Occupational safety and health
Occupational safety and health is an area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. The goals of occupational safety and health programs include to foster a safe and healthy work environment. OSH may also protect co-workers, family members, employers, customers, and many others who might be affected by the workplace environment.
Occupational safety and health can be important for moral, legal, and financial reasons. All organisations have a duty of care to ensure that employees and any other person who may be affected by the companies undertaking remain safe at all times. Moral obligations would involve the protection of employee's lives and health. Legal reasons for OSH practices relate to the preventative, punitive and compensatory effects of laws that protect worker's safety and health. OSH can also reduce employee injury and illness related costs, including medical care, sick leave and disability benefit costs. OSH may involve interactions among many subject areas, including occupational medicine, occupational hygiene, public health, safety engineering, industrial engineering, chemistry, health physics, industrial and organizational psychology, ergonomics, and occupational health psychology.
- 1 Definition
- 2 History
- 3 Workplace hazards
- 4 Occupational safety and health by industry
- 5 Workplace fatalities statistics
- 6 Management systems
- 7 National legislation and public organizations
- 8 Roles and responsibilities of OSH professionals
- 9 Differences across countries and regions
- 10 Identifying safety and health hazards
- 11 Contemporary developments
- 12 Relationship to industrial and organizational psychology
- 13 Occupational health psychology
- 14 Occupational health and safety education
- 15 World Day for Safety and Health at Work
- 16 See also
- 17 References
- 18 Further reading
- 19 External links
Since 1950, the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have shared a common definition of occupational health. It was adopted by the Joint ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Health at its first session in 1950 and revised at its twelfth session in 1995. The definition reads:
"Occupational health should aim at: the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations; the prevention amongst workers of departures from health caused by their working conditions; the protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health; the placing and maintenance of the worker in an occupational environment adapted to his physiological and psychological capabilities; and, to summarize, the adaptation of work to man and of each man to his job.
"The main focus in occupational health is on three different objectives: (i) the maintenance and promotion of workers’ health and working capacity; (ii) the improvement of working environment and work to become conducive to safety and health and (iii) development of work organizations and working cultures in a direction which supports health and safety at work and in doing so also promotes a positive social climate and smooth operation and may enhance productivity of the undertakings. The concept of working culture is intended in this context to mean a reflection of the essential value systems adopted by the undertaking concerned. Such a culture is reflected in practice in the managerial systems, personnel policy, principles for participation, training policies and quality management of the undertaking."
—Joint ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Health
The research and regulation of occupational safety and health are a relatively recent phenomenon. As labor movements arose in response to worker concerns in the wake of the industrial revolution, worker's health entered consideration as a labor-related issue.
In 1833, HM Factory Inspectorate was formed in the United Kingdom with a remit to inspect factories and ensure the prevention of injury to child textile workers.
In 1840 a Royal Commission published its findings on the state of conditions for the workers of the mining industry that documented the appallingly dangerous environment that they had to work in and the high frequency of accidents. The commission sparked public outrage which resulted in the Mines Act of 1842. The act set up an inspectorate for mines and collieries which resulted in many prosecutions and safety improvements, and by 1850, inspectors were able to enter and inspect premises at their discretion.
Otto von Bismarck inaugurated the first social insurance legislation in 1883 and the first worker's compensation law in 1884 – the first of their kind in the Western world. Similar acts followed in other countries, partly in response to labor unrest.
Physical and mechanical hazards
Physical hazards are a common source of injuries in many industries. They are perhaps unavoidable in many industries such as construction and mining, but over time people have developed safety methods and procedures to manage the risks of physical danger in the workplace. Employment of children may pose special problems.
An engineering workshop specialising in the fabrication and welding of components has to follow the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) at work regulations 1992. It is an employers duty to provide ‘all equipment (including clothing affording protection against the weather) which is intended to be worn or held by a person at work which him against one or more risks to his health and safety’. In a fabrication and welding workshop an employer would be required to provide face and eye protection, safety footwear, overalls and other necessary PPE.
Machines are commonplace in many industries, including manufacturing, mining, construction and agriculture, and can be dangerous to workers. Many machines involve moving parts, sharp edges, hot surfaces and other hazards with the potential to crush, burn, cut, shear, stab or otherwise strike or wound workers if used unsafely. Various safety measures exist to minimize these hazards, including lockout-tagout procedures for machine maintenance and roll over protection systems for vehicles. According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, machine-related injuries were responsible for 64,170 cases that required days away from work in 2008. More than a quarter of these cases required more than 31 days spent away from work. That same year, machines were the primary or secondary source of over 600 work-related fatalities. Machines are also often involved indirectly in worker deaths and injuries, such as in cases in which a worker slips and falls, possibly upon a sharp or pointed object. The transportation sector bears many risks for the health of commercial drivers, too, for example from vibration, long periods of sitting, work stress and exhaustion. These problems occur in Europe but in other parts of the world the situation is even worse. More drivers die in accidents due to security defects in vehicles. Long waiting times at borders cause that drivers are away from home and family much longer and even increase the risk of HIV infections.
