Hawkman

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For other uses, see Hawkman (disambiguation).
Hawkman
Carter Hall as Hawkman
Hawkman (vol. 4) # 1
Cover art by Andrew Robinson
Publisher DC Comics
First appearance Flash Comics #1 (January 1940)
Created by Gardner Fox (writer)
Dennis Neville (art)
Characters Carter Hall
Katar Hol
Fel Andar
Charley Parker
Hawkman
Hawkman vol. 1, #1 (April–May, 1964).
Featuring the Katar Hol version of the character.
Art by Murphy Anderson.
Series publication information
Publisher DC Comics
Schedule (vol 1)
Bi-monthly
(vol 2-3, The Savage Hawkman)
Monthly
(vol 4)
Monthly (1-22, 25-49)
Bi-Weekly (23-24)[1]
Format Ongoing series
Genre
Publication date (vol 1)
April–May 1964 – August–September 1968
(vol 2)
August 1986 – December 1987
(vol 3)
September 1993 – July 1996
(vol 4)
May 2002 – April 2006
(The Savage Hawkman)
November 2011 – July 2013
Number of issues (vol 1)
27
(vol 2)
17 and 1 Special
(vol 3)
34 (including a 0 issue) and 2 Annuals
(vol 4)
49
(vol 2-3, The Savage Hawkman)
21 (including issue #0)
Main character(s) (vol 1-3, The Savage Hawkman)
Katar Hol
(vol 4)
Carter Hall

Hawkman is a fictional character, a superhero who appears in comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Gardner Fox and artist Dennis Neville, the original Hawkman first appeared in Flash Comics #1, published by All-American Publications in 1940.

Several incarnations of Hawkman have appeared in DC Comics, all of them characterized by the use of archaic weaponry and by large, artificial wings, attached to a harness made from the special Nth metal that allows flight. Most incarnations of Hawkman work closely with a partner/romantic interest named Hawkgirl or Hawkwoman.

Since DC’s continuity was rewritten in the 1985 series Crisis on Infinite Earths, Hawkman’s history has become muddled with several new versions of the character appearing throughout the years, some associated with ancient Egypt and some with the fictional planet Thanagar. These versions of the character have starred in several series of various durations.

Publication history[edit]

Hawkman first appeared in Flash Comics #1 (1940), and was a featured character in that title throughout the 1940s. This Hawkman was Carter Hall, a reincarnation of an ancient Egyptian prince, Khufu, who had in the modern day discovered that the mysterious "ninth metal" could negate the effects of gravity and allow him to fly. He donned a costume with large wings to allow him to control his flight and became the crimefighter, Hawkman. He also had a companion hawk named Big Red that assisted him in fighting crime. An archaeologist by trade, Hall uses ancient weapons from the museum of which he was curator in his efforts.

The Golden Age Hawkman, from Flash Comics # 71 (May 1946). Art by Joe Kubert.

Hawkman was a charter member of the Justice Society of America, beginning with All Star Comics #3 (Winter 1940). In issue #8 he became the JSA's chairman, a position he would hold until the end of the JSA's run in All Star Comics. He was the only member of the JSA to appear in every adventure during the Golden Age of Comic Books. He romanced his reincarnated bride, Shiera Sanders, who became the crimefighter Hawkgirl. His first three adventures were drawn by creator Dennis Neville (who modeled Hawkman's costume on the hawkmen characters in the Flash Gordon comic strip by Alex Raymond), then by Sheldon Moldoff, and later by Joe Kubert, who slightly redesigned his mask in Flash Comics # 85 (Jul 1947) and then, one year later, replaced the winged-hawk-like mask by a much simpler yellow cowl in Flash Comics #98 (Aug 1948).

Along with most other superheroes, Hawkman's Golden Age adventures came to an end when the industry turned away from the genre in the early 1950s. His last appearance was in All Star Comics #57 (1951).

Later in the decade, DC Comics under editor Julius Schwartz decided to revive a number of heroes in new incarnations, but with the same names and powers. Following the success of the Flash, Hawkman was revived in The Brave and the Bold # 34 (Feb-Mar 1961), this time as an alien policeman from the planet Thanagar, though his powers were largely the same. Created by Gardner Fox and Joe Kubert, this Hawkman, Katar Hol, came to Earth with his wife Shayera in pursuit of a criminal, and remained to fight crime on Earth. They adopted the names Carter and Shiera Hall and became curators of a museum in Midway City.

