|This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2010)|
Former EMI headquarters, Hayes
Hayes shown within Greater London
|Population||95,763 (2011 Census fact-sheet, p. 4)|
|OS grid reference|
|– Charing Cross||13 mi (21 km) E|
|Ceremonial county||Greater London|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Postcode district||UB3, UB4|
|UK Parliament||Hayes and Harlington|
|London Assembly||Ealing and Hillingdon|
Hayes is a town in west London, situated 13 miles (21 km) west of Charing Cross. Historically in Middlesex, Hayes became part of the London Borough of Hillingdon in 1965. The town's population was recorded as 95,763 in the 2011 census.
Hayes has a long history. The area appears in the Domesday Book (1086). Landmarks in the area include the Parish Church, St Mary's - the central portion of the church survives from the twelfth century and it remains in use (the church dates back to at least 830 A.D.) - and Barra Hall, a grade-two listed manor house. The town's oldest public house - the Adam and Eve, on the Uxbridge Road - though not the original seventeenth-century structure, has remained on the same site since 1665.
The town is best-known as the erstwhile home of EMI. The words "Hayes, Middlesex" appear on the reverse of The Beatles' albums, which were manufactured at the town's Old Vinyl Factory. Notable historical residents include the early modern "father of English music", William Byrd, and a pre-eminent figure of twentieth-century English literature, George Orwell.
The place-name Hayes comes from the Anglo-Saxon Hǣs or Hǣse: "(land overgrown with) brushwood". The town's name is spelt Hessee in a 1628 entry in an Inquisition post mortem held at The National Archives.
Until the end of the nineteenth century, Hayes's key areas of work were agriculture and brickmaking. The Second Industrial Revolution brought change in the late nineteenth century, up to World War I. The town's location on the Grand Junction Canal (later called the Grand Union) and the Great Western Railway - Hayes & Harlington railway station had opened in 1868 - made it well-placed for industry.
The town's favourable location caused the Hayes Development Company to make available sites on the north-side of the railway, adjacent to the canal, and Hayes became a centre for engineering and industry. Residential districts consisting of dwellings of the garden suburb type were built to house workers after World War I.
In 1904 the parish council created Hayes Urban District (from 1930, Hayes and Harlington Urban District) in order to address the issue of population growth. Hayes and Harlington Urban District continued until 1965 when Hayes became part of the newly-established London Borough of Hillingdon.
Author George Orwell, who adopted his pen name while living in Hayes, lived and worked in 1932-3 as a schoolmaster at The Hawthorns High School for Boys, situated on Church Road. The school has since closed and the building is now the Fountain House Hotel; the hotel bears a plaque commemorating its distinguished former resident. Returning several times to Hayes, Orwell was at the same time characteristically acerbic about his time in the town, camouflaging it lightly as West Bletchley in Coming Up for Air, as Southbridge in A Clergyman's Daughter, and grumbling comically in a letter to author/friend Frank Jellinek:
Hayes . . . is one of the most godforsaken places I have ever struck. The population seems to be entirely made up of clerks who frequent tin-roofed chapels on Sundays and for the rest bolt themselves within doors.
Hayes has, over the years, been heavily involved with industry, both local and international, having been the home of EMI, Nestlé and H. J. Heinz Company. Past companies include Fairey Aviation (later merged with Westland), and HMV.
An early occupier was the Gramophone Company, later His Master's Voice and latterly EMI. Only the EMI archives and some early reinforced concrete factory buildings (notably one  by Evan Owen Williams, later knighted) remain as The Old Vinyl Factory.
It was here, in the Central Research Laboratories (generally known as "CRL"), that Isaac Shoenberg developed (1934) the all-electronic 405-line television system (called the Marconi-EMI system, used by the BBC from 1936 until closedown of the Crystal Palace 405-line transmissions in 1985).
Alan Blumlein carried out his research into binaural sound and stereophonic gramophone recording here. "Trains at Hayes Station" (1935) and "Walking & Talking" are two notable films Blumlein shot to demonstrate stereo sound on film. These films are held at the Hayes EMI archive.
