Health care in Israel

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Safra Children's Hospital at Tel HaShomer

Health care in Israel is universal and participation in a medical insurance plan is compulsory. All Israeli citizens are entitled to basic health care as a fundamental right. Based on legislation passed in the 1990s, citizens join one of four health care funds for basic treatment but can increase medical coverage by purchasing supplementary health care.[1] In a survey of 48 countries in 2013, Israel's health system was ranked fourth in the world in terms of efficiency.[2][3]

History[edit]

Pharmacy in Petah Tikva, 1930s
Hadassah nursing students, 1948
Magen David Adom ambulance, 1948

With the start of the British Mandate for Palestine, measures were taken to improve public health in the area. In Jerusalem, accumulated refuse heaps were removed, public rubbish bins were installed; the entire population was vaccinated against smallpox, and pools and cisterns were covered with mosquito repellent as part of the campaign to eradicate malaria.[4] In 1929, the Zionist Commission and the British authorities sent the Jewish epidemiologist Gideon Mer to Rosh Pina to establish a laboratory for malaria research. Mer's laboratory was instrumental in eradicating the disease.[5] The public health care system in Israel was built on the foundations of the system introduced at this time.

Health insurance is administered by the Health maintenance organizations (Hebrew: קופת חולים, kupat holim, lit. sick fund, derived from the German Krankenkasse), most of which were set up by the labour unions before the founding of the State. These Health Maintenance Organizations are membership-based. Originally, the members paid membership fees to these funds[citation needed], and received in return a set guarantee of health services.

In 1973 a special law was enacted which forced all employers in Israel to participate in the medical insurance of their workers, by means of a direct payment to the Health Maintenance Fund in which the workers were members. The duty of participation was eventually changed and diminished as part of the arrangements law (חוק הסדרים במשק המדינה) f 1991.

In 1988 the government appointed a Commission of Inquiry to examine the effectiveness and efficiency of the Israeli health care system. The commission handed in the final report in 1990. The main recommendation of this report was to enact a National Health Insurance law in Israel. The National Insurance Law came into effect in 1995.

In the late 2000s, a future shortage of doctors and nurses became a concern, as the rate of doctors graduating from Israel's medical schools annually had dropped to 300, 200 less than needed, and many Soviet immigrant doctors and nurses began to retire. That number was estimated to eventually rise to 520 with the opening of a fifth medical school, but still below the 900 graduates that will be needed in 2022. This caused concerns of a shortage of medical personnel, which would imperil the quality and speed of medical care in the country. As a result, Israel began offering incentives to Jewish doctors to immigrate from abroad and practice medicine in Israel. Initially, only about 100 doctors from the former Soviet Union immigrated under this program every year, but the program is now attracting doctors from North America and Western Europe. An investigative committee looking into the issue also called for incentives to be offered to Israeli medical students who had not been accepted in Israel and had gone to study medicine abroad to return to Israel, and for a program that involves 150 international students studying medicine in Israel to be shut down. In addition, the Israeli Health Ministry announced the launching of a new nursing assistants' profession, and increased nursing education programs in colleges. Israel has also begun a program under which doctors from Eastern Europe work in Israel in fields such as pediatrics and internal medicine.[6][7][8]

Health insurance law[edit]

Health care spending in Israel as a percentage of GDP

In 1995, the National Health Insurance Law came into effect, which made membership in one of the four existing Health Maintenance Organizations compulsory for all Israeli citizens. The law determined a uniform benefits package (סל בריאות) for all citizens - a list of medical services and treatments which each of the Health Maintenance Organizations is required to fund for its members. Additionally, certain services were brought under the direct administration of the State, usually by means of the Health Ministry. In addition, the law set out a system of public funding for health care services by means of a progressive health tax, administered by Bituah Leumi, or the National Insurance Institute, Israel's social security organization, which transfers funding to the Health Maintenance Organizations according to a certain formula based on the number of members in each fund, the age distribution of members, and a number of other indices. The Health Maintenance Organizations also receive direct financing from the states money.

Before enactment the Health Insurance Law, the only Health Maintenance Organization to accept members without discrimination based on age or medical situation was the Clalit HMO which was then in the ownership of the Histadrut labour federation. After enactment of the 1995 law, membership in any of the four Health Maintenance Organizations was guaranteed for all citizens, and Israelis were given the right to transfer between Organizations once per year.