This Hawkman became a member of the Justice League of America, where he often verbally sparred with the iconoclastic liberal hero Green Arrow. In the 1960s it was revealed that the original Hawkman lived on the parallel world of Earth-Two, and that Katar Hol lived on Earth-One. The JLA and JSA had an annual meeting throughout the 1960s and 1970s during which the two heroes often met.

The Silver Age Hawkman and Hawkgirl, from Hawkman # 3 (August–September 1964). Art by Murphy Anderson.

The Silver Age Hawkman had his own series for a few years, but with declining sales it was merged with that of the Atom. Atom and Hawkman lasted only another year or so before cancellation.

In the late 1970s in Showcase and World's Finest Comics, Thanagar went to war with the planet Rann, the adopted home of Adam Strange. This led to Hawkman and Hawkwoman severing ties with their homeworld, and later fighting The Shadow War of Hawkman (written by Tony Isabella) as Thanagar tried secretly to conquer the Earth.

The landmark 1985 series Crisis on Infinite Earths resulted in a massive revision of much DC continuity and led to many characters being substantially rewritten. Hawkman was to suffer some of the greatest confusion as successive writers sought to explain his various appearances. In the revised timeline there was a single Earth which had witnessed the JSA in the 1940s and the JLA decades later. Successive revisions sought to establish exactly who had been Hawkman and Hawkwoman at different stages. For the first few years the pre-Crisis incarnations were still used, during which time they were prominent across the DC Universe and joined the latest incarnation of the Justice League.

Then DC decided to reboot Hawkman, in a limited series (which later led to an ongoing series) entitled Hawkworld originally by Tim Truman, and later John Ostrander. In this series, Thanagar was a class society which conquered other worlds to enrich itself. Katar Hol was the son of a prominent official who rebelled against the status quo. He and his partner Shayera were sent to Earth and remained there for some years until Hol was apparently killed.

This created a host of continuity errors as the new Katar Hol was established as having only just arrived on Earth, raising the question as to who had been around previously. In an attempt to resolve the problem it was established through retcons that the Golden Age Hawkman and Hawkgirl had also operated throughout the 1940s up to the 1990s, and that Nth metal came from Thanagar. They had remained active and then joined the original incarnation of the JLA. Moreover, yet another Hawkman - Fel Andar, a Thanagarian agent - had been the one who joined the Justice League during the 1980s, pretending to be a hero but secretly seeking to infiltrate it.

The Zero Hour mini-series muddied the waters further by merging the different Hawkmen into a "Hawkgod", who was the focus character in the third volume of the monthly Hawkman series. This version of Hawkman also had a small role in the alternate-future series Kingdom Come. After the demise of this series, Hawkman's continuity was considered by DC to be too complicated,[citation needed] and he was absent from comics for several years.

In the late 1990s, the JSA series untangled Hawkman's continuity, establishing him as Carter Hall, a man who - along with Shiera - had been reincarnated dozens of times since his life in ancient Egypt, and whose powers were derived from Thanagarian Nth metal, which had been retroactively renamed from "ninth metal". The Katar Hol of the Hawkworld series had also come to Earth during the 1990s, as previously established. The 1980s Hawkman Fel Ander went back to Thanagar. The Hawkgod was later revealed to be the avatar of the Hawk aspect of the Red from which Animal Man receives his powers and merely thought that he was Hawkman.[citation needed]

Also during the Identity Crisis miniseries it was established that Carter Hall had voted for the mindwipe of Dr. Light (indeed, he had been the one to initially suggest the idea) and it is from this that part of his enmity with Green Arrow stemmed (as Green Arrow felt mental reprogramming beyond the scope of any vigilante group's rights, and, in fact, those of any government).

With this new continuity, Hawkman was again reincarnated and given a new series in 2002 entitled Hawkman Volume 4, written initially by James Robinson and Geoff Johns, with art by Rags Morales. Justin Gray and Jimmy Palmiotti took over writing duties during the third year of the series. In 2006, the series was retitled Hawkgirl with issue #50 and given a new creative team Walter Simonson and Howard Chaykin. This series was cancelled with Hawkgirl issue #66 in July 2007.