During the 1990s, CRL spawned another technology: Sensaura 3D positional audio. In an echo of Blumlein's early stereo recordings, the Sensaura engineers made some of their first 3D audio recordings at Hayes Station.
During the First World War the EMI factories produced aircraft. Charles Richard Fairey was seconded there for a short time, before setting up his own company, Fairey Aviation, which relocated in 1918 to a large new factory across the railway in North Hyde Road. Over 4,500 aircraft were subsequently produced here, but Fairey needed an airfield to test these aircraft and in 1928 secured a site in nearby Heathrow. This became the Great West Aerodrome, which was requisitioned by the Air Ministry in 1944. It was initially developed as a heavy-bomber base intended for Boeing B-29 Superfortresses, but when the Second World War ended in 1945, it was taken over by the Ministry of Aviation and became Heathrow Airport.
Opposite Nestlé on the other side of the canal, the Aeolian Company and its associates manufactured player pianos and rolls from just before World War I until the Great Depression. That, and the increasing sophistication of the gramophone record market, led to its collapse; its facilities were then used by Wall's, a meat processor and ice cream manufacturer.
From the early 1970s to 2003 McAlpine Helicopters Limited and Operational Support Services Limited (later renamed McAlpine Aviation Services Limited) operated from two purpose-built helicopter hangars in Swallowfield Way industrial estate, as the company operated on land already owned by Sir Robert McAlpine. The land on the other side of the Grand Union Canal is called Stockley Park and its buildings were intentionally positioned to allow safe passage for helicopters into the heliport in case of an emergency. Fortunately, this was never used.
St Mary's (a.k.a. St Mary the Virgin) Church on Church Road is the oldest building in Hayes. The central portion of the church, the chancel and the nave, was built in the 1200s, the north aisle in the 1400s (as was the tower), and the south aisle in the 1500s, along with the lychgate and the south porch. Hayes's entry in the Domesday Book (1086) makes no mention of a church or chapel, and the name of St Mary suggests a 12th-century dedication as it was at this time that church dedications in this name first appeared in England. Besides the church, the other main building in medieval villages was the manor house. The manor house formerly associated with the church was assigned to Canterbury Cathedral by Christian priest Warherdus as far back as 830 AD. The site of the original manor house is not known, but it is likely to have been on or near the site of the building latterly on Church Road called the Manor House, parts of which dated from the early 16th century. At the time of the Norman Conquest, Archbishop Lanfranc had contacts with the parish. St Mary's has a 12th-century font, and many interesting memorials and brasses. The brass to Robert Lellee, Rector somewhere between 1356 and 1375, is purportedly the oldest brass in Middlesex. Adjacent to it is another to Rector Robert Burgeys (1408–1421). (The first recorded Rector was Peter de Lymonicen ). There are tombs in the church to Walter Grene (1456), Thomas Higate (1576), and Sir Edward Fenner (1611), Judge of the King's Bench. The latter tomb covers earlier tiling on the wall and floors. Some partly uncovered pre-Reformation wall-paintings and a large mural (dating from the 14th century) of Saint Christopher with the infant Child are on the North wall. A brass to Veare Jenyns (1644) relates to the Court of Charles I, while other Jenynses, who were Lords of the Manor, link with Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough. Judge John Heath, after whom Judge Heath Lane was named, is also buried at St Mary's. Victorian restorers donated a number of windows, and more recent additions include windows to Saints Anselm and Nicholas. The Coronation window is in the north aisle above the Triptych painted by the pre-Raphaelite Edward Fellowes Prynne. His brother George Fellowes Prynne carved the Reredos with St Anselm and St George in the niches. The embossed roof of the Nave reflects the Tudor period with emblems of the crucifixion and the arms of Henry and Aragon (the lands passed to Henry VIII as a consequence of the English Reformation).
The Immaculate Heart of Mary Catholic church was built in 1961, replacing the earlier church built in 1912. It is situated in Hayes town centre, just off Coldharbour Lane/Station Road. The first permanent building to be built was the adjacent primary school, Botwell House, which opened in 1931. The church's picture of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (which measures 5½m x 3m) was painted by Pietro Annigoni (1910–1988) in Florence, and took nine months to complete.