Confined spaces also present a work hazard. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health defines "confined space" as having limited openings for entry and exit and unfavorable natural ventilation, and which is not intended for continuous employee occupancy. These kind of spaces can include storage tanks, ship compartments, sewers, and pipelines. Confined spaces can pose a hazard not just to workers, but also to people who try to rescue them.
Noise also presents a fairly common workplace hazard: occupational hearing loss is the most common work-related injury in the United States, with 22 million workers exposed to hazardous noise levels at work and an estimated $242 million spent annually on worker's compensation for hearing loss disability. Noise is not the only source of occupational hearing loss; exposure to chemicals such as aromatic solvents and metals including lead, arsenic, and mercury can also cause hearing loss.
Temperature extremes can also pose a danger to workers. Heat stress can cause heat stroke, exhaustion, cramps, and rashes. Heat can also fog up safety glasses or cause sweaty palms or dizziness, all of which increase the risk of other injuries. Workers near hot surfaces or steam also are at risk for burns. Dehydration may also result from overexposure to heat. Cold stress also poses a danger to many workers. Overexposure to cold conditions or extreme cold can lead to hypothermia, frostbite, trench foot, or chilblains.
Vibrating machinery, lighting, and air pressure can also cause work-related illness and injury. Asphyxiation is another potential work hazard in certain situations. Musculoskeletal disorders are avoided by the employment of good ergonomic design and the reduction of repeated strenuous movements or lifts
Biological and chemical hazards
- Heavy metals
- Fumes (noxious gases/vapors)
- Highly-reactive chemicals
- Fire, conflagration and explosion hazards:
Psychosocial hazards are related to the way work is designed, organised and managed, as well as the economic and social contexts of work and are associated with psychiatric, psychological and/or physical injury or illness. 
- Work-related see stress, occupational stress
- Excessive working time and overwork
- Violence from outside the organization
- Bullying, which may include emotional and verbal abuse
- Sexual harassment
- Exposure to unhealthy elements during meetings with business associates, e.g. tobacco, uncontrolled alcohol
Occupational safety and health by industry
Specific occupational safety and health concerns vary greatly by sector and industry. Construction workers might be particularly at risk of falls, for instance, whereas fishermen might be particularly at risk of drowning. The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics identifies the fishing, aviation, lumber, metalworking, agriculture, mining and transportation industries as among some of the more dangerous for workers.
Construction is one of the most dangerous occupations in the world, incurring more occupational fatalities than any other sector in both the United States and in the European Union. In 2009, the fatal occupational injury rate among construction workers in the United States was nearly three times that for all workers. Falls are one of the most common causes of fatal and non-fatal injuries among construction workers. Proper safety equipment such as harnesses and guardrails and procedures such as securing ladders and inspecting scaffolding can curtail the risk of occupational injuries in the construction industry. Due to the fact that accidents may have disastrous consequences for employees as well as organizations, it is of utmost importance to ensure health and safety of workers and compliance with HSE construction requirements.  Health and safety legislation in the construction industry involves many rules and regulations. For example, the role of the Construction Design Management (CDM) Coordinator as a requirement has been aimed at improving health and safety on-site.
The 2010 National Health Interview Survey Occupational Health Supplement (NHIS-OHS) identified work organization factors and occupational psychosocial and chemical/physical exposures which may increase some health risks. Among all U.S. workers in the construction sector, 44% had non-standard work arrangements (were not regular permanent employees) compared to 19% of all U.S. workers, 15% had temporary employment compared to 7% of all U.S. workers, and 55% experienced job insecurity compared to 32% of all U.S. workers. Prevalence rates for exposure to physical/chemical hazards were especially high for the construction sector. Among nonsmoking workers, 24% of construction workers were exposed to secondhand smoke while only 10% of all U.S. workers were exposed. Other physical/chemical hazards with high prevalence rates in the construction industry were frequently working outdoors (73%) and frequent exposure to vapors, gas, dust, or fumes (51%). 
Agriculture workers are often at risk of work-related injuries, lung disease, noise-induced hearing loss, skin disease, as well as certain cancers related to chemical use or prolonged sun exposure. On industrialized farms, injuries frequently involve the use of agricultural machinery. The most common cause of fatal agricultural injuries in the United States is tractor rollovers, which can be prevented by the use of roll over protection structures which limit the risk of injury in case a tractor rolls over. Pesticides and other chemicals used in farming can also be hazardous to worker health, and workers exposed to pesticides may experience illnesses or birth defects. As an industry in which families, including children, commonly work alongside their families, agriculture is a common source of occupational injuries and illnesses among younger workers. Common causes of fatal injuries among young farm worker include drowning, machinery and motor vehicle-related accidents.
The 2010 NHIS-OHS found elevated prevalence rates of several occupational exposures in the agriculture, forestry, and fishing sector which may negatively impact health. These workers often worked long hours. The prevalence rate of working more than 48 hours a week among workers employed in these industries was 37%, and 24% worked more than 60 hours a week. Of all workers in these industries, 85% frequently worked outdoors compared to 25% of all U.S. workers. Additionally, 53% were frequently exposed to vapors, gas, dust, or fumes, compared to 25% of all U.S. workers. 
