necessary to create a separate disambiguation page. {{about}} may be used for this. In this case the parameterization was {{about|the village in England|H. P. Lovecraft's fictional town|Dunwich (Lovecraft)}}.

Linking to a disambiguation page[edit]

For other uses, see Monolith (disambiguation).

A monolith is a monument or natural feature such as a mountain, consisting of a single massive stone or rock. Erosion usually exposes these formations...

When a term has a primary meaning and two or more additional meanings, the hatnote on the primary topic page should link to a disambiguation page. {{other uses}} may be used for this.

In many cases the hatnote also includes a brief description of the subject of the present article, for readers' convenience:

This article is about the maze-like labyrinth from Greek mythology. For other uses, see Labyrinth (disambiguation).

In Greek mythology, the Labyrinth was an elaborate maze-like structure constructed for King Minos of Crete and designed by the legendary artificer Daedalus to hold the Minotaur...

The template {{about}} may be used for this. In this case the parameterization was {{about|the mazelike labyrinth from Greek mythology}}.

Ambiguous term that redirects to an unambiguously named article[edit]

{{redirect}}, or a related template, can be used when an ambiguous title is redirected to an unambiguous title or a primary topic article:

Johann Sebastian Bach


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Bach)

"Bach" redirects here. For other uses, see Bach (disambiguation).

Johann Sebastian Bach (German pronunciation: [joˈhan/ˈjoːhan zeˈbastjan ˈbax]; March 21, 1685 O.S.July 28, 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer...

Examples of improper use[edit]

Trivial information, dictionary definitions, and slang[edit]

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When notes feature a trivial detail or use of a term, or links to overly specific and tendentious material, they are unwarranted.

During a siege, to invest a town or fortress means to surround it with a contravallation and a circumvallation.

Investment is a term with several closely related meanings in finance and economics. It refers to the accumulation of some kind of asset in hopes of getting a future return from it...

In this case, there is no direct disambiguation, and the note listed is bound to be uninteresting to most readers. The proper disambiguation simply links to a separate Invest (disambiguation) page.

Legitimate information about the topic[edit]

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A previous version of the Aisha article showed:

Ayesha is sometimes used as a woman's name. Once popular only among Muslims, it was briefly popular among English-speakers after it appeared in the book She by Rider Haggard.

Aisha or Ayesha (Arabic عائشه `ā'isha = "she who lives") was a wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad...

This is a typical and highly improper misuse of disambiguating hatnotes. Instead, the information belongs in the body of the article, or in the articles about the book, or in a separate article about names, or all three places. Hatnotes are meant to reduce confusion and direct readers to another article they might have been looking for, not for information about the subject of the article itself.

Linking to articles that are related to the topic[edit]

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Disambiguation hatnotes are intended to link to separate topics that could be referred to by the same title. They are not intended to link to topics that are simply related to each other, or to a specific aspect of a general topic:

This article is about the scientific study of extraterrestrial life. For treatment in popular culture, see Extraterrestrial life in popular culture.

Extraterrestrial life is life that may exist and originate outside the planet Earth. Its existence is currently hypothetical: there is as yet no evidence of extraterrestrial life that has been widely accepted by scientists...

Instead of using a disambiguation hatnote in such cases, it is better to summarize Extraterrestrial life in popular culture under a subsection of Extraterrestrial life in conjunction with the {{main}} template. Alternatively, it could be linked to in the See also section.

This guideline does not discourage the use of disambiguation hatnotes in a situation where separate topics are related, but could nonetheless be referred to by the same title and would thus qualify for disambiguation, such as a book and its film adaptation.

Disambiguating article names that are not ambiguous[edit]

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Tree (set theory)


For other uses, see Tree (disambiguation).

In set theory, a tree is a partially ordered set (poset) in which there is a single unique minimal element (called the root) and in which the set of elements less than a given element is well ordered...

Here the hatnote can be removed. A reader who is following links within Wikipedia is unlikely to end up at tree (set theory) if one were looking for other types of trees, since tree does not redirect there.

A hatnote may still be appropriate when even a more specific name is still ambiguous. For example, Matt Smith (comics) might still be confused with the comics illustrator Matt Smith (illustrator).

The presence or absence of such hatnotes has been a contentious issue, and this guideline doesn't prescribe one way or the other. There are cases where some editors strongly believe that such hatnotes should be included, such as the various articles about treaties called Treaty of Paris.