The 1995 law also imposed a system of financial and medical oversight of HMOs by the State. In addition to the uniform benefits package provided to all citizens, which provides coverage for basic and essential health care, every HMO fund provides their members with the option to acquire "supplementary insurance" (ביטוח משלים), which includes services and treatments that are not covered by the publicly funded system.

The four HMOs: Clalit (the largest with about 54% of the population belonging to it), Maccabi, Kupat Holim Meuhedet and Leumit.

Israel has maintained a system of socialized health care since its establishment in 1948, although the National Health Insurance law was passed only on January 1, 1995.[9] The state is responsible for providing health services to all residents of the country, who can register with one of the four health service funds. To be eligible, a citizen must pay a health insurance tax. Coverage includes medical diagnosis and treatment, preventive medicine, hospitalization (general, maternity, psychiatric and chronic), surgery and transplants, preventive dental care for children, first aid and transportation to a hospital or clinic, medical services at the workplace, treatment for drug abuse and alcoholism, medical equipment and appliances, obstetrics and fertility treatment, medication, treatment of chronic diseases and paramedical services such as physiotherapy and occupational therapy.[10]

Participation in a medical insurance plan with one of the four national HMOs is compulsory for all citizens, who can select and participate in any one of them regardless of factors such as age, gender, or pre-existing conditions. All Israeli citizens are entitled to the same Uniform Benefits Package, regardless of which health fund they are a member of, and treatment under this package is government-funded for all citizens regardless of their financial means. The Uniform Benefits Package covers all costs in the areas family medicine, emergency treatment, elective surgery, transplants, and medications for serious illness. However, availability of services differs by location, as each of these organizations operate their own medical facilities, including private hospitals. In addition, they also operate their own supplementary health insurance programs, under which non-essential health services are funded for an extra fee, though this fee is modest. In addition, non-essential services can also be funded by a citizen sharing the cost with their employer.

There are also private health insurance plans which citizens may participate in in addition to the compulsory participation one of four national health insurance institutes. They provide coverage for additional options for treatments. For example, in the area of elective surgery, a participant in a private insurance plan may choose the surgeon, anesthetist, and hospital anywhere in Israel or around the world. In the area of transplants, unlimited funding is available to ensure a donor is found and the procedure is done without the need for government approval. In the area of medications for serious illnesses, while the "basket of medications" which are funded by the national HMOs is large and updated regularly, private insurance companies give access to a wider range, as the Israeli government is not financially capable of covering all medications. All major Israeli insurance companies provide a health insurance plan. In comparison with health insurance in other countries, private health insurance in Israel is considered comparatively cheap, but premiums are based on age, gender, and previous medical history.[11]

All citizens doing their compulsory military service in the Israel Defense Forces have all their health care costs covered by the military, including up to two free abortions for female soldiers.[12]

Rights under the National Health Insurance Law[edit]

  • Every Israeli citizen is entitled to health care services under the National Health Insurance Law.
  • Every resident has a right to register as a member of an HMO of his/her choice, free of any preconditions or limitations stemming from his/her age or the state of his/her health.
  • Every resident has a right to receive, via the HMO of which she or he is a member, all of the services included in the medical services basket, subject to medical discretion, and at a reasonable quality level, within a reasonable period of time and at a reasonable distance from his/her home.
  • Each member has a right to receive the health services while preserving the member’s dignity, privacy and medical confidentiality.
  • Every Israeli resident has the right to transfer from one HMO to another.
  • Each member has a right to select the service providers, such as doctors, caregivers, therapists, hospitals and institutes, from within a list of service providers who have entered into an agreement with the HMO to which the member belongs, and within the arrangements in place for the selection of the service providers, and which the HMO publishes from time to time.
  • Each member has a right to know which hospitals and institutes, and other service providers, are included in the agreement with the HMO, and what are the selection processes at the HMO.
  • Each member has a right to see and to receive a copy of the HMO regulations.
  • Each resident has a right to receive from the HMO complete information concerning the payment arrangements in place in the HMO for health services as well as the HMO’s plans offered for additional health services (CIP).
  • Each member has a right to complain with the Public Inquiries commissioner at the medical institute that treated the member, to the person in charge of investigating member complaints at the HMO of which s/he is a member, or to the complaints commissioner for the national health insurance law in the Ministry of Health.
  • Each member has a right to file suit at the district labor court.[13]

Safety and quality[edit]

Israel has one of the most technologically advanced and highest-quality healthcare systems in the world. Hospitals in Israel are equipped with modern facilities and high-quality medical technology. Medical personnel are very well-trained.