Primary schools in Hayes include: Botwell House, Dr Triplett's, Minet, Pinkwell, William Byrd, Hayes Park, Grange Park and Wood End.
Secondary schools in Hayes include: Barnhill Community High School, Guru Nanak Sikh Academy, Harlington Community School, Hewens College, Rosedale College, and Parkside Studio College.
Hayes's Beck Theatre opened in 1977, and offers a wide range of touring shows in a welcoming modern building. The Beck is very much a community theatre, offering one-night concerts, comedy, drama, films, opera, and pantomime.
The Open Air Theatre, Barra Hall Park originated in 1951 as a community venue for music, theatre and dance. The local community raised funds for a 2005 rebuild.
Hayes's Botwell Green Library is situated in the Botwell Green Leisure Centre (address: East Avenue, UB3 2HW), which in 2010 replaced both the old Hayes Library (opened 1933 on Golden Crescent) and the old swimming baths (opened 1967 on Central Avenue). The old swimming baths building remained derelict following its 2010 closure, until Hillingdon Council demolished it in late 2012 having first given itself planning permission for a housing scheme on the site.
Public houses in Hayes include: The Botwell Inn, The Bootlaces, The Old Crown (Station Road), Ye Olde Crowne (Uxbridge Road), The Adam and Eve (the town's earliest recorded inn, dating from 1665), The Grapes, The Carpenter's Arms, The Angel, and The Wishing Well. The Hayes branch of The Royal British Legion is on the Uxbridge Road; the Hayes Working Men's Club (CIU) is on Pump Lane.
Other cultural amenities include some very good parks and gardens, including: Barra Hall Park, Minet Country Park, the Norman Leddy Memorial Gardens, and until 2013 Lake Farm Country Park. Council leader Raymond Puddifoot had in 2011 given a promise that green-belt land in Hillingdon would be safe on his watch: "I can give a categoric assurance that under this adminsitration we will never see a threat to the green belt." In August 2012, however, Mr Puddifoot announced plans to build on green-belt (and longtime common land) site Lake Farm. In January 2013, a GLA report put Hillingdon Council's plan to build on Lake Farm in jeopardy; Transport for London predicted major congestion and bus-service disruption. On Tuesday 5 March 2013, in a stormy council meeting, the Conservative majority of Hillingdon Council's planning committee members dismissed the discontent of residents in the south of the borough and hurriedly rubber-stamped the application to build on Lake Farm Country Park. In August 2014 Mr Puddifoot proudly demonstrated his volte-face on destroying green-belt land by making a photo opportunity of the former common-land site's final eradication.
Artist Jeremy Deller's installation Sacrilege (an inflatable life-size model of Stonehenge) was installed in Barra Hall Park, Hayes from 10.30 a.m. to 6 p.m. on Sunday 5 August 2012; an estimated 1,400 people attended to view the artwork on the day.
Hayes has had six cinemas in its history. (1.) The town's first cinema, in the silent era, opened in 1913, and was named simply The Hayes Cinema. It was situated at 53-55 Station Road, Hayes - now the site of a branch of 99p Stores (formerly Woolworths). The Hayes Cinema was re-named Gem Cinema before its closure in the middle of World War I, in 1916. (2.) The Regent Cinema stood between 1924 and 1938 at 16 Station Road, Hayes - now the site of a branch of Santander bank. The Regent Cinema subsequently became The Regent Theatre (1948-54). Playwright John Osborne was involved with the theatre, and stars including Kenneth Williams, Diana Dors and John Le Mesurier performed there early in their careers. Sylvia Rayman's groundbreaking "all-women play" Women of Twilight (1951) was premiered at Hayes's Regent Theatre. (3.) The Corinth Cinema opened in 1933 at 1040 Uxbridge Road. Re-named The Essoldo in 1949, it was the first cinema in the area to be equipped with CinemaScope and stereophonic sound. After purchasing an alternative building nearby in 1957 (infra), the Essoldo chain closed this cinema in 1961. The address is now the site of the town's Point West Building. (4.) The Ambassador Theatre existed between 1938 and 1961 on the area of East Avenue, Hayes which is now occupied by the British Telecommunications Centre (formerly a GPO telephone exchange). Actress Valerie Hobson made a personal appearance on the occasion of the Ambassador Theatre's opening on 19 December 1938. (5.) The Savoy Cinema existed from 1939 to 1957 at 466 Uxbridge Road, Hayes. The building was designed by noted cinema architect George Coles. Some famous artists performed on stage at Hayes's Savoy Cinema over the years - Max Miller, Josephine Baker and Adam Faith among them. The Essoldo chain bought the Savoy in 1957, re-naming it The Essoldo in 1962 (after closing its nearby namesake in 1961). This incarnation of the Essoldo closed in 1967. The building is now a branch of Mecca Bingo. (6.) The Classic Cinema (1972-1986) was located above a Waitrose supermarket, at 502 Uxbridge Road, Hayes. Subsequently demolished, its entrance was immediately to the left of the building now occupied by Mecca Bingo.
