Leontodon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Hawkbit)
Jump to: navigation, search
Hawkbits
Nordschitz-Leontodon hispidus.tif
Leontodon hispidus L.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae[1]
Genus: Leontodon
L.
Synonyms[1]
Leontodon hispidus

Leontodon is a genus of plants in the dandelion tribe within the sunflower family (Compositae), commonly known as hawkbits.

Their English name derives from the mediaeval belief that hawks ate the plant to improve their eyesight. Although originally only native to Eurasia and North Africa, some species have since become established in other countries, including the United States[2] and New Zealand.[3]

Recent research has shown that the genus Leontodon in the traditional delimitation is polyphyletic. Therefore, the former Leontodon subgenus Oporinia was raised to generic level.[4] According to the nomenclatural rules the name Scorzoneroides has priority at generic level and therefore, the members of Leontodon subgenus Oporinia were transferred to the re-erected genus Scorzoneroides.[5]

Ecology[edit]

Seeds of Leontodon species are an important food source for certain bird species.[6]

Uses[edit]

In Crete, the species Leontodon tuberosus which is called γλυκοβύζια (glykovyzia), γλυκοράδικα (glykoradika) or βυζάκια (vyzakia) has its roots eaten raw and its leaves eaten steamed.[7]

Secondary metabolites[edit]

The genus Leontodon s.str. (i.e. excluding the members of the resurrected genus [Scorzoneroides]) is a rich source of hypocretenolides, unique guaiane type sesquiterpene lactones with a 12,5-lactone ring instead of the usual 12,6 lactone ring.[8]

Phenolics found in Leontodon include luteolin type flavonoids and caffeoyl quinic acid derivatives such as chlorogenic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Moreover, Leontodon species contain the caffeoyl tartaric acid derivatives caffeoyl tartaric acid and cichoric acid.[9][10]

Species[edit]

accepted species[1]
  1. Leontodon alpestris
  2. Leontodon alpinus
  3. Leontodon ambiguus
  4. Leontodon anomalus
  5. Leontodon apulus
  6. Leontodon asperifolius
  7. Leontodon asperrimus
  8. Leontodon atlanticus
  9. Leontodon balansae
  10. Leontodon berinii
  11. Leontodon biscutellifolius
  12. Leontodon borbasii
  13. Leontodon boryi
  14. Leontodon bourgaeanus
  15. Leontodon brancsikii
  16. Leontodon calvatus
  17. Leontodon caucasicus
  18. Leontodon collinus
  19. Leontodon crispus
  20. Leontodon croceus
  21. Leontodon dandaleus
  22. Leontodon dentatus
  23. Leontodon djurdjurae
  24. Leontodon dubius
  25. Leontodon ehrenbergii
  26. Leontodon eriopodus
  27. Leontodon farinosus
  28. Leontodon filii
  29. Leontodon froedinii
  30. Leontodon gaussenii
  31. Leontodon glaber
  32. Leontodon glaberrimus
  33. Leontodon graecus
  34. Leontodon hellenicus
  35. Leontodon hirtus
  36. Leontodon hispidaster
  37. Leontodon hispidus
  38. Leontodon hugueninii
  39. Leontodon hyoseroides
  40. Leontodon incanus
  41. Leontodon intermedius
  42. Leontodon jouffroyi
  43. Leontodon kaiseri
  44. Leontodon kerneri
  45. Leontodon kotschyi
  46. Leontodon kulczynskii
  47. Leontodon kunthianus
  48. Leontodon laciniatus
  49. Leontodon laconicus
  50. Leontodon lannesii
  51. Leontodon libanoticus
  52. Leontodon lucidus
  53. Leontodon macrorrhizus
  54. Leontodon maroccanus
  55. Leontodon megalorrhizus
  56. Leontodon molineri
  57. Leontodon nivatensis
  58. Leontodon oxylepis
  59. Leontodon pinetorum
  60. Leontodon pinnatifidus
  61. Leontodon pitardii
  62. Leontodon pratensis
  63. Leontodon preslii
  64. Leontodon reboudianum
  65. Leontodon rigens
  66. Leontodon rosani
  67. Leontodon ruthii
  68. Leontodon saxatilis
  69. Leontodon siculus
  70. Leontodon sooi
  71. Leontodon stenocalathius
  72. Leontodon subincanus
  73. Leontodon sublyratus
  74. Leontodon taraxacoides
  75. Leontodon tenuiflorus
  76. Leontodon tingitanus
  77. Leontodon tomentosus
  78. Leontodon tuberosus
  79. Leontodon tulmentinus
  80. Leontodon uliginosus
  81. Leontodon vegetus
formerly included[1]

see Agoseris Apargia Chaptalia Crepis Hypochaeris Hyoseris Krigia Lactuca Launaea Microseris Picris Pyrrhopappus Saussurea Scorzoneroides Sonchus Taraxacum

further reading[edit]

