Health benefits of smoking

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In addition to the numerous documented negative health effects of smoking, several types of "Smoker’s Paradoxes",[1] or cases where smoking appears to have specific beneficial effects, have been observed. These effects should not be confused with altered mortality rate in "quitting ill".[2][3]

Mechanism[edit]

Often the actual mechanisms for smoking's health benefits remain undetermined.

A plausible mechanism of action in some cases may be the nicotine in tobacco smoke acting as an anti-inflammatory agent and interfering with disease processes.[4]

Specific conditions[edit]

  • Miscellaneous

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cohen, D. J.; Doucet, M.; Cutlip, D. E.; Ho, K. K. L.; Popma, J. J.; Kuntz, R. E. (2001). "Impact of Smoking on Clinical and Angiographic Restenosis After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Another Smoker's Paradox?". Circulation 104 (7): 773. doi:10.1161/hc3201.094225. PMID 11502701.  edit
  2. ^ Herbert I. Weisberg (7 September 2010). Bias and Causation: Models and Judgment for Valid Comparisons. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 272–. ISBN 978-0-470-28639-5. Retrieved 16 November 2010. 
  3. ^ Knoke JD, Burns DM, Thun MJ (March 2008). "The change in excess risk of lung cancer attributable to smoking following smoking cessation: an examination of different analytic approaches using CPS-I data". Cancer Causes Control 19 (2): 207–19. doi:10.1007/s10552-007-9086-5. PMID 17992575. 
  4. ^ Melton Lisa (June 2006). "Body Blazes". Scientific American: 24. 
  5. ^ Longmore, M., Wilkinson, I., Torok, E. Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine (Fifth Edition) p. 232
  6. ^ Green, J. T.; Richardson, C.; Marshall, R. W.; Rhodes, J.; McKirdy, H. C.; Thomas, G. A. O.; Williams, G. T. (2000). "Nitric oxide mediates a therapeutic effect of nicotine in ulcerative colitis". Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 14 (11): 1429. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2036.2000.00847.x. PMID 11069313.  edit
  7. ^ Tüzün, B, Wolf, R, Tüzün, Y, Serdaroğlu, S (May 2000). "Recurrent aphthous stomatitis and smoking". International Journal of Dermatology 39 (5): 358–60. doi:10.1046/j.1365-4362.2000.00963.x. PMID 10849126. 
  8. ^ Casey J. Roulette, Hayley Mann, Brian M. Kemp, Mark Remiker, Jennifer W. Roulette, Barry S. Hewlett, Mirdad Kazanji, Sébastien Breurec, Didier Monchy, Roger J. Sullivan, Edward H. Hagen, Tobacco use vs. helminths in Congo basin hunter-gatherers: self-medication in humans?, Evolution and Human Behavior, Available online 20 May 2014, ISSN 1090-5138, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2014.05.005.
  9. ^ "Smoking Cuts Risk of Rare Cancer". UPI. March 29, 2001. 
  10. ^ Baron, J. A. (1984). "Smoking and estrogen-related disease". American journal of epidemiology 119 (1): 9–22. PMID 6362403.  edit
  11. ^ Recer Paul (May 19, 1998). "Cigarettes May Have an Up Side". Associated Press. Retrieved November 6, 2006. 
  12. ^ Hjern, A; Hedberg, A; Haglund, B; Rosén, M (2001). "Does tobacco smoke prevent atopic disorders? A study of two generations of Swedish residents". Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology 31 (6): 908–14. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.2001.01096.x. PMID 11422156.  edit
  13. ^ Ross RK, Pike MC, Vessey MP, Bull D, Yeates D, Casagrande JT (August 1986). "Risk factors for uterine fibroids: reduced risk associated with oral contraceptives". Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 293 (6543): 359–62. doi:10.1136/bmj.293.6543.359. PMC 1341047. PMID 3730804. 
  14. ^ Templeman C, Marshall SF, Clarke CA, et al. (June 2006). "Risk factors for surgically-removed fibroids in a large cohort of teachers". Fertil. Steril. 5 (6): 525–35. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(06)70471-9. PMID 16713924. 
  15. ^ Baron JA (1996). "Beneficial effects of nicotine and cigarette smoking: the real, the possible and the spurious". British medical bulletin 52 (1): 58–73. PMID 8746297.  edit
  16. ^ Schwartz SM, Marshall LM, Baird DD (October 2000). "Epidemiologic contributions to understanding the etiology of uterine leiomyomata". Environ. Health Perspect. 108 Suppl 5: 821–7. doi:10.1289/ehp.00108s5821. JSTOR 3454313. PMID 11035989. 
  17. ^ http://www.mydr.com.au/mental-health/most-people-with-schizophrenia-smoke-tobacco-says-research
  18. ^ Peros, Ljubic. Cigarette smoking and sarcoidosis. PMID 8630452.