A hatnote may also be appropriate in an unambiguously named article when an ambiguous term redirects to it, as explained in the "Proper uses" section above.

Extraneous links[edit]

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Each additional link in the hatnote besides the ambiguous or confusable topic(s) makes it more difficult to find the desired target. For example:

For the New Orleans, Louisiana, United States radio station known as WTIX from 1953 to 2005, see WIST (AM).

WTIX (980 AM) is a radio station broadcasting a Sports radio format.

In this case, the link to New Orleans, Louisiana, in the hatnote leads to an article that is not ambiguous with the title. Linking only to the possible other destination (WIST (AM)) makes it easier to find the link.

External links[edit]

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A previous version of the Hurricane Katrina article contained:

If you are trying to locate someone missing in Hurricane Katrina, or register yourself as found, you can use the site www.disastersearch.org [1]

Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall near New Orleans, Louisiana, on August 29, 2005, was one of the most destructive and expensive tropical cyclones to hit the United States...

The use of external help links in Wikipedia, though noble, cannot reasonably be maintained. In special cases, a link to an "External links" section may be appropriate, but POV favoritism can be obstructive. In this case, the hatnote was removed entirely.

Non-existent articles[edit]

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Hatnotes should not contain red links to non-existent articles since hatnotes are intended to help users navigate to another article they may have intended to find. The exception is if one intends to create the linked article immediately. In that case, consider creating the new article first, before saving the addition of the hatnote.



Hatnote templates[edit]

For the full guideline on hatnotes, see Wikipedia:Hatnote.

Hatnotes must be at the very top of the page or section.

Generic hatnote[edit]

  • {{Hatnote|CUSTOM TEXT}}
    CUSTOM TEXT
{{Hatnote|For other senses of this term, see [[etc…]]}}
For other senses of this term, see etc…

If a link in a hatnote points to a disambiguation page, the link should include "(disambiguation)", even if that is a redirect. This indicates that the disambiguation link is intentional, and not an error (see WP:INTDABLINK):

Not {{hatnote|other uses|Springfield}}; but
{{hatnote|other uses|Springfield (disambiguation)}}, or
{{hatnote|other uses|Springfield (disambiguation)|Springfield}}

More pages on the same topic ("Further information ...")[edit]

"Main article: …"[edit]

{{Main}} is used to make summary style explicit, when used in a summary section for which there is also a separate article on the subject:

"For more details on …, see …"[edit]

{{Details}} can supplement {{Main}} in summary sections, or can indicate more details in nonsummary sections:

  • {{Details|PAGE1}}
    For more details on this topic, see PAGE1.
  • {{Details|PAGE1|TOPIC}}
    For more details on TOPIC, see PAGE1.

{{Details3}} allows changing the displayed name for links. Unlike {{Details}}, it requires bracketed link notation:

"See also …"[edit]

Note: use only when OTHER TOPIC PAGE is related to current article and contains a self-explanatory parenthetical.

"Further information: …"[edit]

Other uses of the same title ("For …, see …")[edit]

"This page is about … For other uses …"[edit]

{{About}} is the main template for noting other uses.

Note. When used in main namespace, the word "page" in the following hatnotes is replaced by "article".

