Health Management Resources

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Health Management Resources (HMR) is a provider of weight management programs, products and services to the medical community in the United States. HMR, a private company with headquarters in Boston, MA, USA, was founded in 1983. HMR helps to establish medical and behavioral intervention programs in hospitals, medical schools, and medical practices across the U.S.[1][2][3] In addition to these clinic-based programs, HMR also offers programs that dieters can do on their own, with or without additional support.[4] The basis of the treatment program is learning how to make lifestyle changes to lose weight and maintain the weight loss. HMR has published a number of research studies on the program results, including several on participants who have lost 100 pounds or more over a number of years.[5][6]

Basis of Program: Lifestyle change[edit]

According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, published jointly in the U.S. by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA), lifestyle change in diet and physical activity is the best first choice for weight loss and maintaining a reduced weight. Calories count when it comes to controlling weight.[7] Losing and maintaining weight is based on energy balance – balancing the calories (or energy) from food with the calories expended through physical activity. When you burn calories through physical activity and/or reduce the number of calories you eat, you create a "calorie deficit", resulting in weight loss. In order to maintain a weight loss, you must balance the “calories in” with the “calories out”.[8]

Physical activity is an important component of weight management.[9][10][11][12][13] Physical activity increases the number of calories the body uses for energy or “burns off”, helping to contribute to weight loss. Research has shown, however, that just doing physical activity alone is usually not enough for weight management and a decreased intake of calories is also necessary.[9] Many studies have documented that increasing the intake of vegetables and fruits [14] and using meal replacements for portion-control[15][16] can help to decrease the intake of calories. Keeping records or self-monitoring the behaviors one is trying to change has been found, in several studies, to increase success in actually making a behavior change.[17][18][19][20]

All treatment options in the HMR Program include lifestyle education to teach participants how to make lifestyle changes to balance energy or calories. HMR emphasizes three specific lifestyle changes: physical activity, vegetable and fruit intake, and use of meal replacements. The HMR Program includes record-keeping forms designed to help participants track and monitor these changes.

Program Outcomes[edit]

In-clinic outcome data[edit]

There have been several published studies documenting the outcomes of the HMR Program.[21][22][23][24][25] Two of the most recent studies have reported on weight losses of 100 pounds or more,[5][6] with the average weight loss over 130 pounds.

HMR at Home weight data[edit]

A randomized controlled trial on the HMR at Home Program found that participants doing a phone-based program lost as much weight as those in a traditional face-to-face clinic. Both groups lost an average of 28 pounds in 26 weeks.[26] Another randomized study found that dieters using HMR at Home on their own lost an average of 13-17 pounds in 12 weeks (those who did not receive additional coaching tended to lose less weight than those who received weekly 10-minute coaching calls).[27]

Health-related data[edit]

There are numerous studies in the medical literature that document the health benefits of weight loss.[28][29] HMR has published studies which have documented decreases in medical risk factors measured in the program, such as blood pressure, cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose.[5][30] In one study, those with type 2 diabetes had substantial reductions in cardiovascular risk factors (such as weight, blood pressure, HbA1c, and lipids) in spite of having long-standing diabetes.[31] Participants who lost over 100 pounds also experienced positive changes in health, including, for many, the discontinuation of medications. In one study, 100% of those with dyslipidemia discontinued medications, 67% of those with hypertension discontinued medications, and 73% with type 2 diabetes discontinued medications.[5]