Hayes FM (91.8 FM) is the town's community-focused, non-commercial local radio station. The station provides a platform for discussion of local matters, and besides playing popular music caters musically to a variety of tastes and genres, including indie and urban music. Since "Hayes, Middlesex" is famously present on the reverse of the Beatles' 1960s LPs (which were manufactured at the town's Old Vinyl Factory), it is appropriate that Hayes FM should boast Europe's longest running Beatles-themed radio show.
Hayes & Yeading United F.C. formed on 18 May 2007, following a merger of the former Hayes F.C. and Yeading F.C. Hayes & Yeading presently play at the Kingfield Stadium in Woking, Surrey (GU22 9AA), having agreed a groundshare with Woking F.C.
The former Hayes F.C. started out as Botwell Mission in 1909, taking the name Hayes F.C. in 1929. The team's home-ground was on Church Road, Hayes. The Church Road stadium continued in May 2007 as Hayes & Yeading's ground until 19 April 2011, when the team played at Church Road for the last time, beating Gateshead 3–1. The former Church Road ground was demolished in 2011, and is now the site of housing. The Church Road ground saw the start of the career of a number of players who went on to play at higher levels, among them Les Ferdinand and Cyrille Regis.
- Frank Allen, bass player of sixties pop groups Cliff Bennett and the Rebel Rousers and The Searchers, was born in Hayes
- Writer and so-called "godfather of alternative comedy" Tony Allen was born in Hayes
- Anselm of Canterbury, later Saint Anselm, was stationed in Hayes by King William II in 1095
- Buster Bloodvessel, frontman of eighties pop group Bad Manners, lives on a canal boat in Hayes
- Robin Bush (1943–2010) of Channel 4's archaeological series Time Team was born in Hayes
- Composer William Byrd (1539/40-1623), "the father of English music", lived as a Catholic recusant in Hayes and Harlington 1578–88; a primary school in the area bears his name
- Brian Connolly (1945–1997), singer of glam rock band The Sweet, lived in Hayes and Harefield
- Disgraced disc jockey Chris Denning was born in Hayes
- Actress Anne Marie Duff – best known for playing Fiona Gallagher in Shameless and Elizabeth I in The Virgin Queen – grew up in Hayes, attending Mellow Lane School
- Greg Dyke, former BBC director general and current chairman of the FA, grew up in Hayes
- Pioneer in photography B. J. Edwards (1838–1914) lived at Wistowe House (which dates from the 17th century) on Church Road
- Chris Finnegan (1944–2009), Olympic boxing gold medalist, lived in Hayes
- Boxer Kevin Finnegan (1948–2008), brother of Olympic gold medalist Chris, lived in Hayes
- Actor Barry Foster (1927–2002), best known as 1970s TV detective Van der Valk, grew up in Hayes
- Musician Paul Gardiner (1958–1984) of Gary Numan's Tubeway Army was born in Hayes
- Major-General James Grant, C.B. (1778–1852), who served under Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo, was a lifelong Hayes resident
- Celebrity tailor Doug Hayward (1934–2008) grew up in Hayes
- England footballer Glenn Hoddle was born in Hayes
- Noted atomic and nuclear physicist Friedrich Georg Houtermans (1903–1966) lived between 1933 and 1935 in Hayes, where he worked for EMI
- Golfer Barry Lane was born in Hayes
- Honey Lantree, celebrated female drummer of Joe Meek-produced sixties pop group The Honeycombs, was born in Hayes