  • {{About|USE1}}
    This page is about USE1. For other uses, see Hatnote (disambiguation).
  • {{About|USE1||PAGE2}} (When the disambiguation page has a different name – Note the empty second parameter) →
    This page is about USE1. For other uses, see PAGE2.
  • {{About|USE1|USE2|PAGE2}} (When there is only one other use) →
    This page is about USE1. For USE2, see PAGE2.
  • {{About|USE1|USE2|PAGE2|and|PAGE3}} (Two pages for USE2) →
    This page is about USE1. For USE2, see PAGE2 and PAGE3.
  • {{About|USE1|USE2|PAGE2#SUBSECTION{{!}}PAGE2TITLE}} (Using the {{!}} magic word to give the link a different title) →
    This page is about USE1. For USE2, see PAGE2TITLE.
  • {{About|USE1|USE2|PAGE2|USE3|PAGE3|USE4|PAGE4|USE5|PAGE5}} (When there are up to four other uses – You should generally create a disambiguation page at this point) →
    This page is about USE1. For USE2, see PAGE2. For USE3, see PAGE3. For USE4, see PAGE4. For USE5, see PAGE5.
  • {{About|USE1|USE2|PAGE2|USE3|PAGE3|other uses}} (When there are several standard other uses and also a disambiguation page with default name – Note that the last page name is not specified) →
    This page is about USE1. For USE2, see PAGE2. For USE3, see PAGE3. For other uses, see Hatnote (disambiguation).
  • {{About|USE1|USE2|PAGE2|USE3|PAGE3|other uses|PAGE4}} (When there are several standard other uses and also a disambiguation page with non-default name) →
    This page is about USE1. For USE2, see PAGE2. For USE3, see PAGE3. For other uses, see PAGE4.
  • {{About|USE1|USE2|PAGE2|USE3|PAGE3|other uses|PAGE4|and}}
    This page is about USE1. For USE2, see PAGE2. For USE3, see PAGE3. For other uses, see PAGE4 and Hatnote (disambiguation).
  • {{About||USE2|PAGE2|USE3|PAGE3|other uses}} (When you don't need to state the focus of this article/page – Note the empty first parameter) →
    For USE2, see PAGE2. For USE3, see PAGE3. For other uses, see Hatnote (disambiguation).
  • {{About|||PAGE1|and|PAGE2}}
    For other uses, see PAGE1 and PAGE2.
Note: {{for||PAGE1|PAGE2}} produces the same result.
Note: this hatnote says "section", instead of "article" or "page".

"This page is about … It is not to be confused with …"[edit]

{{About-distinguish}} is a template for noting other uses when there could be confusion with another topic.

"For …, see …"[edit]

{{For}} can be used instead of {{About}} so as not to display: This page is about USE1. but still specify a specific other use. This effect can also be achieved by using an empty first parameter in {{About}} as in:

For example: {{for|OTHER TOPIC|PAGE1}} is the same as {{About||OTHER TOPIC|PAGE1}} (note the empty first parameter).

However, it is somewhat clearer when using the {{For}} template, since the word "about" does not appear in the statement.

Variations
As with {{Other uses}}, there is a whole family of "for" templates. {{For2}} allows custom text, such as quotation marks or a link from part of the "CUSTOM TEXT"
  • {{For2|OTHER TOPIC|CUSTOM TEXT}}
    For OTHER TOPIC, see CUSTOM TEXT.

"For other uses, see …"[edit]

When such a wordy hatnote as {{About}} is not needed, {{Other uses}} is often useful.

Variations
There are, historically, a whole family of "other uses" templates for specific cases. {{About}} is the standard hatnote for "other uses" and many of them can be specified using the {{About}} template. However, the individual templates may be easier to use in certain contexts.
Here are the variations and (when appropriate) the equivalents using the {{About}}, {{Other uses}} or {{For}} templates.
Note: adds "(disambiguation)" to whatever is input as the PAGE1.
Note: {{Other uses|PAGE1 (disambiguation)}} produces the same result.
Note: same as {{about}}, except it forces a second use to be noted if unspecified by parameters.

"For other uses of …, see …"[edit]

"… redirects here. For other uses, see …"[edit]