Hawkman was a major character in the Rann-Thanagar War miniseries, which stemmed from events in Countdown to Infinite Crisis. During this time his continuity was further changed (See Carter Hall section below).

Fictional character biographies[edit]

Carter Hall[edit]

Main article: Hawkman (Carter Hall)

In the days of ancient Egypt, Prince Khufu is engaged in a feud with his rival, the Egyptian priest Hath-Set. The priest eventually captures both Khufu and his consort Chay-Ara, and kills them using a cursed dagger of Nth metal. Millennia later, in 1940, Khufu is reincarnated as American archaeologist Carter Hall, Chay-Ara as Shiera Saunders, and Hath-Set as scientist Anton Hastor. After touching the same Nth Metal dagger used to kill Khufu, Carter regains the memories of his former life and realizes Hastor is the reincarnation of his ancient foe. When Hastor kidnaps Shiera, using a magic spell to draw her to his lair, Hall uses his newly-refound memories to craft a gravity-defying belt using Nth metal and a winged costume to become Hawkman. Carter successfully rescues Shiera. Anton is killed by electrocution, and Carter and Saunders begin a romantic relationship.

Carter Hall and Shiera Saunders had a son together, named Hector Hall, who grew up to also have a superheroic identity as Silver Scarab and later adopted the mantle of Dr. Fate. Hector Hall was a member of the superhero groups Infinity Inc. and the JSA where he served alongside his father.

The incarnation of Hawkman that first appeared in the 2011 DC Universe relaunch, The New 52, identifies himself as Carter Hall.[volume & issue needed]

Katar Hol[edit]

Main article: Hawkman (Katar Hol)

Katar Hol is an honored police officer on his homeworld of Thanagar. Along with his wife Shayera, they use the anti-gravity ninth (also known as Nth) metal and their wings to fight criminals. These were the tools of an elite police unit tasked to track and apprehend the most dangerous criminals. The pair were sent to earth in 1961 to capture the shape-shifting criminal Byth. Following this mission, they elected to remain on Earth to work with authorities in the United States and learn human police methods. The two adopted covers as a pair of museum curators, Carter and Shiera Hall, and acted publicly as the second Hawkman and the second Hawkgirl (later Hawkwoman).

Although initially depicted as surviving the Crisis on Infinite Earths intact, Katar Hol was rebooted just a few years afterwards in a prestige format miniseries named Hawkworld, by Timothy Truman. A regular ongoing series of the same name followed, with writer John Ostrander joining Truman. Katar Hol, a young police officer on the planet Thanagar, rebels against the oppressive system of his planet and is sent into exile. He later escapes and uncovers a renegade police captain Byth. As a result, he is reinstated into the force, given a new partner, Shayera Thal, and sent on a mission on Earth, where he is the third Hawkman.

In DC's The New 52 universe, it is Katar Hol under the name Carter Hall.

Fel Andar[edit]

Main article: Hawkman (Fel Andar)

Late in the 1980s, Thanagarian spy Fel Andar — who had been living on Earth for some time already — was ordered by the Thanagarian army to infiltrate the Justice League as the second Hawkman.

Zauriel[edit]

Main article: Zauriel

When Grant Morrison revived the JLA comic book in 1997, he expanded the roster to include over a dozen heroes. With frequent collaborator Mark Millar, he intended to create a new Hawkman with no links to the old characters. This new Hawkman, an Earth-bound angel of the "Eagle host" named Zauriel, was to be introduced into the JLA with issue #6 (June 1997). Morrison was denied permission to use the name "Hawkman" by DC editorial, which still considered it "radioactive", due to the complex post-Crisis continuity problems with the character.

In the Wizard JLA Special, Morrison made an appeal to the fanbase, "It's a good name and it seems a shame to let it go to waste. We're hoping that fans will figure 'For God's sake, let's just call him Hawkman and get him in the Justice League as Hawkman,' and the editors will relent. We're hoping to start a campaign." DC held firm, and the "Hawkman" name went unused for several more years.[2]

Charley Parker[edit]

Main article: Golden Eagle (comics)

Originally the Teen Titans member called Golden Eagle, Charley Parker was presumed deceased after an attack by the Wildebeest Society during the event known as Titans Hunt. He was later revealed to be alive in the fourth volume of Hawkman and went on to assist the Carter Hall Hawkman for some time. When Carter Hall seemingly perished, Charley Parker took on the mantle and became the fourth Hawkman, and revealed himself as the son of Carter Hall. In fact, he was actually the son of Fel Andar, and had been responsible for Carter's troubles and his apparent demise. Carter Hall eventually defeated the Golden Eagle, and their vendetta would later be dropped, and Carter Hall reclaimed his mantle.