- New York Times best-selling author Tony Lee was born in Hayes
- Author George Orwell (1903–1950) lived and worked in Hayes, 1932-3
- Malcolm Owen (d. 1980) and Paul Fox (d. 2007) of punk band The Ruts grew up in Hayes
- Larry Page, sixties manager of pop groups The Kinks and The Troggs, was born in Hayes
- Steve Priest, bass player of glam rock band The Sweet, was born in Hayes
- Jane Seymour, actress and Bond girl, was born in Hayes
- Nick Simper, founding member of Rock band Deep Purple, lived in Hayes
- Composer Stephen Storace (1762–1796), famous in his day and a friend of Mozart, lived from the late 1780s in Wood End, Hayes
- Prebendary and philanthropist Dr Thomas Triplett (1602–1670) was a schoolmaster in Hayes during the Commonwealth period; a primary school in the area bears his name
- David Westlake, singer/songwriter of indie band The Servants, was born in Hayes
- Welsh international footballer Rhoys Wiggins grew up in Hayes
- Football player/manager/pundit Ray Wilkins grew up in Hayes
- Former TUC leader Norman Willis (1933-2014) was born in Hayes
On film and television
The Beatles' 1967 film Magical Mystery Tour followed the band and their entourage on a surreal musical journey. Hayes is not listed among the featured locations, but the town's name features throughout. The famous Magical Mystery Tour coach - a Plaxton-bodied Panorama 1, based on the six-wheeled Bedford VAL 14 chassis, registered URO 913E and painted yellow and blue with psychedelic logos - was chartered by EMI from Fox Coaches of Hayes, who purchased the vehicle new in March 1967. The firm's name - "Fox of Hayes" - is visible throughout the film, above the coach's licence-plate.
The scene in Bend It Like Beckham (2002) where Jess (Parminder Nagra) meets Juliette (Keira Knightley) was filmed in Barra Hall Park, Hayes; the Hounslow Harriers' practice pitch in the film is the nearby old Yeading Football Club pitch.
The Sheraton Hotel on Bath Road, Hayes features in both the Michael Caine spy thriller The Whistle Blower (1986) and, twenty-seven years later, director Ridley Scott's thriller The Counsellor (2013).
Brad Pitt caused a stir in Hayes in November 2012 when filming scenes for horror film World War Z (2013) at locations off Hayes End Road; the actor reportedly dined at Tommy Flynn’s Bar and Diner, on Wood End Green Road.
Doctor Who, first story of Series 9 (January 1972), saw third Doctor Jon Pertwee's first encounter with the Daleks in a four-week story titled "Day of the Daleks"; filming locations included the Bull's Bridge, Hayes section of the Grand Union Canal.
Two episodes of 1970s police drama The Sweeney included scenes filmed on Blyth Road, Hayes: "Contact Breaker" (Series 1, Episode 12; broadcast 20 March 1975), and "Faces" (Series 2, Episode 2; broadcast 8 September 1975).
Rowan Atkinson filmed a swimming-pool-based episode of his popular series Mr. Bean (Series 1, Episode 3; broadcast 16 April 1992) at the (since-relocated) old swimming baths on Central Avenue, Hayes.
Channel 5 soap opera Family Affairs (1997-2005) was filmed at HDS Studios, Beaconsfield Road, Hayes, with outdoor scenes filmed at the nearby Willowtree Marina section of the Grand Union Canal.
BBC sitcom One Foot in the Grave featured the exploits of the curmudgeonly Victor Meldrew in an unnamed English suburb; Series 6, Episode 5 - "The Dawn of Man" (broadcast 13 November 2000) - included scenes filmed on Glencoe Road, Hayes.