Healthcare in Israel is also delivered very efficiently - in an August 2013 survey, it was ranked as having the fourth most efficient healthcare system in the world, just after Hong Kong, Singapore, and Japan.[14]

Seven Israeli hospitals have received accreditation from the Joint Commission, an organization that sets safety standards for medical care: Soroka Medical Center in Beersheba, HaEmek Medical Center in Afula, Meir Hospital in Kfar Saba, Rabin Medical Center in Petah Tikva, Kaplan Medical Center in Rehovot, Carmel Medical Center in Haifa and Assuta Medical Center in Tel Aviv.[15]

Health care providers[edit]

Providers in the Israeli healthcare system consist of a mixture of private, semi-private and public entities. Generally, family and primary medicine facilities are run directly by Clalit for its members while the other HMOs operate their own family practice clinics in the larger cities and contract with privately operated family practice clinics in smaller communities. As with primary practice, Clalit tends to provide specialty and outpatient care in their own clinics while the other HMOs generally contract with outside, private care physicians and facilities for this sort of service. In addition to these, the ministry of health in conjunction with various local authorities also runs a network of public well care and prenatal and infant care clinics throughout the countries.

Doctors[edit]

Typical Magen David Adom ambulance

In 2011 there were 3.3 practicing physicians per 1000 population in Israel or 25,300 practicing physicians. There are over 10,000 more physicians in Israel who are licensed but not practicing (working in other fields, retired). Forty percent of Israeli physicians are women.[16] Between 2000 and 2009 the OECD reports no growth in the physician per capita ratio in Israel compared to a global average of 1.7% growth in developed countries.[17] There are also severe physician shortages in specific specialties,such as anesthesia, general surgery, geriatrics, and primary care [18]

Israel has five university medical schools, which all follow the European 6-year training model. There is also a four-year program similar to the US system for students who hold a bachelor's degree in certain biological sciences. The entrance requirements for the various schools of medicine are strict: all students must have a high school matriculation certificate with a grade average above 100 and a psychometric grade over 740.

Doctors trained abroad must pass an licensing examination to ensure that their medical training is up to Israeli standards if they did not graduate from a medical school in a few select countries.[19]

Nursing in Israel[edit]

As of 2011, there were 37,300 actively practicing nurses in Israel or 4.81 nurses per 1000 population compared to OECD country average of 8.7 nurses per 1000 population, ranking Israel one of the lowest nursing ratio countries in the developed world, after Greece, Mexico, and Turkey.[20] This represents a 14% decrease in Israeli nursing per capita from 2001.[20] Nursing education is similar to that of other developed countries. There are many Registered Nurse programs, Bachelor of nursing academic programs, and several graduate schools for advanced degrees. A Bachelor's degree is a prerequisite for advanced certifications and clinical courses.[21][22] Licensed practical nurse programs ended, yet were recently re-approved as a solution to the nursing shortage in Israel. Although nurse practitioners were legalized in Israel in November 2013,[23] only Israeli-trained nurse practitioners are authorized to work. Although the law provides for recognition of foreign-trained nurse practitioners, no process is in place for doing so. Only geriatric and palliative nurse practitioners have been allowed to work thus far, although plans for other NP specialties are in place. All NP courses to date have been provided by the Ministry of Health, and are post-Masters certificate courses several months in length. Compared to Western country standards and the International Council of Nursing, Israeli nurse practitioners have relatively limited scopes of practice and independence [24]

Emergency services[edit]

Magen David Adom armored mobile intensive care unit

Emergency medical services in Israel are provided by the Magen David Adom (MDA) organization, which staffs approximately 1,200 emergency medical technicians, paramedics, and emergency physicians, and 10,000 volunteers. The organizations operates 95 stations and a fleet of over 700 ambulances. The majority of the fleet consists of Basic Life Support ambulances. There are also smaller numbers of Advanced Life Support ambulances and Mobile Intensive Care Units. For air ambulance services, MDA relies primarily on Unit 669 of the Israeli Air Force. There are also four MBB Bo 105 utility helicopters staffed with MDA paramedics owned by Lahak Aviation operating as air ambulances throughout the country. Non-emergency and repatriation air ambulance services are normally provided by private charter carriers.