Powers and abilities[edit]

All incarnations of Hawkman used the fictional "ninth metal" or "Nth metal" to defy gravity and allow them to fly. The metal is in their costume's belt, boots, and wings. Its abilities are controlled mentally. Their wings allow them to control their flight, though they can be "flapped" through use of shoulder motions. In most comic books he is known to have slightly enhanced physical strength.

The Golden Age Hawkman was also granted the ability to breathe underwater by the sea god Poseidon.[3] He also discovered a hidden kingdom of sentient birds led by the old One-Eye, who taught him their language and later sacrificed himself to save the Hawkman's life.[4] Among the leading birds was a hawk named Big Red.[5]

The Silver Age Hawkman also had enhanced senses comparable (it was said) to a hawk's. He (and, sometimes, the Golden Age Hawkman) was also able to converse with birds, though he couldn't command them in the same way that Aquaman could command sea creatures. He also wore special contact lenses that allowed him to detect beams and radiation.[6]

The Silver Age Hawkman also possessed a Thanagarian police space ship and a variety of science fictional weapons.

All versions of Hawkman preferred to use archaic weaponry—particularly maces, nets, spears, and shields—rather than modern or futuristic weapons. The current incarnation prefers this in part because, having the memories of living through many past lives, he is more proficient in their use than with contemporary weapons. In Katar Hol's case, it was too dangerous to use Thanagarian weaponry since there was too great a chance they could be lost or captured and then used or duplicated on Earth. There is, however, one significantly unique weapon Carter employs occasionally: the Claw of Horus. Constructed of Nth metal by Prince Khufu in ancient Egypt, it was delivered to the newly resurrected Carter Hall by the time-displaced Jay Garrick in JSA Book 3: "The Return of Hawkman". Later, in Superman-Batman Book 1: "Public Enemies", Hawkman used it to defeat Superman, using its Nth metal to channel the Earth's gravitational field. As he explained to Superman, "Essentially, I just hit you with the planet."

All versions of Hawkman have shown enhanced levels of strength. The Golden Age Hawkman was said to have the strength of 12 men but later that idea was dropped. Whereas the Golden Age Hawkman's strength appeared natural, it was later explained (with The Silver Age Hawkman) that the Nth metal enables its wielders to carry great weights. The recent incarnation has interpreted this as the Nth metal simply enhancing the strength of the user. Also, several JLA and JSA stories indicate that Thanagar has greater gravity than Earth, and that Thanagarians are naturally stronger than humans because they are adapted to it, similarly to how Atlanteans (e.g. Aquaman) are adapted to deep sea pressures.

It has also been explained in the JSA series that the Nth metal greatly aids in healing, closing wounds almost instantaneously. One example is in the JLA story "Crisis of Conscience," in issues 115-118. Carter's arm is nearly severed during one part of the issue, but the wound has obviously closed and functionality returned by the end of the issue. The Atom has commented that Hawkman laughs at anything less than third-degree burns.

The Nth metal also regulates the body temperature of the wearer, preventing the need for heavy protective clothing while in high altitudes. It also has the property of radiating heat, which can be controlled to warm the wearer in colder climates.[7]

Other versions[edit]

  • During the chronal disruptions of Zero Hour, multiple versions of Hawkman (and Hawkgirl/Hawkwoman) from alternate timelines were appearing in and out of existence. It turns out the Hawks were one of many anomalies in the timestream resulting from the Crisis. Somehow the various versions were converged into the current reality's Katar Hol.
  • A Hawkman evolved from Robin in the Just Imagine... comic book.[8]
  • Hawkman's Antimatter Earth counterpart is Blood Eagle. He was killed by the Crime Syndicate.[9] It is unclear whether he's a Thanagarian (like Katar Hol) or human (like Carter Hall).

