Hawkhurst shown within Kent
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Ambulance||South East Coast|
|EU Parliament||South East England|
|UK Parliament||Tunbridge Wells|
Hawkhurst is a village and civil parish in the borough of Tunbridge Wells, Kent, England. The parish lies to the south-east of Tunbridge Wells. Hawkhurst itself is virtually two villages. One, the older of the two, consisting mainly of cottages clustered around a large triangular green known as The Moor, and the other, farther north on the main road, called Highgate (which has been updated to town status because of its increasing population and the councils plans to build more houses). Highgate stands on a crossroads and is where the shops and hotels lie .
Since boundary changes in the 2010 general election, Hawkhurst is part of the parliamentary constituency of Tunbridge Wells, represented by Conservative Greg Clark. Prior to this it was in the Maidstone and The Weald constituency, formerly represented by Ann Widdecombe.
A railway station was built in Hawkhurst in 1892, to the west side of the Cranbrook Road, on the northern edge of the village. It was rarely busy except during hop picking time, when up to 26 special trains per day, each carrying up to 350 Cockneys from London, would arrive at Hawkhurst – up to 10,000 people per day. As this declined, the station became uneconomic, and it was closed in 1961.
The station site is now an industrial area just off the Cranbrook Road, but some original buildings are still standing and in a good state of preservation. The nearest open station is now Etchingham.
Hawkhurst has over 1,000 years of recorded history. The oldest known settlement was the Saxon manor of Congehurst, which was burnt by the Danes in 893 AD. There is still a lane of this name to the east of the village.
The name Hawkhurst is derived from Old English heafoc hyrst, meaning a wooded hill frequented by hawks - 'Hawk Wood'. Hurst (Hyrst) in a place name refers to a wood or wooded area – there are several in West Kent and East Sussex. The 11th Century Domesday Monacorum refers to it as Hawkashyrst, belonging to Battle Abbey. In 1254, the name was recorded as Hauekehurst; in 1278, it is often shown as Haukhurst; by 1610, it had changed to Hawkherst, which then evolved into the current spelling.
The village was located at the centre of the Wealden iron industry from Roman times. The Weald produced over a third of all iron in Britain, and over 180 sites have been found in the area. Ironstone was taken from clay beds, then heated with charcoal from the abundant woods in the area. The iron was used to make everything from Roman ships to medieval cannon, and many of the Roman roads in the area were built in order to transport the iron. William Penn, founder of the state of Pennsylvania, owned ironworks at Hawkhurst. The industry eventually declined during the industrial revolution of the 18th Century, when coal became the preferred method of heating, and could not be found nearby.
In the 14th century, Edward III, wanting to break the Flemish (Dutch) monopoly on weaving, encouraged Flemish weavers to come to England. Many chose to settle in the Weald, because it had all the elements needed for weaving – oak to make mills, streams to drive them and Fullers Earth to treat the cloth.
The Kentish domination of the hop industry was stimulated by that same influx of Flemish weavers, who brought a preference for beer, and beer making skills with them. Several wealthy Kentish farmers invested in this new opportunity and approach. Although not the centre of the industry, Hawkhurst Brewery and Malthouse was built in 1850, on the edge of The Moor (now a house).
Hop growing also gave the area its distinctive skyline of hop gardens and oast houses, which were used to dry the hops. Nowadays, most hops are imported. However, at its peak 35,000 acres (140 km2) of hop gardens existed in England, almost all of them in Kent, including much around Hawkhurst. Eventually mechanisation and cheap imports ended the industry, but the oast houses remain.
The Hawkhurst Gang
By 1745 it is estimated that 20,000 people were smuggling along the Kent and Sussex coast line. An infamous group, the "Holkhourst Genge", terrorised the surrounding area between 1735 and 1749. They were the most notorious of the Kent gangs, and were feared all along the south coast of England. At Poole in Dorset, where they had launched an armed attack on the customs house (to take back a consignment of tea that had been confiscated), several were hanged. A number of inns and local houses in Hawkhurst claim associations with the gang: high taxation on luxury goods in the early 18th century had led to an upsurge in smuggling, and the gang brought in brandy, silk and tobacco up from Rye and Hastings to be stowed away in hidden cellars and passages, before being sold off to the local gentry. It was reputed that when needed for a smuggling run, 500 mounted and armed men could be assembled within the hour. The Battle of Goudhurst eventually brought their career to an end.
- If you wake at midnight, and hear a horse's feet,
- Don't go drawing back the blind, or looking in the street,
- Them that ask no questions isn't told a lie.