As the number of service sector jobs has risen in developed countries, more and more jobs have become sedentary, presenting a different array of health problems than those associated with manufacturing and the primary sector. Contemporary problems such as the growing rate of obesity and issues relating to stress and overwork in many countries have further complicated the interaction between work and health.
According to data from the 2010 NHIS-OHS, hazardous physical/chemical exposures in the service sector were lower than national averages. On the other hand, potentially harmful work organization characteristics and psychosocial workplace exposures were relatively common in this sector. Among all workers in the service industry, 30% experienced job insecurity in 2010, 27% worked non-standard shifts (not a regular day shift), 21% had non-standard work arrangements (were not regular permanent employees). 
Mining and oil & gas extraction
According to data from the 2010 NHIS-OHS, workers employed in mining and oil & gas extraction industries had high prevalence rates of exposure to potentially harmful work organization characteristics and hazardous chemicals. Many of these workers worked long hours: 50% worked more than 48 hours a week and 25% worked more than 60 hours a week in 2010. Additionally, 42% worked non-standard shifts (not a regular day shift). These workers also had high prevalence of exposure to physical/chemical hazards. In 2010, 39% had frequent skin contact with chemicals. Among nonsmoking workers, 28% of those in mining and oil and gas extraction industries had frequent exposure to secondhand smoke at work. About two-thirds were frequently exposed to vapors, gas, dust, or fumes at work.
Workplace fatalities statistics
In most countries males comprise the vast majority of workplace fatalities. In the EU as a whole, 94% of death were of males. In the UK the disparity was even greater with males comprising 97.4% of workplace deaths.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States Department of Labor compiles information about workplace fatalities in the United States. Since 1992, the year with the most workplace fatalities was 1994 with 6,632 fatalities, and the lowest in 2002 with 5,534.
The Bureau also compiles information about the most dangerous jobs. The most recent information comes from the year 2006, during which 5,840 people died on the job.
|Structural metal workers||36||61.0|
|Farmers and ranchers||292||42.5|
In 2001, the International Labor Organization (ILO) published ILO-OSH 2001, also titled "Guidelines a on occupational safety and health management systems" to assist organizations with introducing OSH management systems. These guidelines encourage continual improvement in employee health and safety, achieved via a constant process of policy, organization, planning & implementation, evaluation, and action for improvement, all supported by constant auditing to determine the success of OSH actions.
The ILO management system was created to assist employers to keep pace with rapidly shifting and competitive industrial environments. The ILO recognizes that national legislation is essential, but sometimes insufficient on its own to address the challenges faced by industry, and therefore elected to ensure free and open distribution of administrative tools in the form of occupational health and safety management system guidance for everyone. This open access forum is intended to provide the tools for industry to create safe and healthy working environments and foster positive safety cultures within the organizations.
OHSAS 18000 is an international occupational health and safety management system specification developed by the London-based BSI Group, a multinational business chiefly concerned with the production and distribution of standards related services. OHSAS 18000 comprises two parts, OHSAS 18001 and 18002 and embraces a number of other publications. OHSAS 18000 is the internationally recognized assessment specification for occupational health and safety management systems. It was developed by a selection of leading trade bodies, international standards and certification bodies to address a gap where no third-party certifiable international standard exists. This internationally recognized specification for occupational health and safety management system operates on the basis of policy, planning, implementation and operation, checking and corrective action, management review, and continual improvement.
The British Standards – Occupational Health and Safety management Systems Requirements Standard BS OHSAS 18001 was developed within the framework of the ISO standards series. Allowing it to integrate better into the larger system of ISO certifications. ISO 9001 Quality Management Systems and ISO 14001 Environmental Management System can work in tandem with BS OHSAS 18001/18002 to complement each other and form a better overall system. Each component of the system is specific, auditable, and accreditable by a third party after review.
Guidance note HSG65: Successful Health and Safety Management, published by the British non-departmental public body Health and Safety Executive, promotes a systematic management of health and safety through a six step system, policy, organizing, planning and implementing, measuring performance, reviewing performance. These components are all linked to an audit system providing for evaluation and a feedback loop to improve performance. This systematic approach allows flexibility for the company through good business planning to strategically apply resources according to risk priorities.
National legislation and public organizations
Occupational safety and health practice vary among nations with different approaches to legislation, regulation, enforcement, and incentives for compliance. In the EU, for example, some member states promote OSH by providing public monies as subsidies, grants or financing, while others have created tax system incentives for OSH investments. A third group of EU member states has experimented with using workplace accident insurance premium discounts for companies or organisations with strong OSH records.
In the European Union, member states have enforcing authorities to ensure that the basic legal requirements relating to occupational health and safety are met. In many EU countries, there is strong cooperation between employer and worker organisations (e.g. unions) to ensure good OSH performance as it is recognized this has benefits for both the worker (through maintenance of health) and the enterprise (through improved productivity and quality). In 1996, the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work was founded.