  1. ^ American Obesity Association; Shape Up America (1996). Guidance for Treatment of Adult Obesity. Bethesda, Maryland, USA. 
  2. ^ Committee to Develop Criteria for Evaluating the Outcomes of Approaches to Prevent and Treat Obesity and the Institute of Medicine (1995). Paul R. Thomas, ed. Weighing the Options: Criteria for Evaluating Weight-Management Programs. National Academy Press. 
  3. ^ Hubbard, Betsy (07/01/2008). "Commercial Program and Product Review: Meal Replacement-Based Weight-Loss Programs". Obesity Management 3 (6): 292. doi:10.1089/obe.2007.0122.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  4. ^ "HMR at Home". Retrieved 30 November 2010. 
  5. ^ a b c d Anderson JW, Conley SB, Nicholas AS (1 August 2007). "One hundred pound weight losses with an intensive behavioral program: changes in risk factors in 118 patients with long-term follow-up". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86 (2): 301–7. PMID 17684198. 
  6. ^ a b Anderson JW, Grant L, Gotthelf L, Stifler LT (March 2007). "Weight loss and long-term follow-up of severely obese individuals treated with an intense behavioral program". International Journal of Obesity 31 (3): 488–93. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.080342f3. PMID 16819530. 
  7. ^ "Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005: Chapter 3 Weight Management". United States Department of Health and the United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 30 November 2010. 
  8. ^ "Exercise and Weight Control". The President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sport. Retrieved 30 November 2010. 
  9. ^ a b "Healthy Weight: Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight | DNPAO | CDC". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 30 November 2010. 
  10. ^ Catenacci VA, Ogden LG, Stuht J et al. (January 2008). "Physical activity patterns in the National Weight Control Registry". Obesity 16 (1): 153–61. doi:10.1038/oby.2007.6. PMID 18223628. 
  11. ^ Jakicic JM, Marcus BH, Lang W, Janney C (July 2008). "24-Month Effect of Exercise on Weight Loss in Overweight Women". Archives of Internal Medicine 168 (14): 1550–9; discussion 1559–60. doi:10.1001/archinte.168.14.1550. PMC 2829743. PMID 18663167. 
  12. ^ Phelan S, Roberts M, Lang W, Wing RR (October 2007). "Empirical Evaluation of Physical Activity Recommendations for Weight Control in Women". Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 39 (10): 1832–6. doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e31812383c3. PMC 2699680. PMID 17909412. 
  13. ^ Tate DF, Jeffery RW, Sherwood NE, Wing RR (1 April 2007). "Long-term weight losses associated with prescription of higher physical activity goals. Are higher levels of physical activity protective against weight regain?". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 85 (4): 954–9. PMID 17413092. 
  14. ^ "Fruits & Veggies Matter: Fruit & Vegetable Benefits". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 30 November 2010. 
  15. ^ Wadden TA, Butryn ML, Wilson C (May 2007). "Lifestyle modification for the management of obesity". Gastroenterology 132 (6): 2226–38. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2007.03.051. PMID 17498514. 
  16. ^ Ashley JM, Herzog H, Clodfelter S, Bovee V, Schrage J, Pritsos C (2007). "Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group". Nutrition Journal 6: 12. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-6-12. PMC 1948011. PMID 17592648. 
  17. ^ Boutelle KN, Kirschenbaum DS, Baker RC, Mitchell ME (July 1999). "How can obese weight controllers minimize weight gain during the high risk holiday season? By self-monitoring very consistently". Health Psychology 18 (4): 364–8. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.18.4.364. PMID 10431937. 
  18. ^ Baker RC, Kirschenbaum DS (July 1998). "Weight control during the holidays: highly consistent self-monitoring as a potentially useful coping mechanism". Health Psychology 17 (4): 367–70. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.17.4.367. PMID 9697946. 
  19. ^ Boutelle KN, Kirschenbaum DS (May 1998). "Further support for consistent self-monitoring as a vital component of successful weight control". Obesity Research 6 (3): 219–24. doi:10.1002/j.1550-8528.1998.tb00340.x. PMID 9618126. 
  20. ^ Hollis JF, Gullion CM, Stevens VJ et al. (August 2008). "Weight Loss During the Intensive Intervention Phase of the Weight-Loss Maintenance Trial". American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35 (2): 118–26. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2008.04.013. PMC 2515566. PMID 18617080. 
  21. ^ Anderson JW, Vichitbandra S, Qian W, Kryscio RJ (1 December 1999). "Long-term weight maintenance after an intensive weight-loss program". Journal of the American College of Nutrition 18 (6): 620–7. doi:10.1080/07315724.1999.10718897. PMID 10613414. 
  22. ^ Anderson JW, Hamilton CC, Brinkman-Kaplan V (January 1992). "Benefits and risks of an intensive very-low-calorie diet program for severe obesity". The American Journal of Gastroenterology 87 (1): 6–15. PMID 1728126. 
  23. ^ Anderson JW, Brinkman-Kaplan V, Hamilton CC, Logan JE, Collins RW, Gustafson NJ (June 1994). "Food-containing hypocaloric diets are as effective as liquid-supplement diets for obese individuals with NIDDM". Diabetes Care 17 (6): 602–4. doi:10.2337/diacare.17.6.602. PMID 8082533. 
  24. ^ Anderson JW, Brinkman-Kaplan VL, Lee H, Wood CL (June 1994). "Relationship of weight loss to cardiovascular risk factors in morbidly obese individuals". Journal of the American College of Nutrition 13 (3): 256–61. doi:10.1080/07315724.1994.10718406. PMID 8077574. 
  25. ^ Anderson JW, Brinkman VL, Hamilton CC (1 July 1992). "Weight loss and 2-y follow-up for 80 morbidly obese patients treated with intensive very-low-calorie diet and an education program". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56 (1 Suppl): 244S–246S. PMID 1615891. 
  26. ^ Donnelly JE, Smith BK, Dunn L et al. (August 2007). "Comparison of a phone vs clinic approach to achieve 10% weight loss". International Journal of Obesity 31 (8): 1270–6. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803568. PMID 17325684. 
  27. ^ Smith BK, Van Walleghen EL, Cook-Wiens G et al. (August 2009). "Comparison of two self-directed weight loss interventions: Limited weekly support vs. no outside support". Obesity Research & Clinical Practice 3 (3): 149–157. doi:10.1016/j.orcp.2009.04.001. 
  28. ^ "The Surgeon General’s Call To Action To Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity" (PDF). United States Department of Health and Human Services (Office of the Surgeon General). 2001. Retrieved 30 November 2010. 
  29. ^ Anderson JW, Konz EC (November 2001). "Obesity and disease management: effects of weight loss on comorbid conditions". Obesity Research. 9 Suppl 4 (11S): 326S–334S. doi:10.1038/oby.2001.138. PMID 11707561. 
  30. ^ Lecheminant JD, Kirk EP, Hall MA et al. (April 2007). "Impact of different levels of weight loss on blood pressure in overweight and obese women". Disease Management 10 (2): 83–90. doi:10.1089/dis.2006.633. PMID 17444793. 
  31. ^ Reynolds LR, Konz EC, Frederich RC, Anderson JW (July 2002). "Rosiglitazone amplifies the benefits of lifestyle intervention measures in long-standing type 2 diabetes mellitus". Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism 4 (4): 270–5. doi:10.1046/j.1463-1326.2002.00207.x. PMID 12099976. 

External links[edit]