- Watch the wall my darling while the Gentlemen go by.
In 1886, the largest Barnardo's home for orphans under six years old was built in Hawkhurst, caring for hundreds of babies. It was known as Babies' Castle, and followed nine inspiring principles, known as "The Nine Nos":
- No destitute child refused
- No Race Barrier
- No Creed Clause
- No Physical Disability
- No Age Limit
- No Money Promise
- No Voting
- No Waiting
- No Red Tape
Unfortunately the building has now fallen into disrepair, and as of September 2012 is still up for sale.
In 1903 Gunther and his wife Leonie bought the Tongswood Estate. When he died in 1935, the house, dating from the 1860s, was sold and became St Ronan's School. Earlier owners of Tongswood were the Dunks family, who lived there from about 1500-1750. Sir Thomas Dunk, a wealthy clothier, who died in 1718, bequeathed enough money to build almshouses for six 'decayed housekeepers' (three men and three women) and a village school, plus enough money to buy lands to generate a steady income.
In 1875, the Victoria Lecture Hall was built by Henry Maynard "for the good of the village". It now houses the Kino, a digital cinema.
Hawkhurst has several churches. The parish church of St Laurence stands at the south end of the village known as The Moor, which is the older part of Hawkhurst. It falls within the Canterbury diocese, and has as patron the Dean and Chapter of Christ College, Oxford. It is likely that a church has stood on this site since 1100, or even earlier. After the Battle of Hastings William the Conqueror gave the Manor of Wye, with rights over a large part of the parish, to the Abbot of Battle. The first mention of the church is in the charter of 1285, and its first rector was Richard de Clyne in 1291. The Chancel and North Chapel are the oldest parts of the church. The Great East Window was built about 1350 and has been described as one of the finest pieces of architecture in the country. Most of the rest of the church dates from around 1450, when the nave was lengthened and raised, the aisles, porches and tower added, and it took on its present appearance. The room over the North porch was used by Battle Abbey officials for rent collecting, and used to be called "The Treasury". In 1574, communion rails were introduced at a cost of 53 shillings, to keep communicants from the altar, the first parish church in England to have done so.
In 1944 a German flying bomb fell in the churchyard, caused considerable damage, and the church was put out of action until 1957. Part of the flying bomb can be seen on the south side at the back of the church.
There is a Roman Catholic church, dedicated to St Barnabas, in the High Street, an active Baptish Church in Cranbrook Road built partly on the site of the original Rootes cycle factory. A Methodist church on Highgate Hill is now disused, the congregation holding services in All Saints Lodge, a Church centre at Highgate bought by St Laurence Church out of the proceeds of sale of All Saints Church, a former chapel of ease at Highgate, which now stands abandoned pending planning permission for a future use.
The 19th-century astronomer Sir John Herschel (1792–1871) lived in Hawkhurst for thirty years.It was he who named Uranus, which had been discovered by his father, Sir William Herschel. He was also a mentor and inspiration to a young Charles Darwin. Herschel lived at Collingwood House in Hawkhurst.
Richard Kilburne, born in London to a Kentish family, was a lawyer and historian. Richard Kilburne died at Hawkhurst on November 16, 1678, at age 74. Kilburne is buried in the chancel of the church at Hawkhurst under a flat stone inscribed with Latin declaring him "an ornament and an honor to his country."
Hawkhurst lays claim to being the birthplace of the Rootes car empire; William Rootes set up shop in the village as a cycle trader before moving into the production of cars, including Singer, Hillman, Humber and Sunbeam, eventually becoming Chrysler Europe.
Philip Langridge, the 20th-century operatic tenor, was born in Hawkhurst.
- The Place Names of Kent, Judith Glover ISBN 0-905270-61-4
- The Origin of English Place Names, P.H.Reaney ISBN 0-7100-2010-4
- Delany, M.C.; Mary Cecilia Delany (1921). "Internet Archive". The historical geography of the Wealden iron industry. Benn Brothers Ltd, London. p. 25. Retrieved 2009-08-21.
- "Open Plaques". Hawkhurst. pp. Note #1470. Retrieved 2009-08-21.
- The Gombach Group (1997–2007). "Living Places". Pennsylvania Forges and Furnaces. Julia Gombach. Retrieved 2009-08-21.
- Plaque #1475 on Open Plaques.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hawkhurst.|
- Includes list of Hawkurst Gang members
- Hawkhurst Primary School
- Marlborough House School
- St. Ronan's School
- Kino - digital cinema
- Hawkhurst Fish Farm
- Wealden Iron
|Hurst Green||The Moor