  • {{Redirect|REDIRECT}}
    "REDIRECT" redirects here. For other uses, see REDIRECT (disambiguation).
  • {{Redirect|REDIRECT||PAGE1}}
    "REDIRECT" redirects here. For other uses, see PAGE1.
  • {{Redirect|REDIRECT|USE1|PAGE1}}
    "REDIRECT" redirects here. For USE1, see PAGE1.
  • {{Redirect|REDIRECT|USE1|PAGE1|USE2|PAGE2}}
    "REDIRECT" redirects here. For USE1, see PAGE1. For USE2, see PAGE2.
  • {{Redirect|REDIRECT|USE1|PAGE1|USE2|PAGE2|USE3|PAGE3}}
    "REDIRECT" redirects here. For USE1, see PAGE1. For USE2, see PAGE2. For USE3, see PAGE3.
  • {{Redirect|REDIRECT|USE1|PAGE1|and|PAGE2}}
    "REDIRECT" redirects here. For USE1, see PAGE1 and PAGE2.
  • {{Redirect|REDIRECT|USE1|PAGE1|USE2|PAGE2|and|PAGE3}}
    "REDIRECT" redirects here. For USE1, see PAGE1. For USE2, see PAGE2 and PAGE3.
  • {{Redirect6|REDIRECT|USE1|PAGE1}}
    "REDIRECT" redirects here. For USE1, see PAGE1. For other uses, see REDIRECT (disambiguation).
  • {{Redirect6|REDIRECT|USE1|PAGE1||PAGE2}}
    "REDIRECT" redirects here. For USE1, see PAGE1. For other uses, see PAGE2.
Variations
  • For two sources:
    • {{Redirect2|REDIRECT1|REDIRECT2}}
      "REDIRECT1" and "REDIRECT2" redirect here. For other uses, see REDIRECT1 (disambiguation).
    • {{Redirect2|REDIRECT1|REDIRECT2|USE}}
      "REDIRECT1" and "REDIRECT2" redirect here. For USE, see REDIRECT1 (disambiguation).
    • {{Redirect2|REDIRECT1|REDIRECT2||PAGE1}}
      "REDIRECT1" and "REDIRECT2" redirect here. For other uses, see PAGE1.
    • {{Redirect2|REDIRECT1|REDIRECT2|USE|PAGE1}}
      "REDIRECT1" and "REDIRECT2" redirect here. For USE, see PAGE1.
    • {{Redirect2|REDIRECT1|REDIRECT2|USE1|PAGE1|USE2|PAGE2}}
      "REDIRECT1" and "REDIRECT2" redirect here. For USE1, see PAGE1. For USE2, see PAGE2.
    • {{Redirect2|REDIRECT1|REDIRECT2|USE1|PAGE1|USE2|PAGE2|USE3|PAGE3}}
      "REDIRECT1" and "REDIRECT2" redirect here. For USE1, see PAGE1. For USE2, see PAGE2. For USE3, see PAGE3.
    • {{Redirect2|REDIRECT1|REDIRECT2|USE1|PAGE1|USE2|PAGE2|USE3|PAGE3|USE4|PAGE4}}
      "REDIRECT1" and "REDIRECT2" redirect here. For USE1, see PAGE1. For USE2, see PAGE2. For USE3, see PAGE3. For USE4, see PAGE4.
    • {{Redirect4|REDIRECT1|REDIRECT2}}
      "REDIRECT1" and "REDIRECT2" redirect here. For other uses, see REDIRECT1 (disambiguation) and REDIRECT2 (disambiguation).
    • {{Redirect4|REDIRECT1|REDIRECT2|USE|TEXT}}
      "REDIRECT1" and "REDIRECT2" redirect here. For USE, see TEXT.
  • For three sources:
  • To specify the text following "redirects here.":
    • {{Redirect3|REDIRECT|TEXT}} or {{Redirect text|REDIRECT|TEXT}}
      "REDIRECT" redirects here. TEXT.
    • {{Redirect-synonym|TERM|OTHER TOPIC}}
      "TERM" redirects here. TERM may also refer to OTHER TOPIC.
... Not to be confused with ...

Similar proper names ("For other people named ...")[edit]

Other people[edit]

Note: same as {{About}} except uses "other people" instead of "other uses" if only 1 parameter is used
Note: defaults to "named" as in {{Other people}}, exists for options like "nicknamed", "known as", etc.

Other places[edit]

Other ships[edit]

For articles on ships:

Distinguish[edit]

"Not to be confused with …"[edit]

"… redirects here. It is not to be confused with …"[edit]

"For technical reasons, … redirects here. For … , see … ."[edit]

Family names[edit]

Miscellaneous (hurricanes, Pope Stephen, Wiki selfref)[edit]

These hatnotes are topic-specific. They are documented at their template page.

Categories[edit]

Category-specific templates:

This is a template for linking categories horizontally. Horizontal linkage is often the right solution when vertical linkage (i.e., as sub-category and parent category) is not appropriate. In most cases, this template should be used on both categories to create reciprocal linkage between the two categories.

Lists[edit]

User pages[edit]

This is a Wikipedia user talk page. For other uses of TOPIC, see PAGE1.

Notes[edit]

These templates are used in thousands of articles; therefore, changing the syntax could break thousands of articles. If you wish to create or edit a disambiguation or redirection template, first ask yourself the following questions:

  1. Is there already a template that will do this job? Since many disambiguation and redirection templates have already been created, first check: Category:Disambiguation and redirection templates.
  2. Do I really need a new template for this? Will it likely be used on any other articles or should I just use {{Hatnote}} instead? Before creating a new template, see the template namespace guideline.
  3. If I change the parameters around on an existing template, do I know what the result will be? Will it break existing uses of the template and if so, can I fix all of the errors? Before making any changes, see Template sandbox and test cases.

See also[edit]