Haydar Pasha, Nicosia

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Haydar Pasha
Haydarpaşa, Χαϊδάρ Πασά
Haydar Pasha is located in Cyprus
Haydar Pasha
Haydar Pasha
Location in Cyprus
Coordinates: 35°10′39″N 33°21′58″E / 35.17750°N 33.36611°E / 35.17750; 33.36611Coordinates: 35°10′39″N 33°21′58″E / 35.17750°N 33.36611°E / 35.17750; 33.36611
Country  Cyprus
District Nicosia District
Municipality Nicosia
Population (2011)
 • Total 155
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)

Haydar Pasha (Turkish: Haydarpaşa, Greek: Χαϊδάρ Πασά) is a Neighbourhood, Quarter or Mahalla of Nicosia, Cyprus[1][2][3] and the mosque situated therein. Both are named after Haydar Pasha, said to be one of the 12 generals in command of divisions of the Ottoman army at the time of the Ottoman conquest of Nicosia. Each general being posted to a quarter, that quarter was known by his name.[4]

At the last Census (2011) it had a population of 155.[5] In 1946 it had a population of 385 (Turkish 334, Greek 45).[6]

Mukhtari: Muhittin Güven.[7]

Haidar Pasha Jami, by Louis Salvator

History[edit]

Haydar Pasha is one of the 24 historic Neighbourhoods of Nicosia within the walls.[3].[2] It was one of the 12 Neighbourhoods into which Nicosia was divided at the Ottoman conquest in 1570[4]

Before 1570 Haydar Pasha mosque was a church of the Latin community dedicated to St. Catherine.[8] It was built towards the end of the 14th Century. Except for the low windows pierced at floor level in the walls and the minaret erected by the Turks, it is changed little from the day it was built. [9]

Haydar Pasha Mosque[edit]

Haydar Pasha is the most important Gothic building in Nicosia after Ayia Sophia, formerly the Frankish (Latin) cathedral of Nicosia.[9] It has been described by Harry Charles Luke as representing one of the finest examples of Gothic building on the island.

Haydar Pasha Mosque, formerly St. Catherine's Church

On the right-hand side of the building, the spot where the tomb of St. Catherine is said to have been was still shown in the 19th century and the Greek Cypriots often come and lit their oil lamps there. The front portal is in a fine Gothic style, the arched cornice of which ends in a poppy-head. There is also a Catherine wheel over it. On the right side there is a minaret, the highest one of the old city after those of Ayia Sophia.[8] There are two fine doorways. The west door has a marble lintel with a rose between two dragons repeated three times. The other more heavily built door is on the south side.[9]

Adjoining the mosque on the left is a half ruined building, of which only a few Gothic arches remain. There is also a portal with ornaments and finials on the right. Three Gothic windows, two of which are divided by slender columns, occupy the space between the buttresses, which have gargoyles on the top. On the left of the Mosque there are similar buttresses, and a sort of square turret.

The interior was whitewashed and much damaged,[8] but the whitewash was removed in the early 20th Century and traces of painting can be seen on the walls.[9] Two Gothic arches support the vault, consisting of simply crossed ribs. In the apse six ribs, resting on a clustered column, spring forth from the keystone.[8] North of the apse is a sacristy the vaulting of which is supported by corbels with finely carved human heads. Above the sacristy is a lofty chamber, whose lower window looks onto the main church[9]

Both the Mihrab (direction of Mecca) and Mimber (pulpit) are on the right in this Mosque[8]

It now functions as an art gallery[10] and was previously a marriage registration office.

Other landmarks[edit]

Lapidary Museum[edit]

Just south of Haydar Pasha mosque is the famous Lapidary Museum[11] housed in a 15th Century house. The first floor is lighted with square windows, which have balconies supported on carved corbels, each decorated with a device. This house now contains medieval and Gothic fragments from vanished palaces and churches of Nicosia. The great window in the north wall is from the Lusignan royal palace that stood in Sarayonu Square, until 1904. This arched window is all that remains of the royal palace. Here too is preserved the tomb of Adam of Antioch, Marshall of Cyprus, which was found when the Church of Pallouriotissa was being rebuilt.[9]

The building is in the style of the early Venetian Renaissance and thus may pre-date the Venetian occupation of Cyprus. It is an almost unique example of this style in the island.[4]

Lusignan House[edit]

Lusignan House, in Yeni Jami Street
Shield with two pairs of smaller shields, each pair bracketed together

Just to the north of Haydar Pasha mosque is the Lusignan House Museum. Situated in Yeni Jami Street, this 15th century house has an impressive Gothic arch above which are several coats of arms[12] In 1958, the mansion, which had been used by the Russian Classen family as residence and a weaving workshop, was bequeathed by them to the Cyprus Government. However it was not opened to the public until 1997.

The oldest part of the house is the exterior as the interior was repeatedly rebuilt in Ottomans times. The doorway is a pointed arch with moulded voussures under an elaborate hood mould, which terminates in a well preserved crocketed finial supporting the shield of the Royal Arms of Cyprus (namely of the Lusignan kings), although this shield is defaced or damaged. On either side of this shield are two pairs of smaller shields, each pair bracketed together. The right-most of these is in better condition and bears the common Italian design "Ondato" (i.e. waves). Within the apex of the arch is a smaller shield, probably of the house of Dampierre [4]

Panorama of Haydar Pasha Neighbourhood, looking in a north-easterly direction

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Population Enumerated by Sex, Age, District, Municipality/Community and Quarter, 2011 – (2011 Census of the Republic of Cyprus, Statistical Service)" (in (Greek)). Mof.gov.cy. Retrieved 2012-07-21
  2. ^ a b Coexistence in the Disappeared Mixed Neighbourhoods of Nicosia by Ahmet An (Paper read at the conference: Nicosia: The Last Divided Capital in Europe, organized by the London Metropolitan University on 20th June 2011)
  3. ^ 6th edition of the publication “Statistical Codes of Municipalities, Communities and Quarters of Cyprus” (publ. Statistical Service of Republic of Cyprus)
  4. ^ a b c d A description of the historic monuments of Cyprus. Studies in the archaeology and architecture of the island, by George Jeffery, Architect, 1918
  5. ^ Census organised by the Turkish Cypriots in the occupied area http://www.devplan.org/Nufus-2011/nufus%20ikinci_.pdf retrieved October 2013
  6. ^ Census of Cyprus, 1946
  7. ^ Mahallas,Nicosia Turkish Municipality http://www.lefkosabelediyesi.org/tr/index.php/lefkosa/resmi-kurumlar/muhtarl-klar retrieved Oct 2013
  8. ^ a b c d e Levkosia, the capital of Cyprus" by Archduke Louis Salvator, 1881
  9. ^ a b c d e f "Historic Cyprus - A Guide to its Towns and Villages, Monasteries and Castles", by Rupert Gunnis (former Inspector of Antiquities in Cyprus), pub 1936, reprinted 1973 by Halkin Sesh Ltd, Nicosia. Pp 58-60
  10. ^ Lonely Planet Cyprus, By Lonely Planet, Josephine Quintero, 2012
  11. ^ Listed as one of the 11 main attractions of Nicosia in "Romantic Cyprus", by Kevork Keshishian, 1958 edition
  12. ^ See http://www.allcrusades.com retrieved Oct 2013