||It has been suggested that this article be merged with Havasupai dialect. (Discuss) Proposed since February 2012.|
|Ethnicity||565 Havasupai, 1,870 Walapai (2007)|
Havasupai–Hualapai belongs to the Pai branch of the Yuman language family, together with Yavapai and Paipai, which is spoken in northern Baja California. The two groups have separate sociopolitical identities, but a consensus among linguists is that the differences in speech among them lie only at the dialect level, rather than constituting separate languages (Campbell 1997:127; Goddard 1996:7; Kendall 1983:5-7; Mithun 1999:577-578). The Havasupai and Hualapai report that they speak the same language, and indeed the differences between their dialects have been reported as "negligible" (Kozlowski 1976:140).
For a bibliography of texts, grammars, and dictionaries that document the language, see Langdon 1996.
- Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxford University Press.
- Goddard, Ives. (1996). "Introduction". In Languages, edited by Ives Goddard, pp. 1–16. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Vol. 17. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
- Kendall, Martha B. (1983). "Yuman languages". In Southwest, edited by Alfonso Ortiz, pp. 4–12. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Vol. 10. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
- Langdon, Margaret. (1996). "Bibliography of the Yuman languages". Survey of California and Other Indian Languages 9:135-159.
- Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Kozlowski, Edwin. (1976). "Remarks on Havasupai phonology". In International Journal of American Linguistics, pp. 140–149. Vol. 42, No. 2.
- Watahomigie, Lucille J., Jorigine Bender, Philbert Watahomigie, Sr. and Akira Y. Yamamoto with Elnor Mapatis, Malinda Powskey and Josie Steele. (2001). Hualapai Reference Grammar. (ELPR Publications A2-003). Kyoto, Japan: Endangered Languages of the Pacific Rim Project.
- Watahomigie, Lucille J., Jorigine Bender, Malinda Powskey, Josie Steele, Philbert Watahomigie, Sr. and Akira Y. Yamamoto. (2003). A Dictionary of the Hualapai Language. (ELPR Publications A2-041). Kyoto, Japan: Endangered Languages of the Pacific Rim Project.