Member states of the European Union have all transposed into their national legislation a series of directives that establish minimum standards on occupational health and safety. These directives (of which there are about 20 on a variety of topics) follow a similar structure requiring the employer to assess the workplace risks and put in place preventive measures based on a hierarchy of control. This hierarchy starts with elimination of the hazard and ends with personal protective equipment.
However, certain EU member states admit to having lacking quality control in occupational safety services, to situations in which risk analysis takes place without any on-site workplace visits and to insufficient implementation of certain EU OSH directives. Based on this, it is hardly surprising that the total societal costs of work-related health problems and accidents vary from 2.6% to 3.8% of GNP between the EU member states.
In the UK, health and safety legislation is drawn up and enforced by the Health and Safety Executive and local authorities (the local council) under the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974. Increasingly in the UK the regulatory trend is away from prescriptive rules, and towards risk assessment. Recent major changes to the laws governing asbestos and fire safety management embrace the concept of risk assessment.
In Denmark, occupational safety and health is regulated by the Danish Act on Working Environment and cooperation at the workplace. The Danish Working Environment Authority carries out inspections of companies, draws up more detailed rules on health and safety at work and provides information on health and safety at work. The result of each inspection is made public on the web pages of the Danish Working Environment Authority so that the general public, current and prospective employees, customers and other stakeholders can inform themselves about whether a given organization has passed the inspection, should they wish to do so.
In the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 created both the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). OSHA, in the U.S. Department of Labor, is responsible for developing and enforcing workplace safety and health regulations. NIOSH, in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is focused on research, information, education, and training in occupational safety and health.
OSHA has been regulating occupational safety and health since 1971. Occupational safety and health regulation of a limited number of specifically defined industries was in place for several decades before that, and broad regulations by some individual states was in place for many years prior to the establishment of OSHA.
In Canada, workers are covered by provincial or federal labour codes depending on the sector in which they work. Workers covered by federal legislation (including those in mining, transportation, and federal employment) are covered by the Canada Labour Code; all other workers are covered by the health and safety legislation of the province in which they work. The Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS), an agency of the Government of Canada, was created in 1966 by an Act of Parliament. The act was based on the belief that all Canadians had "...a fundamental right to a healthy and safe working environment." CCOHS is mandated to promote safe and healthy workplaces to help prevent work-related injuries and illnesses. The CCOHS maintains a useful (partial) list of OSH regulations for Canada and its provinces.
In Malaysia, the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) under the Ministry of Human Resource is responsible to ensure that the safety, health and welfare of workers in both the public and private sector is upheld. DOSH is responsible to enforce the Factories and Machinery Act 1967 and the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994.
People's Republic of China
In the People's Republic of China, the Ministry of Health is responsible for occupational disease prevention and the State Administration of Work Safety for safety issues at work. On the provincial and municipal level, there are Health Supervisions for occupational health and local bureaus of Work Safety for safety. The "Occupational Disease Control Act of PRC" came into force on May 1, 2002. and Work safety Act of PRC on November 1, 2002. The Occupational Disease Control Act is under revising. The prevention of occupational disease is still in its initial stage compared with industried countries such as the US or UK.
In South Africa the Department of Labour is responsible for occupational health and safety inspection and enforcement in commerce and industry apart from mining and energy production, where the Department of Mineral Resources is responsible.
The main statutory legislation on Health and Safety in the jurisdiction of the Department of Labour is Act No. 85 of 1993: Occupational Health and Safety Act as amended by Occupational Health and Safety Amendment Act, No. 181 Of 1993.
Regulations to the OHS Act include:
- Certificate of Competency Regulations, 1990
- Construction Regulations, 2003
- Diving Regulations 2009 
- Driven Machinery Regulations, 1988 
- Environmental Regulations for Workplaces, 1987
- General Machinery regulations, 1988
- General Safety Regulations, 1986
- Noise induced hearing loss regulations, 2003
- Pressure Equipment Regulations, 2004
Roles and responsibilities of OSH professionals
The roles and responsibilities of OSH professionals vary regionally, but may include evaluating working environments, developing, endorsing and encouraging measures that might prevent injuries and illnesses, providing OSH information to employers, employees, and the public, providing medical examinations, and assessing the success of worker health programs.
In Norway, the main required tasks of an Occupational Health and Safety Practitioner include:
- Systematic evaluations of the working environment
- Endorsing preventative measures which eliminate reasons for illnesses in the work place
- Giving information in the subject of employees’ health
- Giving information on occupational hygiene, ergonomics and also environmental and safety risks in the work place
In the Netherlands, required tasks for health and safety staff are only summarily defined, and include:
- Voluntary medical examinations
- A consulting room on the work environment for the workers
- Health check assessments (if needed for the job concerned)
‘The main influence on the Dutch law on the job of the safety professional is through the requirement on each employer to use the services of a certified working conditions service to advise them on health and safety’. A ‘certified service’ must employ sufficient numbers of four types of certified experts to cover the risks in the organisations which use the service:
- A safety professional
- An occupational hygienist
- An occupational physician
- A work and organisation specialist.
It shows in Table 1 (based on the European Network of Safety and Health Practitioner Organisations [ENHSPO] survey to) that in Norway, 37% of Health and Safety practitioners had a MSc education level, and 14% in the Netherlands; 44% were BSc graduates and 63% in the Netherlands; and 19% were of a Technician level and 23% in the Netherlands.
