Hawker Sea Fury

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Sea Fury
Sea Fury FB 11 2 (5922456104).jpg
A former Iraqi Fury FB 10 painted as a Sea Fury FB 11 of the Royal Australian Navy in 2011.[1]
Role Naval fighter-bomber
Manufacturer Hawker
Designer Sydney Camm
First flight 1 September 1944 (Fury)
21 February 1945 (Sea Fury)
Introduction October 1945 (FAA)
1947 (RCN)
Retired 1955 (FAA)
1956 (RCN)
1968 Burmese Air Force
Primary users Royal Navy
Royal Australian Navy
Royal Canadian Navy
Pakistan Air Force
Produced 1945–55
Number built 864[2]
Developed from Hawker Tempest

The Hawker Sea Fury was a British fighter aircraft designed and manufactured by Hawker. It was the last propeller-driven fighter to serve with the Royal Navy, and also one of the fastest production single piston-engined aircraft ever built.[3] Developed during the Second World War, the Sea Fury entered service two years after the war ended. The Sea Fury proved to be a popular aircraft with a number of overseas militaries, and was used during the Korean War in the early 1950s.

The Sea Fury's development was formally initiated in 1943 in response to a wartime requirement of the RAF, thus the aircraft was initially named Fury. As the Second World War drew to a close, the RAF cancelled their order for the aircraft; however, the Royal Navy saw the type as a suitable carrier aircraft to replace a range of increasingly obsolete or poorly suited aircraft being operated by the Fleet Air Arm. Development of the Sea Fury proceeded, and the type began entering operational service in 1947.

The Sea Fury has many design similarities to Hawker's preceding Tempest fighter, but the Sea Fury was a considerably lighter aircraft; both the Sea Fury's wings and fuselage originate from the Tempest but were significantly modified and redesigned. Production Sea Furies were fitted with the powerful Bristol Centaurus engine, and armed with four wing-mounted Hispano V cannons. While originally developed as a pure aerial fighter aircraft, the definitive Sea Fury FB 11 was a fighter-bomber, the design having been found suitable for this mission as well.

The Sea Fury attracted a number of international orders as both a carrier and land-based aircraft; it was operated by a number of countries, including Australia, Burma, Canada, Cuba, Egypt, West Germany, Iraq, and Pakistan. The type acquitted itself well in the Korean War, fighting effectively even against the MiG-15 jet fighter.[2] Although the Sea Fury was retired by the majority of its military operators in the late 1950s in favour of jet-propelled aircraft, a considerable number of aircraft saw subsequent use in the civil sector, and several remain airworthy in the 21st century both as heritage and racing aircraft.

Development[edit]

Origins[edit]

The Hawker Fury was an evolutionary successor to the successful Hawker Typhoon and Tempest fighters and fighter-bombers of World War II. The Fury's design process was initiated in September 1942 by Sydney Camm, one of Hawker's foremost aircraft designers, to meet the Royal Air Force’s requirement for a lightweight Tempest Mk.II replacement; the Tempest, while a successful aircraft, had been viewed as being heavy and oversized for typical fighter duties. Developed as the "Tempest Light Fighter", the semi-elliptical wing of the Tempest was incorporated, but was shortened in span by attaching the two wings at the aircraft centreline, eliminating the centre-section.[4][5][6] The fuselage itself was broadly similar in form to that of the Tempest, but was a fully monocoque structure, while the cockpit level was higher, affording the pilot better all round visibility.[7]

The project was formalised in January 1943 when the Air Ministry issued Specification F.2/42 around the "Tempest Light Fighter".[8] This was followed up by Specification F.2/43, issued in May 1943, which required a high rate of climb of not less than 4,500 ft/min (23 m/s) from ground level to 20,000 feet (6,096 m), good fighting manoeuvrability and a maximum speed of at least 450 mph (724 km/h) at 22,000 feet (6,705 m). The armament was to be four 20mm Hispano V cannon with a total capacity of 600 rounds, plus the capability of carrying two bombs each up to 1,000 pounds (454 kg).[9] In April 1943, Hawker had also received Specification N.7/43 from the Admiralty, who sought a navalised version of the developing aircraft; in response, Sidney Camm proposed the consolidation of both service's requirements under Specification F.2/43, with the alterations required for naval operations issued on a supplemental basis. Around 1944, the aircraft project finally received its name; the Royal Air Force's version becoming known as the Fury and the Fleet Air Army's version as the Sea Fury.[10]

A total of six prototypes were ordered; two were to be powered by Rolls-Royce Griffon engines, two with Centaurus XXIIs, one with a Centaurus XII and one as a test structure. Hawker used the internal designations P.1019 and P.1020 respectively for the Griffon and Centaurus versions, while P.1018 was also used for a Fury prototype which was to use a Napier Sabre IV.[11] The first Fury to fly, on 1 September 1944, was NX798 with a Centaurus XII with rigid engine mounts, powering a Rotol four-blade propeller. Second on 27 November 1944 was LA610, which had a Griffon 85 and Rotol six-blade contra-rotating propeller. By now development of the Fury and Sea Fury was closely interlinked so that the next prototype to fly was a Sea Fury, SR661, described under "Naval Conversion." NX802 (25 July 1945) was the last Fury prototype, powered by a Centaurus XV.[12] LA610 was eventually fitted with a Napier Sabre VII, which was capable of developing 3,400–4,000 hp (2,535–2,983 kW); this aircraft become possibly the fastest piston-engined Hawker aircraft after reaching a speed of around 485 mph (780 km/h).[13]

Naval version[edit]

Hawker Sea Fury FB 11 VR930 with wings folded, at Kemble Airfield, Gloucestershire, England. Operated by the Royal Navy Historic Flight.