Magen David Adom is supplemented in some areas by Hatzalah, an emergency ambulance services network serving Jewish communities worldwide, and ZAKA, a series of community emergency response teams staffed by Orthodox Jews, who in addition to providing medical services and evacuation, also aid in the identification of terrorism victims and gather spilled blood and body parts for burial. The Palestine Red Crescent Society also provides services to Arab neighborhoods in Jerusalem. It gained access to Jerusalem after signing a 2005 Memorandum of Understanding with Magen David Adom.

The ambulance system, for the most part, conforms to the Franco-German model of EMS care, and the presence of physicians at high-acuity emergencies is not uncommon. In addition, emergency ambulance services is bolstered by a variety of private carriers tasked with interfacility transfers only.

Medical tourism[edit]

Clalit clinic in the Bedouin Arab village of Tuba-Zangariyye
Gaza residents being transferred for medical treatment in Israel through Erez Crossing

Israel is emerging as a popular destination for medical tourists.[25] In 2006, 15,000 foreigners travelled to the country for medical procedures, bringing in $40 million of revenue.[25] As of 2010, up to 30,000 foreigners come to Israel every year for treatment, mostly from Russia.[26]

Some medical tourists come to Israel because the procedures they seek are not available in their home countries. Others, particularly from the US, choose Israel because they can receive quality treatment, such as surgery and in-vitro fertilization at much lower cost. Many medical tourists come to Israel for treatment at the Dead Sea, a world-famous therapeutic resort.[25] The Israel Ministry of Tourism and professional medical services providers are working to promote awareness of this niche in Israel.[27]

According to a report in 2013, the number of patients from Eastern Europe, Cyprus and the United States seeking treatment at Israel's public and private hospitals is growing. Income from medical tourism was assessed at about $140 million in 2012.[28]

Palestinian medical tourism[edit]

A significant number of residents of the Palestinian territories seek medical treatment in Israel, often for sophisticated tests or treatments not available at Palestinian hospitals. Their treatment is paid for under a financial arrangement with the Palestinian Authority, or in some cases, at their own expense. Medical treatment for Gaza Strip residents is paid for by the Palestinian Authority or organizations such as the Peres Center for Peace.[29]

Palestinians who apply for medical treatment in Israel must obtain a humanitarian entry permit from Israel, of which thousands are issued annually. In January 2009, during the Gaza War, the Palestinian Authority temporarily canceled financial coverage for all medical care for Palestinians in Israeli hospitals, including coverage for the chronically ill and those in need of complex care not available in the Palestinian territories.Palestinian officials stated that they wished to send the patients to neighboring Arab countries instead, accusing Israeli officials of using Palestinian patients, some injured in Israeli airstrikes, in PR campaigns to improve Israel's tarnished image during the Gaza War.[30][31] In 2012, The Palestinian Authority's Ministry of Health reported spending approximately $42 million in 2011 to finance medical coverage of Palestinians in Israeli hospitals and the Arab World.[32] Arab citizens of Israel belong to the same health care system as that of all other citizens of the country.

Gaza Strip resident giving birth to quadruplets at an Israeli hospital, 2008

The quality of medical care in Israel is significantly better than anywhere in the West Bank and Gaza. Irwin Mansdorf, a member of Task Force on Medical and Public Health Issues, Scholars for Peace in the Middle East wrote about routine care that Palestinians continue to receive in Israeli hospitals and from Israeli physicians.[33]

Saving Children, established by the Peres Peace Center, enables hundreds of Palestinian children to receive free medical care, in particular cardiac surgery, from Israeli surgeons.[34]

"Save A Child's Heart" is a program in which any child with heart problems can receive free medical attention and surgery from select doctors and hospitals within Israel. From 1996 to 2007, 4,591 children had been examined world wide, of the 1848 children treated 828 (45%) were Palestinian.[35]

Humanitarian aid[edit]

As of August 2013, Israeli hospitals have provided treatment to scores of Syrian citizens injured in the Syrian civil war. Since late March, some 100 Syrians have been treated at two hospitals in Galilee. The patients arrive by military ambulance and the hospital calls the army to transport them back when they are released. The Israeli military also operates a field hospital and mobile medical teams along the Syrian frontier.[36]

Hospitals and medical centers[edit]

There are around 60 hospitals and medical centers in Israel.[37] In addition to general hospitals, there are a number of specialized hospitals throughout the country. Most of the hospitals are government-owned and operated by the Ministry of Health, although some are fully private. Most of the private hospitals in Israel belong to nonprofit or charitable organizations. Many of the private hospitals are run by Clalit Health Services.