The main tasks undertaken by the OHS practitioner in the USA include:
- Develop processes, procedures, criteria, requirements, and methods to attain the best possible management of the hazards and exposures that can cause injury to people, and damage property, or the environment;
- Apply good business practices and economic principles for efficient use of resources to add to the importance of the safety processes;
- Promote other members of the company to contribute by exchanging ideas and other different approaches to make sure that every one in the corporation possess OHS knowledge and have functional roles in the development and execution of safety procedures;
- Assess services, outcomes, methods, equipment, workstations, and procedures by using qualitative and quantitative methods to recognise the hazards and measure the related risks;
- Examine all possibilities, effectiveness, reliability, and expenditure to attain the best results for the company concerned
Knowledge required by the OHS professional in USA include:
- Constitutional and case law controlling safety, health, and the environment
- Operational procedures to plan/develop safe work practices
- Safety, health and environmental sciences
- Design of hazard control systems (i.e. fall protection, scaffoldings)
- Design of recordkeeping systems that take collection into account, as well as storage, interpretation, and dissemination
- Mathematics and statistics
- Processes and systems for attaining safety through design
Some skills required by the OHS professional in the USA include (but are not limited to):
- Understanding and relating to systems, policies and rules
- Holding checks and having control methods for possible hazardous exposures
- Mathematical and statistical analysis
- Examining manufacturing hazards
- Planning safe work practices for systems, facilities, and equipment
- Understanding and using safety, health, and environmental science information for the improvement of procedures
- Interpersonal communication skills
Differences across countries and regions
Because different countries take different approaches to ensuring occupational safety and health, areas of OSH need and focus also vary between countries and regions. Similar to the findings of the ENHSPO survey conducted in Australia, the Institute of Occupational Medicine found that in the UK, there is a need to put a greater emphasis on work-related illness. In contrast, in Australia and the USA a major responsibility of the OHS professional is to keep company directors and managers aware of the issues that they face in regards to Occupational Health and Safety principles and legislation. However, in some other areas of Europe, it is precisely this which has been lacking: “Nearly half of senior managers and company directors do not have an up-to-date understanding of their health and safety-related duties and responsibilities.”
Identifying safety and health hazards
Hazards, risks, outcomes
The terminology used in OSH varies between countries, but generally speaking:
- A hazard is something that can cause harm if not controlled.
- The outcome is the harm that results from an uncontrolled hazard.
- A risk is a combination of the probability that a particular outcome will occur and the severity of the harm involved.
“Hazard”, “risk”, and “outcome” are used in other fields to describe e.g. environmental damage, or damage to equipment. However, in the context of OSH, “harm” generally describes the direct or indirect degradation, temporary or permanent, of the physical, mental, or social well-being of workers. For example, repetitively carrying out manual handling of heavy objects is a hazard. The outcome could be a musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) or an acute back or joint injury. The risk can be expressed numerically (e.g. a 0.5 or 50/50 chance of the outcome occurring during a year), in relative terms (e.g. "high/medium/low"), or with a multi-dimensional classification scheme (e.g. situation-specific risks).
Hazard analysis or hazard assessment is a process in which individual hazards of the workplace are identified, assessed and controlled/eliminated as close to source (location of the hazard) as reasonable and possible. As technology, resources, social expectation or regulatory requirements change, hazard analysis focuses controls more closely toward the source of the hazard. Thus hazard control is a dynamic program of prevention. Hazard-based programs also have the advantage of not assigning or implying there are "acceptable risks" in the workplace. A hazard-based program may not be able to eliminate all risks, but neither does it accept "satisfactory" – but still risky – outcomes. And as those who calculate and manage the risk are usually managers while those exposed to the risks are a different group, workers, a hazard-based approach can by-pass conflict inherent in a risk-based approach.
Modern occupational safety and health legislation usually demands that a risk assessment be carried out prior to making an intervention. It should be kept in mind that risk management requires risk to be managed to a level which is as low as is reasonably practical.
This assessment should:
- Identify the hazards
- Identify all affected by the hazard and how
- Evaluate the risk
- Identify and prioritize appropriate control measures
The calculation of risk is based on the likelihood or probability of the harm being realized and the severity of the consequences. This can be expressed mathematically as a quantitative assessment (by assigning low, medium and high likelihood and severity with integers and multiplying them to obtain a risk factor), or qualitatively as a description of the circumstances by which the harm could arise.
The assessment should be recorded and reviewed periodically and whenever there is a significant change to work practices. The assessment should include practical recommendations to control the risk. Once recommended controls are implemented, the risk should be re-calculated to determine of it has been lowered to an acceptable level. Generally speaking, newly introduced controls should lower risk by one level, i.e., from high to medium or from medium to low.