Sources:[4][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist
  2. ^ "52. Leontodon Linnaeus", Flora of North America 
  3. ^ "LEONTODON L.", Flora of New Zealand 
  4. ^ a b Rosabelle Samuel, Walter Gutermann, Tod F. Stuessy, Claudete F. Ruas, Hans-Walter Lack, Karin Tremetsberger, Salvador Talavera, Barbara Hermanowski and Friedrich Ehrendorfer (2006), "Molecular phylogenetics reveals Leontodon (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) to be diphyletic", American Journal of Botany 93: 1193–1205, doi:10.3732/ajb.93.8.1193, PMID 21642184 
  5. ^ Greuter, W., Gutermann, W. & Talavera, S., "A preliminary conspectus of Scorzoneroides (Compositae, Cichorieae) with validation of the required new names" (PDF), Willdenowia 36: 689–692, doi:10.3372/wi.36.36204, ISSN 0511-9618 
  6. ^ D. L. Buckingham and W. J. Peach (2005). "The influence of livestock management on habitat quality for farmland birds". Animal Science 81: 199–203. doi:10.1079/asc50700199. 
  7. ^ Kleonikos G. Stavridakis, Κλεόνικος Γ. Σταυριδάκης (2006). Wild edible plants of Crete - Η Άγρια βρώσιμη χλωρίδα της Κρήτης. Rethymnon Crete. ISBN 960-631-179-1. 
  8. ^ Zidorn, C (2008). "Sesquiterpene lactones and their precursors as chemosystematic markers in the tribe Cichorieae of the Asteraceae". Phytochemistry (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) 69: 2270–2296. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.06.013. ISSN 0031-9422. 
  9. ^ Zidorn, C; Stuppner, H (2001). "Evaluation of chemosystematic characters in the genus Leontodon". Taxon (IAPT, Vienna) 50: 115–133. doi:10.2307/1224515. ISSN 0040-0262. 
  10. ^ Sareedenchai, V; Zidorn, C (2010). "Flavonoids as chemosystematic markers in the tribe Cichorieae of the Asteraceae". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) 38: 935–957. doi:10.1016/j.bse.2009.09.006. ISSN 0305-1978. 
  11. ^ Euro+Med Plantbase
  12. ^ Battandier, J. A.; L. Trabut (1902). Flore de l'Algérie et de la Tunisie. Alger. 
  13. ^ Blatter, E. (1921). Flora Arabica II: Leguminosae-Compositae. Calcutta. 
  14. ^ Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt. Cairo. 
  15. ^ Danin, A. (2004). Distribution atlas of plants in the Flora Palaestina area. Jerusalem. 
  16. ^ Davis, P. (1975). Flora of Turkey Vol. 5. Edinburgh. 
  17. ^ Finch, R. A.; P. D. Sell (1976). Leontodon L. In: Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters S. M. & Webb D. A. (eds), Flora Europaea Vol. 4. Cambridge. 
  18. ^ Jafri, S.M.H.; A. El-Gadi (1983). Flora of Libya. Tripoli. 
  19. ^ Jahandiez, E.; R. Maire (19034). Catalogue des plantes du Maroc. Vol. 3. Alger.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  20. ^ Moutérde, P. (1983). Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie. Beyrouth. 
  21. ^ Pittoni, H. (1977). Leontodon. In K. H. Rechinger Flora Iranica Vol. 122. Graz. 
  22. ^ Quézel, P.; S. Santa (1963). Nouvelle flore de l'Algérie et des régions désertiques méridionales. Paris. 
  23. ^ Rechinger, K.H. (1964). Flora of lowland Iraq. Weinheim. 
  24. ^ Vassilev, V. N. (2000). Leontodon. In Bobrov, E. G. & Tzevelev, N. N. Flora of the USSR 29: Compositae, Cichorieae, pages 204-218. Enfield. 
  25. ^ Widder, F.J. (1975). "Die Gliederung der Gattung Leontodon". Phyton (Horn, Austria) 17: 23–29. ISSN 0079-2047. 
  26. ^ Zidorn, C (in press). "Leontodon and Scorzoneroides (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) in Italy". Plant Biosystems (Taylor & Francis, UK) n.a.: n.a. doi:10.1080/11263504.2012.710272. ISSN 1126-3504.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  27. ^ Zohary, M. (1978). Flora Palaestina Vol. 3. Jerusalem.