Apology of Hattusili III
|Title||King of the Hittites|
Hattusili was a commander of Hittite forces during the famous Battle of Kadesh against Egypt in 1274 BC. Hattusili reconquered Nerik and became the High Priest of its storm god. Hattusili named his eldest son and crown prince Nerikkaili in honor of this achievement.
His nephew Mursili III (or Urhi-Teshub) moved the capital back to Hattusa (KBo 21.15 i 11-12), rendering Hattusili’s governorship redundant. Mursili then deposed him from Nerik, triggering a civil war. Hattusili defeated and exiled his nephew. Hattusili renamed Urhi-Teshup’s sibling Ulmi-Teshup "Kurunta" and appointed Kurunta over Tarhuntassa in his place. After this, Hattusili elevated a junior son Tudhaliya IV as crown prince instead.
Hattusili and the Egyptian pharaoh Ramesses II sealed a written peace treaty based upon Hittite models which, due to Egyptian monumental copies of it, has become the earliest well known treaty in history, establishing a long-lasting peace between the two rival empires. Ramesses married Hattusili’s daughter, and conferred upon her an Egyptian name, Maathorneferure. Years later he married another Hittite princess.
An archive of over 200 letters have been found from the royal palace at Hattusa which show that Hattusili exchanged letters with numerous Near Eastern kings including Ramesses II. They are an important primary source for this period.
- Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2004). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-5000-51283.
- Singer (1991) 327f.
- Bryce, Trevor (1998). The Kingdom of the Hittites. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-924010-4., pp.xiii-xiv
- Trevor Bryce, Life and society in the Hittite world. Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-19-924170-8
- Edel, E., (1994): Die ägyptisch-hethitische Korrespondenz aus Boghazköi in babylonischer und hethitischer Sprache
- Darga, Muhibbe. Women in the Historical Ages. In Women in Anatolia, 9000 Years of the History of the Anatolian Woman, Turkish Republic Ministry of Culture, Istanbul, 1993, page 30.
- Letter from Ramses II of Egypt to Puduhepa, from Women in Anatolia, 9000 Years of the History of the Anatolian Woman, Turkish Republic Ministry of Culture, Istanbul, 1993.
- Apology of Hattusili III
- Wilkinson, Toby (2011). The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt. Bloomsbury. pp. 340–41. ISBN 978-1-4088-1002-6.
- J.H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Part Three, § 415ff.
- Reign of Hattusili III
- The Eternal Treaty from the Hittite perspective by Trevor Bryce, BMSAES 6 (2006), pp. 1–11
ca. 1267–1237 BC