On an international scale, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) have begun focusing on labour environments in developing nations with projects such as Healthy Cities. Many of these developing countries are stuck in a situation in which their relative lack of resources to invest in OSH leads to increased costs due to work-related illnesses and accidents. As a 2007 Factsheet from the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work states: "Countries with less developed OSH systems spend a far higher percentage of GDP on work-related injury and illness – taking resources away from more productive activities . . . The ILO estimates that work-related illness and accidents cost up to 10% of GDP in Latin America, compared with just 2.6% to 3.8% in the EU."
Nanotechnology is an example of a new, relatively unstudied technology. A Swiss survey of one hundred thirty eight companies using or producing nanoparticulate matter in 2006, resulted in forty completed questionnaires. Sixty five per cent of respondent companies stated they did not have a formal risk assessment process for dealing with nanoparticulate matter. Nanotechnology already presents new issues for OSH professionals that will only become more difficult as nanostructures become more complex. The size of the particles renders most containment and personal protective equipment ineffective. The toxicology values for macro sized industrial substances are rendered inaccurate due to the unique nature of nanoparticulate matter. As nanoparticulate matter decreases in size its relative surface area increases dramatically, increasing any catalytic effect or chemical reactivity substantially versus the known value for the macro substance. This presents a new set of challenges in the near future to rethink contemporary measures to safeguard the health and welfare of employees against a nanoparticulate substance that most conventional controls have not been designed to manage.
Relationship to industrial and organizational psychology
Industrial and organizational psychology is a discipline within psychology, which also covers the psychological aspects of occupational health and wellbeing, occupational stress,  work organization and psychosocial factors and occupational safety and health.
Occupational health psychology
Occupational health psychology (OHP) is a relatively new field that combines elements of occupational health and safety, industrial/organizational psychology, and health psychology. The field is concerned with identifying work-related psychosocial factors that adversely affect the health of people who work. OHP is also concerned with developing ways to effect change in workplaces for the purpose of improving the health of people who work. For more detail on OHP, see the section on occupational health psychology.
Occupational health and safety education
There are multiple levels of training applicable to the field of Occupational Health and Safety (OSH). Programs range from individual non-credit certificates, focusing on specific areas of concern, to full doctoral programs. The University of Southern California was one of the first schools in the nation to offer a Ph.D. program focusing on the field. Further, multiple masters degree programs exist, such as that of the Indiana State University who offer a master of science (MS) and a master of arts (MA) in OSH. Graduate programs are designed to train educators, as well as, high-level practitioners. Many OSH generalists focus on undergraduate studies; programs within schools, such as that of the University of North Carolina's online Bachelor of Science in Environmental Health and Safety, fill a large majority of hygienist needs. However, smaller companies often don’t have full-time safety specialists on staff, thus, they appoint a current employee to the responsibility. Individuals finding themselves in positions such as these, or for those enhancing marketability in the job-search and promotion arena, may seek out a credit certificate program. For example, the University of Connecticut's online OSH Certificate, provides students familiarity with overarching concepts through a 15-credit (5-course) program. Programs such as these are often adequate tools in building a strong educational platform for new safety managers with a minimal outlay of time and money. Further, most hygienists seek certification by organizations which train in specific areas of concentration, focusing on isolated workplace hazards. The American Society for Safety Engineers (ASSE), American Board of Industrial Hygiene (ABIH), and American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) offer individual certificates on many different subjects from forklift operation to waste disposal and are the chief facilitators of continuing education in the OSH sector.
World Day for Safety and Health at Work
On April 28 The International Labour Organisation celebrates "World Day for Safety and Health" to raise awareness of safety in the workplace. Occurring annually since 2003, each year it focuses on a specific area and bases a campaign around the theme.
- Examinetics - mobile occupational health screening
- Occupational disease
- Occupational hygiene
- Occupational stress
- Occupational therapy
- Prevention through design
- Product stewardship
- Public safety
- Seoul Declaration on Safety and Health at Work
- Work accident
- Workers' compensation
- Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (Canada)
- European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU)
- Health and Safety Executive (UK)
- International Labour Organization (United Nations)
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US)
- National Institute of Occupational Health (Norway)
- Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US)
- Workplace Safety & Health Council (Singapore)
- Workplace Safety & Insurance Board (Ontario, Canada)
- Safe Work Australia
- WorkSafe Victoria, Australia
- Workplace Safety & Health Council, Singapore
- Health and Safety at Work Act (UK)
- Occupational Safety and Health Act (US)
- Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Malaysia)
- Timeline of major U.S. environmental and occupational health regulation
- Workplace Safety and Health Act (Singapore)
- Certified safety professional
- Construction site safety
- Control banding
- Environmental health
- Human factors and ergonomics/participatory ergonomics
- Hazard analysis
- Hazard prevention
- Hearing conservation program
- Industrial hygiene
- Industrial engineering
- Industrial and Organizational Psychology
- Industrial Union Department v. American Petroleum Institute
- Infection control
- International Chemical Safety Card
- Loss-control consultant
- Material safety data sheet
- Mine safety
- Occupational health psychology
- Occupational medicine & Occupational disease
- Occupational fatality
- Process safety management
- Public health
- Safety engineering
- Oak Ridge National Lab Safety Document
- "Employers Safe Working Practices, Health & Safety Policy". Citation.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-02-15.