Nearby London Heathrow Airport is the largest single provider of employment. The airport's presence generates numerous associated businesses - retail, international distribution and cargo-handling among them. Hotels - such as the Sheraton Hotel on Bath Road, Hayes - benefit, too, from the town's proximity to the airport.
West London Film Studios - situated on Springfield Road, Hayes - is a film and television studio equipped to accommodate everything from small TV productions to big-budget feature films. The Imitation Game (2014) is an example of a feature filmed at the Hayes studios.
Dental technicians Image Diagnostic Technology Ltd operate their UK offices from Hyde Park Hayes 3.
The station in the area is:
London Buses serving Hayes are:
|140||Harrow Weald||Heathrow Airport||Metroline|
|350||Hayes & Harlington Station||Heathrow Terminal 5||Abellio London|
|696||Bourne Avenue||Bishop Ramsey School||London United|
|697||Hayes Lansbury Drive||Ickenham||London United|
|698||West Drayton Station||Ickenham||London United|
|H98||Hayes End||Hounslow||London United|
|U5||Hayes & Harlington Station||Uxbridge||Metroline|
The Grand Union Canal runs through Hayes. Travellers by boat may moor at Hayes and take advantage of its local amenities, such as shops (which include branches of Sainsbury's, Tesco, Iceland, Greggs, Boots and WHSmith) and banks.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hayes, Hillingdon.|
- Her Majesty the Queen visits Hayes, 19 May 2006
- 1936 view of Hayes's HMV Factory
- 1930s view of the Grand Union Canal (Hayes at 6:35)
- 1954 view of Lincoln's, 88 East Avenue British Pathé
- 1956 view of Hayes and Harlington Urban District
- 1956 view of Hayes and Harlington
- 1962 view of Immaculate Heart of Mary church British Pathé
- 1964 BBC interview - munitions-factory worker The Great War
- 2013 view of Hayes on television in New Tricks
- Hayes Town on BBC Domesday Reloaded
- Life down the shelters in Hayes BBC WW2 People's War
- Large collection of photos of Hayes & Harlington
- HayesMiddlesex.com – about Hayes & Harlington
- Articles recalling Hayes's past
- Hayes People's History
- 3rd Hayes (St Mary's) Scout Group
- Memories of Mellow Lane School Girls' Choir, Hayes
- Sir Evan Owen Williams
- "Hayes and Harlington Census Factsheets [p. 4]". London Borough of Hillingdon. September 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- "Place name: Hayes, Middlesex Folio: 127r Great Domesday Book". E 31/2/1/5178. National Archives, Kew. 1086. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- Kelter, Catherine (1988). Hayes: A Concise History. Hillingdon: Hillingdon Borough Libraries. p. 9 & 18.
- "St. Mary the Virgin, Hayes, Middlesex". Archbishops' Council, The Church of England. 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- "Barra Hall Park". London Borough of Hillingdon. 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
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- Calendar of Inquisitions Post-Mortem; National Archives; C 142/737/191; for Francis Awsiter, a wealthy landowner in the area; (in Latin): line 17 of document: "Hayes als. Hessee"
- MacDermot, E. T. (1927). History of the Great Western Railway. 1 (1833-1863) (1 ed.). London: Great Western Railway.
- "George Orwell – Teaching"
- Homage to Catalonia, p. 2, and the letter to Frank Jellinek of 20 December 1938, Collected Essays I, pp. 363–7.
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- St Mary's information 1
- St Mary's information 2
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- "Hayes Bowls Club". Retrieved 28 October 2014.
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- "The Sweeney, 'Faces' (1975) Filming Locations". IMDb. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
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- "Willowtree Marina: Filming". Retrieved 28 October 2014.
- "One Foot in the Grave, 'The Dawn of Man' (2000)". IMDb. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
- Iain Wilson. "One Foot in the Grave". Retrieved 28 October 2014.
- "Inspector Lewis, 'Expiation' (2007) Filming Locations". IMDb. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
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- Leemark Engineering (Hayes) Ltd
- Plumbase Industrial
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