Awards[edit]

The series and character have won several awards over the years, including:

Reception[edit]

Hawkman was ranked as the 118th greatest comic book character of all time by Wizard magazine.[10] IGN also ranked Hawkman as the 56th greatest comic book hero of all time stating that the best part of Hawkman is his incredibly short fuse.; IGN also described him as a complete and total badass.[11]

Collected editions[edit]

  • Carter Hall
    • Golden Age Hawkman Archives Vol. 1 (Hawkman stories from Flash Comics #1-22)
    • Blackest Night: Rise of the Black Lanterns (Atom & Hawkman #46)
    • Hawkman Vol. 1 Endless Flight (Collects Hawkman Vol.4 #1-6 and Hawkman Secret Files #1)
    • Hawkman Vol. 2 Enemies & Allies (Collects Hawkman Vol.4 #7-12)
    • Hawkman Vol. 3 Wings of Fury (Collects Hawkman Vol.4 #15-22)
    • JSA: Black Reign (Collects Hawkman Vol.4 #23-25 and JSA #56-58)
    • DC Comics Presents: Brightest Day #1 (Collects Hawkman Vol.4 #27, 34 and 36)
    • Hawkman Vol. 4 Rise of the Golden Eagle (Collects Hawkman Vol.4 #37-45)
    • The Hawkman Omnibus Vol. 1 (Hawkamn Vol. 4 #1-25, Hawkman Secret Files #1 JSA #56-58)
  • Kator Hol
    • Hawkman Archives Vol. 1 (The Brave and the Bold #34-36, 42-44; Mystery in Space #87-90)
    • Hawkman Archives Vol. 2 (Hawkman #1-8)
    • Showcase Presents: Hawkman Vol. 1 (The Brave and the Bold #34-36, 42-44, & 51, The Atom #7, Mystery in Space #87-90; Hawkman Vol. 1 #1-11)
    • Showcase Presents: Hawkman Vol. 2 (Hawkman Vol. 1 #12-27,The Atom #31, The Atom and Hawkman #39-45, The Brave and the Bold Vol.1 #70)
    • The Savage Hawkman Vol. 1: Darkness Rising (Collects The Savage Hawkman #1-8)
    • The Savage Hawkman Vol. 2: Wanted (Collects The Savage Hawkman #0, #9-20)

In other media[edit]

Live action[edit]

Hawkman as he appears in Smallville.
  • In 1997, during the period in which Hawkman's continuity was considered hopelessly complicated and the character was in limbo, Hawkman was the star of a tongue in cheek Baby Ruth commercial. A slightly out-of-shape Hawkman is shown struggling to lift criminals off the ground and flying straight into a glass window. Eating a Baby Ruth candy bar, he says, gives him the energy he needs.
  • Actor Michael Shanks played Hawkman in the TV series Smallville, in the two-parter episode "Absolute Justice". Shanks later reprises the Hawkman role for the Smallville Season 9 finale episode "Salvation", where he appears alongside other superheroes. Carter Hall returns for the season 10 episode "Shield" where he gives Lois Lane some words of wisdom about her relationship with Clark Kent. Hawkman later appears in the eleventh episode "Icarus" and battles Slade Wilson. During the battle he is mortally wounded and after saving Lois Lane, he dies. His funeral is held in Egypt in a tomb where his wife Shayera was buried, with the Justice League there in mourning.

Animation[edit]

  • Hawkman's first animated appearance was in the 1967 Filmation animated series The Superman/Aquaman Hour of Adventure, in which Hawkman appears in several shorts, either in solo adventures or as part of the Justice League. The cartoon version resembles the Silver Age hero closely, except he uses a ray blaster "power claw" instead of archaic weapons, he has an eagle sidekick named Skreal instead of Hawkgirl, and he is a scientist instead of a museum director. Additionally, his spacecraft is bird-shaped. Hawkman was voiced by Vic Perrin.
Hro Talak as seen in Justice League Unlimited.
  • In the three-part Justice League episode "Starcrossed", a character based loosely on the Silver Age Hawkman called Hro Talak (an anagram of Katar Hol) is introduced and voiced by Victor Rivers. As the leader of the Thanagarian forces, he had used Hawkgirl as a scout on Earth. Although Hawkgirl believed they were on Earth to establish a defence against the Thangarians' enemies, the Gordanians, Talak's true plan is to destroy Earth as part of the establishment of a hyperspace bypass that would allow the Thanagarians to reach the Gordanian home system and destroy them. After the Justice League defeat them, the Thanagarian forces leave Earth to fight the Gordanians, concluding that remaining on Earth to start again would be too difficult. He did not use the name Hawkman.
  • In the Justice League Unlimited episode "Hunter's Moon", it is revealed that the remainder of the Thanagarian army was attacked by the Gordanians and Hro Talak sacrificed his life to destroy one of their ships leaving those that were with Hro to flee to another planet where they plot revenge against Hawkgirl when she lands in their trap with Vixen and Vigilante. In Season 3, an actual Hawkman appears who is an amalgamation of the Golden Age and Silver Age Hawkman (voiced by James Remar). He first appears in the episode "Shadow of the Hawk" in the form of Carter Hall (whose birthname is Joseph Gardner), an archaeologist who takes a liking to Shayera. He had previously discovered Thanagarian technology in an Egyptian tomb, and after exposure to a memory-recording device called an Absorbacron, comes to believe that he and Shayera are the reincarnations of two Thanagarian lovers, named Katar Hol and Shayera Hol, who had crashed in ancient Egypt. Adopting the name of Hawkman, Hall leads her to the tomb (with Batman secretly following) and reveals his superhero identity. When the villainous Shadow Thief attacks, the tomb collapses, after which Shadow Thief escapes, and Hawkman departs, still believing that he and Shayera are meant for each other. It is not stated definitively, however, that Hall is actually speaking the truth - it is suggested that he is delusional, and that his mind may have been addled by his exposure to the Absorbacron. However, it is also shown that deep in the tomb is a dual-occupancy mummy case with two winged mummies resting hand in hand, so the viewer is left to make their own judgement. In the episode "Ancient History" it is revealed that the Shadow Thief is an independent fragment of Hall's addled psyche and that the reincarnation theory is likely true. In the series finale, "Destroyer", he is seen along with other heroes responding to the League alert concerning Darkseid's invasion of Earth. Batman says that Hall's real name is "Joseph Gardner", which is a nod to Hawkman's most notable creators, Joe Kubert and Gardner Fox.
  • Hawkman makes a cameo (alongside The Flash, Green Arrow, and Green Lantern) in The Batman season four finale "The Joining, Part Two" and appeared in the episode "What Goes Up...", voiced by Robert Patrick. In the episode, he teamed with Batman and Robin to stop Black Mask and Shadow Thief. In the series finale episode "Lost Heroes", he and the Justice League went up against Hugo Strange and the joining. While not identified by name, a comment made about the Batcave looking like police headquarters on Thanagar indicates that he is Katar Hol.
  • Hawkman appears in Mad where he tries to appeal to Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman about being called "Super Friends."

Film[edit]

  • Hawkman appears in the animated movie, Superman/Batman: Public Enemies voiced by an uncredited voice-actor Michael Gough. In the film, he fights alongside Captain Marvel, engaging Superman and Batman outside Lex Luthor's bunker. He initially gains the upper hand against Batman until Superman and Batman switch targets. While infiltrating the bunker Batman takes his costume.
  • Hawkman will appear in the animated film Lego DC Comics Super Heroes: Justice League vs Bizarro League.

Video games[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The fourth volume was retitled Hawkgirl with issue #50.
  2. ^ [1][dead link]
  3. ^ Flash Comics #9.
  4. ^ Flash Comics #23.
  5. ^ Flash Comics #24.
  6. ^ "Justice League of America" #32.
  7. ^ Flash Comics #18.
  8. ^ Just Imagine Stan Lee creating Crisis (January 2002)
  9. ^ JLA 112 ((May 2005)), DC Comics
  10. ^ "Wizard's top 200 characters. External link consists of a forum site summing up the top 200 characters of Wizard Magazine since the real site that contains the list is broken.". Wizard magazine. Retrieved May 17, 2011. 
  11. ^ "Hawkman is number 56". IGN. Retrieved May 17, 2011. 
  12. ^ G-Man (2010-07-24). "Comic-Con: Brave and the Bold & Young Justice Panel". Comic Vine. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  13. ^ "Batman: The Brave And The Bold: The Videogame Trailer". Leagueofcomicgeeks.com. 2010-06-01. Retrieved 2010-09-14. 
  14. ^ [2]

External links[edit]