- "Occupational Health Services And Practice". Ilo.org. Retrieved 2013-02-15.
- USA; Edmonds, EL (2013-01-30). "An Account of the Founding of H.M. Inspectorate of Mines and the Work of the First Inspector Hugh Seymour Tremenheere". British Journal of Industrial Medicine (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) 20 (3): 210–217. PMC 1039202.
- Abrams, Herbert K. (2001). "A Short History of Occupational Health". Journal of Public Health Policy 22 (1): 34–80. doi:10.2307/3343553. PMID 11382089. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- "Hazardous Work". International Labour Organization. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) (2011). Children in hazardous work What we know What we need to do. International Labour Organization. ISBN 978-92-2-124918-4. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- "Fall Injuries Prevention in the Workplace". NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- "International Hazard Datasheets on Occupations (HDO)". International Labour Organization. Retrieved December 26, 2012. "The International Hazard Datasheets on Occupations is a multipurpose information resource containing information on the hazards, risks and notions of prevention related to a specific occupation. The datasheets are intended for those professionally concerned with health and safety at work."
- "Machine Safety". NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topics. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- Harris, James R. and Richard S. Current. "Machine Safety: New & Updated Consensus Standards". Prof Saf 2012 May; 57(5):50-57. http://www.asse.org/professionalsafety/pastissues/057/05/F1Har_0512.pdf
- Ute Papkalla (December 2012). "Understimated production factor". D+C Development and Cooperation/ dandc.eu.
- "Confined Spaces". Workplace Safety & Health Topics. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention". Workplace Safety & Health Topics. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Preventing Occupational Hearing Loss: A Practical Guide". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. June 1996. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Heat Stress". NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topics. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- "Cold Stress". NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topics. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- "Electrical Safety". NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topics. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- "Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities 2010". Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- "Construction Safety and Health". Workplace Safety & Health Topics. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Health and safety at work statistics". eurostat. European Commission. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "OSHA's Fall Prevention Campaign". Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- Health, Safety and Environment Management,Retrieved 11/25/2013
- "Health and safety in the Construction Industry". Veritas Consulting. 11 March 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- "CDC – NHIS – Construction Sector Profile Page – NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. June 28, 2013. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- "NIOSH Workplace Safety & Health Topic: Agricultural Injuries". Cdc.gov. 2012-07-13. Retrieved 2013-02-15.
- "NIOSH Pesticide Poisoning Monitoring Program Protects Farmworkers". Cdc.gov. 2009-07-31. Retrieved 2013-02-15.
- "NIOSH Alert: Preventing Deaths, Injuries, and Illnesses of Young Workers" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-02-15.
- "NIOSH Workplace Safety & Health Topic: Agriculture". Cdc.gov. Retrieved 2013-02-15.
- "CDC – NHIS – Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Sector Profile Page – NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. June 28, 2013. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- "CDC – NHIS – Services Sector Profile Page – NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. June 28, 2013. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- "CDC – NHIS – Mining and Oil and Gas Extraction Sectors Profile Page". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. June 28, 2013. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- "The Vienna Declaration on the health of men and boys in Europe". European Men's Health Forum. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- "BS OHSAS 18001 Occupational Health and Safety". BSI Group. Retrieved 2013-02-15.
- Pun, K.-F., R.C.M. Yam & W.G. Lewis (2003): “Safety management system registration in the shipping industry”, International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol. 20, No. 6, pp. 704–721.
- "Successful health and safety management – HSG65". Hse.gov.uk. 2012-06-18. Retrieved 2013-02-15.
- See European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (2004): “Effectiveness of economic incentives to improve occupational safety and health”, Forum # 14, Bilbao, Spain: European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, ISBN 92-9191-119-4, http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/forum/14/view or Elsler, D. (2007): “European Comparison of Economic Incentives in Occupational Safety and Health”, in C. Berlin & L.-O. Bligård (Eds): Proceedings of the 39th Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference, October 1 – 3 2007 in Lysekil, Sweden, downloadable from: http://www.nes2007.se/papers/A67_Elsler.pdf.
- Based on p. 475 of European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (2000): Monitoring the state of occupational safety and health in the European Union – Pilot Study, Bilbao, Spain: European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, ISBN 92-95007-00-X, downloadable from: http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/401 and p. 148 of European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (2001): Monitoring the state of occupational safety and health in the EFTA Countries – Pilot Study, Bilbao, Spain: European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, ISBN 92-95007-19-0, downloadable from: http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/403.
- See p. 2-4 of European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (2001): “Quality of Work ‘A future Community strategy for safety and health at work’, FORUM # 1, downloadable from: http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/forum/1/view.
- Health and Safety Executive (2009): A Guide to Safety and Health Regulation in Great Britain. 4th edition. ISBN 978-0-7176-6319-4, http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/web42.pdf.
- Danish government web page “How a good working environment is secured in Denmark”, http://www.nyidanmark.dk/en-us/Integration/online_danish/working_in_denmark/occupational_safety_and_health_at_the_workplace/how_a_good_working_environment_is_secured_in_denmark.htm.