With the end of the Second World War in Europe in sight, the RAF began cancelling many aircraft orders. Thus, the RAF's order for the Fury was cancelled before any production examples were built because the RAF already had excessive numbers of late Mark Spitfires and Tempests and viewed the Fury as an additional overlap with these aircraft. Although the RAF had pulled out of the program, development of the type continued as the Sea Fury; many of the Navy's carrier fighters were either lend-lease aircraft and thus to be returned, or in the case of the Supermarine Seafire, had considerable weaknesses as naval aircraft, such as narrow undercarriages. The Admiralty opted to procure the Sea Fury as the successor to these aircraft instead of purchasing the lend-lease aircraft outright.[12][14]

While the RAF contract had been cancelled, the Fury prototypes were completed and used for work in developing the Sea Fury as well as for the export market. The first Sea Fury prototype, SR661, first flew at Langley, Berkshire, on 21 February 1945, powered by a Centaurus XII engine. This prototype had a "stinger"-type tailhook for arrested carrier landings, but lacked folding wings for storage. SR666, the second prototype, which flew on 12 October 1945, was powered by a Centaurus XV that turned a new, five-bladed Rotol propeller and did feature folding wings. Specification N.7/43 was modified to N.22/43, now representing an order for 200 aircraft. Of these, 100 were to be built at Boulton-Paul's Wolverhampton factory.[15]

In 1945, the original order to specification N.22/43 was reduced to 100 aircraft; as such the manufacturing agreement with Boulton-Paul was ended and all work on the Sea Fury transferred to Hawker Aircraft's facilities at Kingston. This included the construction of what was intended to be a Boulton-Paul built Sea Fury prototype, VB857, which was transported to Kingston in January 1945; this aircraft, built to the same standard as SR666, first flew on 31 January 1946. Immediately upon completion of the first three airframes, the flight testing program began at Kingston. It was soon discovered that the early Centaurus engine suffered frequent crankshaft failure due to a poorly designed lubrication system, which led to incidents of the engine seizing while in mid-flight. The problem was resolved when Bristol's improved Centaurus 18 engine replaced the earlier engine variant.[16]

Into production[edit]

The first production model, the Sea Fury F Mk X (Fighter, Mk 10), flew in September 1946. With the completion of flight testing at Boscombe Down in 1946, the trials process was repeated aboard the aircraft carrier HMS Victorious. Carrier testing revealed directional stability issues related to rudder effectiveness during landing, and this was resolved by the adoption of a tail wheel lock, which also improved the wheel retraction behaviour. Several rectifying design changes were made by Hawker in response to feedback from the test pilots, including the adoption of a five-bladed Rotol propeller to greatly reduce overspeed tendencies, a re-designed rudder assembly to increase rudder effectiveness, Dynafocal engine mountings to reduce vibration at low speeds, and an improved undercarriage with greater flexibility; these changes greatly improved the aircraft's deck landing characteristics. Arrestor hook trials initially revealed the Sea Fury to be prone to missing the wires, this was rapidly resolved by modifications to the hook dampener mechanism.[17][18]

By March 1947, a number of production Sea Furies were already being produced for the Fleet Air Arm. Both the fourth and sixth production aircraft were used in further trials onboard Illustrious, and the main change from the earlier aircraft was the adoption of a longer, more rigid arrestor hook. A total of 50 Mk X Sea Furies would be produced, which were practically identical to the SR666 prototype except for the Centaurus 18 engine and four-bladed propeller being used; at least 20 of the 50 aircraft performed in the aircraft's extensive trials program. Following the successful completion of weapons trials at the A&AEE Boscombe Down, the Sea Fury was cleared for operational use on 31 July 1947.[19]

Hawker Aircraft continued to develop and refine the Sea Fury Mk X, resulting in the significantly more capable Sea Fury Mk 11, otherwise known as the Sea Fury FB 11. This upgraded model featured several improvements, most notable being the hydraulically powered wing folding mechanism which considerably eased flight deck operations and the adoption of a number of new weapons for performing air-to-ground combat. The Admiralty also chose to procure a two-seater trainer variant of the Sea Fury, and atypically this decision took place after an order for a similar two-seater Sea Fury model had already been placed by an export customer, Iraq. During testing, the rear canopy collapsed, leading to a significant redesign of the type's two-seat cockpit prior to entering service. Designated as the Sea Fury T 20, a total of 60 aircraft would be manufactured for the Fleet Air Arm between 1950 and 1952.[20][21] The Royal Navy ultimately procured a total of 615 Sea Furies, the overwhelming majority of them being of the Mk 11 standard.[22]

Export market[edit]

Hawker Aircraft was keen to market the Sea Fury to foreign operators, and conducted an intense sales drive for their export version of the aircraft, designated Sea Fury F 50. On 21 October 1946, the Royal Netherlands Navy placed an order for ten F 50 aircraft, which were basically identical to the FAA's Sea Fury Mk X aircraft, to equip the Netherlands' first aircraft carrier, the ex-HMS Nairana, renamed HNLMS Karel Doorman.[23] The Dutch also ordered an additional twelve FB 51s in 1948 and these were delivered in 1950. A manufacturing license was also acquired for the production of a further 25 FB 51s by Fokker Aircraft in the Netherlands, which were delivered from 1951 onwards.[N 1][24]

The Sea Fury became an export success, being purchased both to operate on foreign aircraft carriers and for purely land-based roles by a number of nations, including Australia, Germany, Iraq, Egypt, Burma, Pakistan and Cuba. Several of the nations that did not have active aircraft carriers often had the tail hooks and catapult hooks removed from their aircraft. A final variant, the Sea Fury TT 20 was developed by Hawker for West Germany as a target tow aircraft, these remained in service into the 1970s. Upon the type's withdrawal from military service, a large number of Sea Furies were sold onto private individuals, often as a racing aircraft due to its high speed.[25] The final production figures for all marks reached around 860 aircraft.[24]

Design[edit]

Three Hawker Sea Fury FB 11 fighters of the Royal Canadian Navy

The Sea Fury is a navalised aircraft, capable of operating from the aircraft carriers of the Royal Navy. It was heavily based upon preceding Hawker fighter aircraft, particularly the Tempest; features such as the semi-elliptical wing and fuselage were derived directly from the Tempest but featured significant refinements, including significant strengthening to withstand the stresses of landing upon carriers. While the Sea Fury was lighter and smaller than the Tempest, advanced aspects of the Sea Fury's design such as its Centaurus engine meant it was also considerably more powerful and faster; the Sea Fury has the distinction of being the final and fastest of Hawker's piston-engined aircraft, as well as being one of the fastest production piston engined fighters ever produced.[26]

The performance of the Sea Fury was striking, in comparison with the 15 years senior Hawker Fury biplane the Sea Fury was nearly twice as fast and had double the rate of climb despite being outfitted for far heavier equipment and for greater range. The Sea Fury Mk X was capable of attaining a maximum speed of 460 MPH and climb to a height of 20,000 feet in under five minutes. The Sea Fury was reportedly a highly aerobatic aircraft with favourable flying behaviour at all heights and speeds, although intentional spinning of the aircraft was banned during the type's military service.[27] During flight displays, the Sea Fury could demonstrate its ability to perform rapid rolls at a rate of 100 degrees per second, and this ability was attributed to the design of the spring tab-equipped ailerons.[28] In the circumstance of extra thrust being required during takeoff, a rocket-assisted takeoff using RATOC equipment could be performed.[29][30]

A Hawker Fury FB 10 displaying in the livery of a RAN FB 11 aircraft in 2011

The Sea Fury was powered by the newly developed Bristol Centaurus piston engine, which drove a five-bladed propeller.[7] Many of the engine's subsystems, such as the fully automated cooling system, cockpit gauges, fuel booster pump required electricity, which was provided by an engine-driven generator and supplemented by two independent batteries. The hydraulic system, necessary to operate the retractable undercarriage and tail hook, as well as moving the wing flaps, was pressurised to 1,800 psi by an engine-driven pump. If this failed a hand pump in the cockpit could also power these systems; a pneumatic pump was also driven by the engine for the brakes. Internal fuel was stored in a total of five self-sealing fuel tanks, two within the rear fuselage and three housed within the wings.[31]

Various avionics systems were used on Sea Furies, it was unusually well equipped for an aircraft of the era in this respect. Many aircraft would be equipped with onboard radar, often the ARI 5307 ZBX, which could be directly integrated with the four-channel VHF radio system. Several of the navigational aids, such as the altimeter and G2F compass, were also of a cutting-edge nature; many of these subsystems and equipment used on the Sea Fury would appear on the subsequent jet aircraft with little to no alterations.[32] Other aspects of the Sea Fury, such as the majority of the flight controls, were often of a conventional nature however. Some controls were electrically powered, such as the weapons controls, onboard cameras, and the gyro gunsight.[26]

Although the Sea Fury had been originally developed as a pure air superiority fighter, the Royal Navy viewed the solid construction and payload capabilities of the airframe as positive attributes for the ground attack mission as well, accordingly Hawker tested and cleared the type to use a wide range of armaments and support equipment.[33] Each aircraft had a total of four 20 mm Hispano V cannons mounted into the wings along with ammunition tanks. Up to 16 rocket projectiles, or a combination of 500 lb or 1000 lb bombs could be carried. Other munitions include 1000 lb incendiary bombs, mines, type 2 smoke floats, and 90 gallon external fuel tanks.[34] The Sea Fury could also be outfitted with both vertical and oblique cameras, as well as a dedicated control box in the cockpit, for undertaking photoreconnaissance missions. Other ancillary equipment included chaff to evade hostile missile attack and flares.[35]

Operational history[edit]

Britain[edit]

A Sea Fury FB 11 launches from HMS Glory in 1951
Sea Fury T 20 two-seat trainer of No. 1831 Squadron RNVR at RNAS Stretton, Cheshire, in 1951

778 Naval Air Squadron was the first unit of the Fleet Air Arm to receive the Sea Fury, with deliveries commencing in February 1947. 778 Squadron acted mainly as a training unit for the type, and the first operational unit to be equipped with the Sea Fury was 807 Naval Air Squadron in September 1947, replacing the unit's earlier Supermarine Seafire aircraft. The Seafire was ill-suited to carrier use, as the pilot's poor view of the deck and the aircraft's narrow undercarriage made both landings and takeoffs difficult. Consequently, the Sea Fury F Mk X replaced the Seafire on most carriers.[36] For some years the Sea Fury and Seafire operated alongside each other, with the shorter-range Seafire operating as a fleet defence fighter while the Sea Fury was employed as a longer-range fighter-bomber.[37]

Sea Furies were issued to Nos. 736, 738, 759 and 778 Squadrons of the Fleet Air Arm. The F X was followed by the Sea Fury FB 11 fighter-bomber variant, which eventually reached a production total of 650 aircraft. The Sea Fury remained the Fleet Air Arm’s primary fighter-bomber until 1953, at which point jet-powered aircraft, such as the Hawker Sea Hawk and Supermarine Attacker, were introduced to operational service.[38]

The Sea Fury FB 11 entered service with the fighter squadrons of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (RNVR) in August 1951. The RNVR units also operated the Sea Fury T.20 two-seat trainer version from late 1950 to give reserve pilots experience on the type before relinquishing their Supermarine Seafire aircraft. RNVR units which were equipped with the Sea Fury were Nos. 1831, 1832, 1833, 1834, 1835 and 1836 Squadrons. No. 1832, based at RAF Benson, was the last RNVR squadron to relinquish the type in August 1955 for the jet-powered Supermarine Attacker.[39]

Since the type's retirement, several Sea Furies have been operated by the Royal Navy Historic Flight; between 1989 and 1990 two of the flight's Sea Furies were lost in separate incidents.[40]

Korean War[edit]

Following the outbreak of the Korean War on 25 June 1950, Sea Furies were dispatched to the region as a part of the British Commonwealth Forces Korea, Britain's contribution to the United Nations multinational task force to assist South Korea following an invasion by North Korea. Sea Furies were flown throughout the conflict, primarily as ground-attack aircraft, from the Royal Navy light fleet carriers HMS Glory, HMS Theseus, HMS Ocean, and the Australian carrier HMAS Sydney.[41] After a Fleet Air Arm Seafire was shot down by a United States Air Force Boeing B-29 Superfortress on 28 July 1950, all Commonwealth aircraft were painted with black and white Invasion stripes.[42]

The first Sea Furies arrived in theatre with 807 Naval Air Squadron embarked on HMS Theseus, which relieved HMS Triumph in October 1950.[42] Operations on Theseus were intense, and the Sea Furies of 807 Squadron flew a total of 264 combat sorties in October. During a brief rest period at the Japanese port of Iwakuni the catapult was found to be excessively worn, necessitating the launch of Sea Furies with RATOG assistance until it was repaired. In December 1950, Sea Furies conducted several strikes on bridges, airfields, and railways to disrupt North Korean logistics, flying a further 332 sorties without incurring any losses. At this early point in the war little aerial resistance was encountered and the biggest threats were ground-based anti-aircraft fire or technical problems.[43]

In addition to their ground attack role, Sea Furies also performed combat air patrols. In this role a total of 3,900 interceptions were carried out, although none of the intercepted aircraft turned out to be hostile. During the winter period, the Sea Furies were often called upon as spotter aircraft for UN artillery around Inchon, Wonsan, and Songiin.[44] In April 1951, 804 Naval Air Squadron operating off HMS Glory, replaced 807 Squadron, which in turn was replaced by HMAS Sydney in September 1951 with 805 and 808 Squadron RAN. The Australian carrier air group flew 2,366 combat sorties.[42] In January 1952, HMS Glory with 804 NAS returned to relieve Sydney following a refit in Australia. For the rest of the war Glory and Ocean relived each other on duty.[42]

In 1952, the first Chinese MiG-15 jet fighters appeared. On 8 August 1952, Lieutenant Peter "Hoagy" Carmichael, of 802 Squadron, flying Sea Fury WJ232 from HMS Ocean, shot a MiG-15 down, making him one of only a few pilots of a propeller driven aircraft to shoot down a jet.[45][N 2] The engagement occurred when a formation of Sea Furies and Fireflies was engaged by eight MiG-15s, during which one Firefly was badly damaged while the Sea Furies escaped unharmed. Some sources claim that this is the only successful engagement by a British pilot in a British aircraft during the Korean War, although a few sources claim a second MiG was downed in the same action.[46] In addition, the recollections of Sub-Lieutenant Brian "Schmoo" Ellis, the youngest member of the flight, differ from the official version of events.[47]

Australia[edit]

An ex-Iraqi Air Force Sea Fury, repainted in an Australian Fleet Air Arm livery.

Australia was one of two Commonwealth nations to operate the Sea Fury, with the other being Canada. The type was operated by two frontline squadrons of the Royal Australian Navy, 805 Squadron and 808 Squadron; a third squadron that flew the Sea Fury, 850 Squadron, was also briefly active. Two Australian aircraft carriers, HMAS Sydney and HMAS Vengeance, employed Sea Furies in their air wings. The Sea Fury was used by Australia during the Korean War, flying from carriers based along the Korean coast in support of friendly ground forces. The Sea Fury would be operated by Australian forces between 1948 and 1962.[48]

Burma[edit]

Between 1957 and 1958, Burma received 21 Sea Furies, the majority of them being ex-FAA aircraft. The Sea Fury was frequently employed as a counter-insurgency platform in Burmese service and on 15 February 1961, a Republic of China Air Force Consolidated PB4Y Privateer was intercepted and shot down by a Sea Fury near the Thai-Burmese border. Of the aircraft's crew, five were killed and two were captured. The aircraft had been on a supply run to Chinese Kuomintang forces fighting in northern Burma.[49] It is believed that the Burmese Sea Furies were retired in 1968, and replaced by armed Lockheed T-33 Shooting Stars.[50]

Canada[edit]

The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) became a prolific customer of the Sea Fury, and many of its aircraft were diverted from existing Royal Navy contracts. On 23 June 1948, the first aircraft was accepted at RCAF Rockcliff. The type was quickly put to use replacing Canada's existing inventory of Seafires, taking on the primary role of fleet air defence operating from the aircraft carrier HMCS Magnificent. Two Canadian squadrons operated the Sea Fury, Nos. 803 and 883 Squadrons, which were later renumbered as 870 and 871. Pilot training on the Sea Fury was normally conducted at the RCN's HMCS Shearwater. Landing difficulties with the Sea Fury were experienced following the RCN's decision to convert to the US Navy's deck landing procedures, which were prone to overstressing and damaging the airframes as the Sea Fury had been designed for a tail-down landing attitude.[51] The Sea Fury would be operated between 1948 and 1956 by the RCN, at which point they were replaced by the jet-powered McDonnell F2H Banshee. The aircraft themselves were put into storage, and some were subsequently purchased by civilians.[52]

Cuba[edit]

A Sea Fury F 50 preserved at the Museo Giron, Cuba in 2006

In 1959 during the Cuban Revolution, the Fuerza Aérea Ejército de Cuba (FAEC; "Army Air Force of Cuba") purchased a total of 17 refurbished (ex-Fleet Air Arm) Sea Furies from Hawker. The aircraft were briefly flown by FAEC prior to the ousting of President Fulgencio Batista and the assumption of power by Fidel Castro.

Following the change in government, the Sea Furies were retained by the Fuerza Aerea Revolutionaria ("Revolutionary Air Force"; FAR). However they proved difficult to keep operational, partially because the new military lacked personnel experienced with the type.[53]

In April 1961, during the Bay of Pigs Invasion, air support for the Cuban exiles' Brigade 2506 was provided by ex-FAEC, CIA-operated Douglas B-26B Invaders. US President John F. Kennedy had decided against involving U.S. Navy aircraft.[54] One of the Sea Furies was lost in aerial combat during the operation.[53]

The only FAR fighter aircraft to see combat were three Sea Furies and five Lockheed T-33 armed jet trainers belonging to the Escuadron Persecucion y Combate ("Pursuit & Combat Squadron"), based at the San Antonio de los Banos and Antonio Maceo air bases.[55][56] In pre-emptive attacks on April 15, two other Sea Furies were destroyed on the ground, one at Ciudad Libertad and one in a hangar near Moa.[55][56]

In the early hours of April 17, Brigade 2506 began to land at Playa Giron. From about 0630, a FAR formation composed of three Sea Furies, one B-26 and two T-33s started attacking the exiles' ships. At about 0650, and 8.0 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of Playa Larga, the transport ship Houston was damaged by rockets and cannons from FAR aircraft, including Sea Furies piloted by Major Enrique Carreras-Rojas (541) and Captain Gustavo Bourzac (serial number unknown); Houston caught fire and was abandoned.[55][56][57] When Carrera-Rolas returned to base and attempted to land, his Sea Fury was attacked and damaged by fire from a CIA B-26 (Matías Farías, captain; Eddie Gonzalez, navigator), although Carrera-Rolas was able to retract his landing gear and escape.[56]

Nicaraguan-born pilot Carlos Ulloa (Sea Fury serial number unknown) attempted to shoot down a Curtiss C-46 paratroop transport.[55] Ulloa crashed in the Bay of Pigs at about 0830, due to him either stalling or being hit by anti-aircraft fire.

Carreras-Rojas was among the Sea Fury and T-33 pilots who used rockets to destroy an ammunition ship,Rio Escondido at about 0930.[56]

Later, Carrera-Rolas shot down another ex-FAEC B-26 (call sign "Lion 2"), crewed by Crispín García (captain) and Juan González (navigator). A fourth pilot, Lieutenant Douglas Rudd (Sea Fury serial number unknown) also destroyed a B-26 (call sign "Puma 1"), crewed by Capt. José Crespo and Lorenzo Pérez-Lorenzo (navigator).[56] [58] (On 19 April, Carreras-Rojas, this time at the controls of a T-33, shot down another B-26.[56])

Netherlands[edit]

The Netherlands was the first export customer for the Sea Fury, and the Netherlands Royal Navy operated the aircraft from two of their aircraft carriers, both of which were named HNLMS Karel Doorman as they were operated at separate periods from one another. It was common for Royal Netherlands Navy vessels to operate alongside Royal Navy ships, thus Dutch Sea Furies also regularly operated from FAA land bases and RN carriers. During 1947, Dutch Sea Furies operating from HNLMS Karel Doorman were employed in a ground support capacity against insurgent fighters in the Dutch East Indies. The Dutch procured and license-built additional Sea Furies for carrier operations, although the type was ultimately replaced by the jet-powered Hawker Sea Hawk from the late 1950s onwards.[23][59]

Pakistan[edit]

One of the largest export customers for the type was Pakistan. In 1949, an initial order for 50 Sea Fury FB 60 aircraft for the Pakistan Air Force was placed. A total of 87 new-build Sea Furies were purchased and delivered between 1950 and 1952; some ex-FAA and Iraqi Sea Furies were also subsequently purchased. The aircraft was operated by three frontline squadrons, Nos. 5, 9, and 14 Squadrons. The Sea Fury began to be replaced by the jet-powered North American F-86 Sabre in 1955, and the last Sea Furies in Pakistani service were ultimately retired in 1960.[60]

Variants[edit]

Critical Mass, a modified Sea Fury air racer
Hawker FB 11
Fury Prototypes
  • LA610 originally ordered as a Hawker Tempest III it was completed as a Fury prototype and first flew on 27 November 1944.[61]
  • NX798 One of two Fury prototypes to specification F.2/43, the first to fly on 1 September 1944.[9][62]
  • NX802 One of two Fury prototypes to specification F.2/43.[9][62]
Sea Fury prototypes
  • SR661 A semi-navalised Fury prototype to Specification N.22/43, first flew on 21 February 1945 with a Centarus XII engine (later changed to a Centarus XVIII) and Rotal four-bladed propeller, did not have folding wings.[63][64]
  • SR666 A fully navalised Fury prototype to Specification N.22/43, first flew on 12 October 1945 with a Centarus XV engine and a Rotol five-bladed propeller.[63][64]
  • VB857 Sea Fury X prototype built by Boulton-Paul and first flew on 31 January 1946 with a Centarus XVI, later used as a FB11 prototype with a Centarus XVIII engine.[63][64]
Fury
Order for 200 aircraft placed on 28 April 1944, order cancelled.[63]
Sea Fury F 10
Single-seat fighter version for the Royal Navy, 50 built by Hawker, an order for a further 300 placed at the same time to be built by Boulton Paul was cancelled. First production aircraft flew on 15 August 1946.[63][64]
Sea Fury FB 11
Single-seat fighter-bomber for the Royal Navy, Royal Australian Navy and Royal Canadian Navy, 615 built, including 31 for the RAN and 53 for the RCN.[65]
Sea Fury T 20 prototype
  • VX818 prototype training variant to Specification N.19/47, originally ordered by Iraq it first flew on 15 January 1948.[63]
Sea Fury T 20
Two-seat training version for the Royal Navy, 61 built, 10 of which were later converted to target tugs for West Germany, operated by a civilian company [66]
Sea Fury F 50
Single-seat fighter version for the Royal Netherlands Navy.[59]
Sea Fury FB 51
Single-seat fighter-bomber version for the Royal Netherlands Navy.[59]
Fury FB 60
Single-seat fighter-bomber version for the Pakistan Air Force, 93 built.[67]
Fury T 61
Two-seat training version for the Pakistan Air Force, five built.[67]
Fury I
Single-seat land-based fighter version for the Iraqi Air Force. Unofficially known as the "Baghdad Fury", 55 built.[68]
Fury Trainer
Two-seat training version for the Iraqi Air Force, five built.[68]

Operators[edit]

Canadian Sea Furies
Pakistan Air Force Sea Fury T 61

Survivors[edit]

External video
Sea Fury display at RAF Cosford Airshow 2013
Documentary on the Hawker Sea Fury

As production continued well after the end of the Second World War and aircraft remained in Royal Navy service until 1955, dozens of airframes have survived in varying conditions. A number of Sea Furies were overhauled by Hawker Aircraft at their factory at Blackpool during 1959 and supplied to civil companies in Germany, equipped with target-towing gear for Luftwaffe contract flying. Some of these aircraft survive today. A number of the Furies sold to Iraq were purchased by restorers in the late 1970s and are now also owned and operated by civilians.[69]

Around a dozen heavily modified Sea Furies are raced regularly at the Reno Air Races as of 2009. Most of these examples were modified to replace the original sleeve-valve Centaurus radial with the Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major or the Wright R-3350 Duplex-Cyclone radial engine.[69] These include Dreadnought and Furias, which have had Wasp Major engines installed.[69]

WJ232, the aircraft 'Hoagy' Carmichael flew during the 9 August 1952 action which resulted in him being credited with the destruction of a MiG-15 jet fighter,[70] appears in operation in Australia in its original Royal Navy markings, with civil registration VH-SHF.[71] This is however ex-Iraqi 326 (C/N 41H/643827).[69] The original machine was sold to Hawker, refurbished and delivered to Burma as UB467 in 1958.[63]

Many additional airframes remain as static displays in museums worldwide. One of these, ex- RCN WG565, is on display in Calgary, Alberta, in Canada. It was ferried to Alberta for instructional use in the Alberta Provincial Institute of Technology by Lieutenant Commander Derek Prout. On 1 April 1958, Flying Officer Lynn Garrison, of the 403 City of Calgary Squadron, RCAF, made the final Canadian military flight for this aircraft type.[citation needed]

Specifications (FB 11)[edit]

Orthographically projected diagram of the Sea Fury FB 11

Data from Hawker's Tempestuous Finale,[72] Flight International[28]

General characteristics

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 460 mph (400 knots, 740 km/h) at 18,000 ft (5,500 m)
  • Range: 700 mi (609 nmi, 1,126 km)with internal fuel; 1,040 mi (904 nmi, 1,674 km) with two drop tanks
  • Service ceiling: 35,800 ft (10,910 m)
  • Rate of climb: 4,320 ft/min (21.9 m/s)

Armament

  • Guns: 4 × 20 mm (.79 in) Hispano Mk V cannon
  • Rockets: 12× 3 in (76.2 mm) rockets or
  • Bombs: 2,000 lb (907 kg) of bombs

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Note on the Dutch serials: 10 stood for "J", short for "Jager" (English: hunter) as a fighter aircraft is referred to in Dutch. In the early 1950s, all serials were changed to 6 or "F" for "Fighter". The actual numbers remained unchanged.
  2. ^ The last time this would occur was on 20 June 1965, when the pilot of a prop-driven Douglas A-1 Skyraider shot down MiG-17, in Vietnam.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Hawker Fury FB10 ISS – F-AZXL", Flying Legends, Touchdown Aviation .
  2. ^ a b Wheeler 1992, p. 87.
  3. ^ Harold Skaarup (2012). California Warplanes. iUniverse. p. 201. 
  4. ^ Goulding 1986, pp. 130–131.
  5. ^ Brown 1980, p. 82.
  6. ^ Buttler 2000, p. 46.
  7. ^ a b Bridgman 1998, p. 127.
  8. ^ Darling 2002, pp. 12–13.
  9. ^ a b c Meekcoms and Morgan 1994, p. 309.
  10. ^ Darling 2002, pp. 12–14.
  11. ^ Darling 2002, p. 13.
  12. ^ a b Darling 2002, p. 14.
  13. ^ Mason 1991, pp. 342–347.
  14. ^ Mackay 1991, pp. 4–5.
  15. ^ Darling 2002, pp. 13–15.
  16. ^ Darling 2002, pp. 15–16.
  17. ^ Darling 2002, pp. 15–17.
  18. ^ Mackay 1991, p. 5.
  19. ^ Darling 2002, pp. 18–19.
  20. ^ Darling 2002, p. 20.
  21. ^ Mackay 1991, p. 23.
  22. ^ Mackay 1991, p. 10.
  23. ^ a b Darling 2002, p. 73.
  24. ^ a b Wilson 1993
  25. ^ Mackay 1991, pp. 28, 35–37, 41.
  26. ^ a b Darling 2002, pp. 22–26, 28.
  27. ^ Darling 2002, pp. 42–43.
  28. ^ a b Flight 1946, p. 394.
  29. ^ Darling 2002, pp. 36–38.
  30. ^ Mackay 1991, p. 16.
  31. ^ Darling 2002, pp. 22–23, 27.
  32. ^ Darling 2002, p. 38.
  33. ^ Mackay 1991, p. 7.
  34. ^ Darling 2002, p. 19.
  35. ^ Darling 2002, pp. 23, 36–38.
  36. ^ "Hawker Sea Fury aircraft profile." Aircraft Database of the Fleet Air Arm Archive 1939-1945. Retrieved: 23 March 2006.
  37. ^ Darling 2002, pp. 19–20.
  38. ^ Mackay 1991, pp. 10, 17.
  39. ^ Mackay 1991, p. 17.
  40. ^ Mackay 1991, p. 43.
  41. ^ "Sea Fury History". Unlimited Air Racing. Retrieved: 9 March 2007.
  42. ^ a b c d Hobbs 2011, pp. 30–36.
  43. ^ Darling 2002, pp. 51–52.
  44. ^ Darling 2002, pp. 52–53.
  45. ^ Mackay 1991, p. 2.
  46. ^ "UN Air-to-Air Victories during the Korean War, 1950–1953". Air Combat Information Group Journal, 2002–2003. Retrieved: 9 March 2007.
  47. ^ White, Rowland. "Sea Fury - A New Perspective on a Famous Dogfight". Korea 1950 - 1953, 2001. Retrieved: 24 February 2013.
  48. ^ Mackay 1991, p. 31.
  49. ^ Lednicer, David. "Intrusions, Overflights, Shootdowns and Defections During the Cold War and Thereafter." myplace.frontier.com, 17 September 2012. Retrieved: 24 September 2011.
  50. ^ Mackay 1991, p. 38.
  51. ^ Darling 2002, pp. 73–74.
  52. ^ Mackay 1991, p. 28.
  53. ^ a b Mackay 1991, p. 39.
  54. ^ Ferrer 1982, p. 184.
  55. ^ a b c d Mario E. Overall, 2000, "Bay of Pigs: In the Skies Over Girón" (March 18, 2014.)
  56. ^ a b c d e f g Tom Cooper, 2007, "Clandestine US Operations: Cuba, 1961, Bay of Pigs". (March 18, 2014.)
  57. ^ Houston ran aground in shallow water and, during the 1970s, was cut up in situ.
  58. ^ "Bay of Pigs Operation, Volume 1: Air Operations March 1960 - April 1961 pp. 9-12.". Central Intelligence Agency. 25 July 2011. Archived from the original on 11 May 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2013. 
  59. ^ a b c Mackay 1991, p. 33.
  60. ^ Mackay 1991, pp. 35–36.
  61. ^ Robertson 1987, p. 152.
  62. ^ a b Robertson 1987, p. 180.
  63. ^ a b c d e f g Sturtivant 2004, pp. 351–412.
  64. ^ a b c d Meekcoms and Morgan 1994, p. 315.
  65. ^ Mackay 1991, pp. 10, 28, 31.
  66. ^ Mackay 1991, pp. 23, 41.
  67. ^ a b Mackay 1991, p. 35.
  68. ^ a b Mackay 1991, p. 25.
  69. ^ a b c d "Hawker Sea Fury/Fury Registry." warbirdregistry.org. Retrieved: 24 September 2011.
  70. ^ Take Off magazine, Part 84, pp. 2338–2339.
  71. ^ "Hawker Sea Fury photo." www.airliners.net. Retrieved: 7 February 2010.
  72. ^ Brown 1980, p. 97.
Bibliography
  • Bridgman, Leonard, ed. "The Hawker Fury and Sea Fury." Jane’s Fighting Aircraft of World War II. New York: CrescentBooks, 1998. ISBN 0-517-67964-7.
  • Brown, Captain Eric. "Finale Furioso ... The Era-Ending Sea Fury". Air International, Vol. 18, No. 2, February 1980, pp. 82–86, pp. 94–98. ISSN 0306-5634.
  • Buttler, Tony. "The RAF Have No Fury ..." Air Enthusiast, No. 86, March/April 2000, pp. 46–53. ISSN 0143-5450.
  • Darling, Kev. Hawker Sea Fury (Warbird Tech Vol. 37). North Branch, Minnesota: Voyageur Press, 2002. ISBN 1-58007-063-9.
  • Ferrer, Edward B. Operation Puma: The Air Battle of the Bay of Pigs. Atlanta: Georgia: International Aviation Consultants, 1982 (English edition), First edition 1975 (Spanish). ISBN 0-9609000-0-4.
  • Geldhof, Nico and Luuk Boerman. Hawker Sea Fury: History, Camouflage and Markings - Hawker Sea Fury F.(B)Mk.50/60/51 Koninklijke Marine Luchtvaartdienst/Royal Netherlands Naval Air Services (Dutch Profile 3) (bilingual Dutch/English). Zwammerdam, the Netherlands: Dutch Decal, 2005. No ISBN.
  • "Goodly Heritage". Flight International, 10 October 1946. pp. 392–394.
  • Goulding, John. Interceptor: R.A.F. Single-seat Multi-gunfighters. Shepperton, UK: Ian Allan, 1986. ISBN 978-0-71101-583-8.
  • Hobbs, David. "Korean Warrior – FAA in Korea". Aircraft (Ian Allan Publishing), October 2011. ISSN 2041-2150.
  • Mackay, Ron. Hawker Sea Fury in action. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1991. ISBN 0-89747-267-5.
  • Mason, Francis K. Hawker Aircraft Since 1920 (3rd revised edition). London, UK: Putnam, 1991. ISBN 0-85177-839-9.
  • Meekcoms, K J and E.B. Morgan. The British Aircraft Specification File. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain Historians Ltd., 1994. ISBN 0-85130-220-3.
  • Robertson, Bruce. British Military Aircraft serials 1878-1987. Leicester, UK: Midland Counties Publications, 1987. ISBN 0-904597-61-X.
  • Sea Fury at War DVD (IWM Footage). Retrieved: 3 April 2008.
  • Sturtivant, Ray. Fleet Air Arm Fixed-Wing Aircraft since 1946. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain, 2004, ISBN 0-85130-283-1
  • Sturtivant, Ray and Theo Ballance. The Squadrons of the Fleet Air Arm. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians), 1994. ISBN 0-85130-223-8.
  • Thetford, Owen. British Naval Aircraft since 1912. London: Putnam, 1977. ISBN 0-370-30021-1.
  • Thomas, Graham. Furies and Fireflies over Korea: The Story of the Men and Machines of the Fleet Air Arm, RAF and Commonwealth Who Defended South Korea 1950-1953. London: Grub Street, 2004. ISBN 1-904010-04-0.
  • Wheeler, Barry C. The Hamlyn Guide to Military Aircraft Markings. London: Chancellor Press, 1992. ISBN 1-85152-582-3.
  • Wilson, Stewart. Sea Fury, Firefly and Sea Venom in Australian Service. Weston Creek, ACT, Australia: Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd., 1993, pp. 23–36. ISBN 1-875671-05-6.

External links[edit]