Medical research[edit]

Israel is a world leader in medical and paramedical research, and bioengineering capabilities. Biotechnology, medical, and clinical research account for over half of Israel's scientific publications, and the industrial sector uses this extensive knowledge to develop new pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, and treatment therapies.[38] Among other areas of medicine, Israel is a leader in stem cell research, with the largest number of articles, patents and research studies per capita,[39] as well as research into regenerative medicine and medical marijuana.[40][41]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Can universal healthcare work: A look at Israel's successful model
  2. ^ http://www.bloomberg.com/visual-data/best-and-worst/most-efficient-health-care-countries
  3. ^ Israel's healthcare system ranked fourth in world; U.S. trails behind, Haaretz
  4. ^ Life throughout the ages in a holy city
  5. ^ Galilee cornerstone, Jerusalem Post
  6. ^ http://www.timesofisrael.com/countdown-to-coalition/
  7. ^ http://www.jpost.com/Israel/Article.aspx?id=180540
  8. ^ http://www.marketplace.org/topics/life/israel-looks-cure-doctor-shortage
  9. ^ Can Universal Healthcare Work? A Look at Israel's Successful Model
  10. ^ "history of Israel health care". 
  11. ^ http://www.insurance-in-israel.co.il/questions-health-insurance-israel.html#Q1
  12. ^ http://www.cbn.com/cbnnews/insideisrael/2010/April/Israeli-Pro-Life-Group-Helps-Women-Cope/
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ Israel ranks 4th globally in health care efficiency
  15. ^ Seven hospitals receive prestigious international safety accreditation
  16. ^ [Source: OECD Health Statistics 2013. http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=HEALTH_REAC]
  17. ^ [2]
  18. ^ [Afek, A., Toker, A., Berlovitz, Y., & Shamiss, A. (2011). Hitmodidut im hamakhsor birofim biYisrael [Coping with the physician shortage in Israel]. Harefuah, 150, 212-215]
  19. ^ Cabinet to vote on recognizing foreign medical degrees
  20. ^ a b [3]
  21. ^ [4]
  22. ^ [5]
  23. ^ [The Knesset. (2013, November 21). Rishumot kovetz Hatakanot 7307 [File of Legal Records 7307] Jerusalem, Israel: Retrieved from http://old.justice.gov.il]
  24. ^ [6]
  25. ^ a b c Welcoming the world's ills, Haaretz, Feb 7, 2008
  26. ^ Dan Even (November 18, 2010). "Health Ministry to probe Israel medical tourism industry following Haaretz exposé". haaretz.com. Retrieved January 21, 2010. 
  27. ^ Medical Tourism Israel
  28. ^ Medical tourism in Israel hurting Israelis?/
  29. ^ Israel’s hospitals continue to treat Gazan patients, Jerusalem Post
  30. ^ Palestinians Stop Paying Israeli Hospitals for Gaza and West Bank Patients
  31. ^ ReliefWeb, Physicians for Human Rights-Israel and human rights organizations in a joint position paper on the decision to stop covering Palestinians' medical care
  32. ^ http://www.canada.com/health/Wrangling+between+rival+Palestinian+governments+leaves+Gaza+medical/6971890/story.html
  33. ^ BMJ journal Derek Summerfield article in reply to Simon Fellerman
  34. ^ BMJ journal Simon Fellerman in reply to BMJ article by Derek Summerfield
  35. ^ Save a Child's Heart.com Success rates
  36. ^ Across Forbidden Border, Doctors in Israel Quietly Tend to Syria’s Wounded, New York Times
  37. ^ http://wiki.ifmsa.org/scope/index.php?title=Israel#Our_medical_education
  38. ^ http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Facts+About+Israel/Science+-+Technology/SCIENCE+AND+TECHNOLOGY-+Medical+R-amp-D.htm
  39. ^ Stem cell tourism prepares for take-off, Haaretz
  40. ^ http://www.jpost.com/Health-and-Science/UK-Israel-launch-regenerative-medicine-projects
  41. ^ http://www.israelbizreg.com/blog/how-israel-became-world-leader-medical-marijuana

External links[edit]