- English web pages of the Danish Working Environment Authority, http://arbejdstilsynet.dk/en/engelsk/wea.aspx
- The inspection results can be found from the main page of the Danish Working Environment Authority at: http://arbejdstilsynet.dk/da/ under the heading “Smiley Status”. See also http://arbejdstilsynet.dk/en/engelsk/inspection/smiley-26-6-07.aspx.
- Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
- About NIOSH. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health.
- Canadian enviroOSH Legislation page
- "Occupational Disease Control Act of the People's Republic of China" http://www.gov.cn/banshi/2005-08/01/content_19003.htm
- "The Work Safety Act of the People's Republic of China" http://www.gov.cn/ztzl/2006-05/27/content_292725.htm
- Government Notice. R: 533, 16 March 1990
- Diving Regulations 2009 of the South African Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993. Government notice R41, Government Gazette #32907 of 29 January 2010, Government Printer, Pretoria
- Government Notice. R: 295, 26 February 1988
- Government Notice. R: 2281, 16 October 1987
- Government Notice. R: 1521 of 5 August 1988
- Government Notice. R: 1031, 30 May 1986
- Government Gazette, No. R. 307 7 March 2003
- Hale A, Ytehus I, 2004, ‘Changing requirements for the safety profession: roles and tasks’, Journal of Occupational Health & Safety – Australia and New Zealand
- Hale, A et alia. 2004
- Board of Certified Safety Professionals, 2012, “Safety Fundamentals” and "Comprehensive Practice" blueprints, accessed 17 February at http://www.bcsp.org/csp
- Board of Certified Safety Professionals, 2012
- Anonymous. 2008. ‘Occupational Health’, Health and Safety News: In Brief, Vol 60, Iss. 3; UK. pg. 6
- Paton, Nic. 2008. ‘Senior Managers Fail to Show Competence in Health and Safety’ Occupational Health, Vol. 60, Iss. 3; p. 6
- Swuste, P., Eijkemans, G. "Occupational safety, health, and hygiene in the urban informal sector of Sub-Saharan Africa: An application of the prevention and control exchange (PACE) program to the..." International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health. Abel Publications Services Inc. 2002.
- European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (2007): Facts 76/EN National economics and occupational safety and health. Bilbao, Spain: European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, ISSN 1681-2123.
- "Risks and nanotechnology: the public is more concerned than experts and industry". Nature Publishing Group. 2007. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- "Nanotechnology risks – the real issues". Nanowerk.com. doi:10.1016/j.techsoc.2004.10.005. Retrieved 2013-02-15.
- Cooper, C.L. & Marshall, J. (1976). Occupational sources of stress: a review of the literature relating to coronary heart disease and mental ill health. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 49(1), 11-28.
- Beehr, T. A., & Glazer, S. (2005). Organizational role stress. In J. Barling, E. K. Kelloway & M. R. Frone (Eds.), Handbook of work stress. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Hart, P.M & Cooper, C.L. (2002). Occupational stress: Toward a more integrated framework. In D.S. Anderson, N. Ones, & H.K. Sinangil (Eds.), Handbook of industrial, work and organizational psychology. Vol. 2, Organizational Psychology (pp.93-115). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Spector, P.E (2011). Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Research and Practice, (6th Edition) NJ, US: Wiley.
- Kaplan, S, & Tetrick, L.E. (2010). Workplace safety and accidents: An industrial and organizational psychology perspective. In S. Zedeck (Ed.), APA handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Everly, G. S., Jr. (1986). An introduction to occupational health psychology. P. A. Keller & L. G. Ritt (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice: A source book, Vol. 5 (pp. 331–338). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange.
- "University of Connecticut Online OSH Certificate". Retrieved 11 March 2013.
- World Day for Safety and Health at Work
- "The World Day for Safety and Health at Work". Citation Ltd. 2013-04-23.
- The World Day for Safety and Health at Work in 2013 focuses on the prevention of occupational diseases
- Health and Safety Executive (2009): A Guide to Safety and Health Regulation in Great Britain. 4th edition. ISBN 978-0-7176-6319-4
- Koester, Frank (April 1912). "Our Stupendous Yearly Waste: The Death Toll of Industry". The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XXIII: 713–715. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- OSAH Safety 1
- Ladou, Joseph (2006). Current Occupational & Environmental Medicine (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-07-144313-4.
- Lebergott, Stanley (2002). "Wages and Working Conditions". In David R. Henderson (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Economics (1st ed.). Library of Economics and Liberty. OCLC 317650570, 50016270 and 163149563
- Roughton, James (2002). Developing an Effective Safety Culture: A Leadership Approach (1st ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-7411-3.
- Viscusi, W. Kip (2008). "Job Safety". In David R. Henderson (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Economics (2nd ed.). Indianapolis: Library of Economics and Liberty. ISBN 978-0865976658. OCLC 237794267.
- OHSAS 18000 series: (derived from a British Standard, OHSAS is intended to be compatible with ISO 9000 and 14000 series standards, but is not itself an ISO standard)
- (US) CDC page on Workplace Safety & Health
- (EU) Health-EU Portal – Health and Safety at work
- ILO International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre