Healthcare in Europe

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58 countries with universal health care in 2009.[1]
Most European countries have universal health coverage.
 
  58 countries with legislation mandating UHC, and
>90% health insurance coverage, and
>90% skilled birth attendance.
European Health Insurance Card (French version pictured)

Healthcare in Europe is provided through a wide range of different systems run at the national level. The systems are primarily publicly funded through taxation (universal health care). Private funding for health care may represent personal contributions towards meeting the non-taxpayer refunded portion of health care or may reflect totally private (non-subsidized) health care either paid out of pocket or met by some form of personal or employer funded insurance. All EU and many other European countries offer their citizens a European Health Insurance Card which, on a reciprocal basis, provides insurance for emergency medical treatment insurance when visiting other participating European countries.

The European Union has no major administrative responsibility in the field of health care. The European Commission's Directorate-General for Health and Consumers however seeks to align national laws on the safety of food and other products, on consumers' rights and on the protection of people's health, to form new EU wide laws and thus strengthen its internal markets.

Healthcare Rankings[edit]

In 2000 the World Health Organization, WHO, published its rankings of 190 of the world's healthcare systems.[2] France was ranked in 1st place worldwide. The rankings for the European countries are shown in the table below. The lowest ranking European country is Russia at 130, while the lowest ranking (current) European Union country is Latvia at 105.

The World Health Organization's ranking of Europe's health systems.[2][3]
World Ranking European Ranking Country  % Public funding*
1 1 France 76.9
2 2 Italy 57.1
3 3 San Marino 73.5
4 4 Andorra 86.7
5 5 Malta 58.9
7 6 Spain 90.6
9 7 Austria 67.3
11 8 Norway 82.0
12 9 Portugal 57.5
13 10 Monaco 62.5
14 11 Greece 65.8
15 12 Iceland 83.8
16 13 Luxembourg 91.4
17 14 Netherlands 70.7
18 15 United Kingdom 96.9
19 16 Ireland 77.3
20 17 Switzerland 69.3
21 18 Belgium 83.2
23 19 Sweden 78.0
24 20 Cyprus 38.8
25 21 Germany 77.5
31 22 Finland 73.7
34 23 Denmark 84.3
38 24 Slovenia 80.8
43 25 Croatia 79.7
48 26 Czech Republic 92.3
50 27 Poland 71.6
55 28 Albania 77.7
62 29 Slovakia 81.8
66 30 Hungary 84.9
70 31 Turkey 74.0
72 32 Belarus 82.6
73 33 Lithuania 75.7
77 34 Estonia 78.9
79 35 Ukraine 75.5
90 36 Bosnia-Herzegovina 92.6
99 37 Romania 60.3
101 38 Moldova 75.1
102 39 Bulgaria 81.9
104 40 Armenia 41.5
105 41 Latvia 61.0
106 42 FR Yugoslavia 64.8
109 43 Azerbaijan 79.3
114 44 Georgia 8.6
130 45 Russia 76.8
  • as a percentage of total health expenditures

A different ranking of European healthcare systems, the Euro health consumer index, is being done by Health Consumer Powerhouse. The 2013 ranking included 35 countries measured by 48 indicators.

Euro Health Consumer Index 2013.[4]
Country Overall ranking Patient rights and
information ranking
Accessibility
(waiting times for
treatment) ranking
Outcomes
ranking
Range and reach of
services provided
Prevention Pharmaceuticals
 Netherlands 1 1 7 3 1 14 5
  Switzerland 2 16 1 3 13 10 2
 Iceland 3 7 14 1 5 2 22
 Denmark 4 1 12 7 2 16 5
 Norway 5 3 23 2 2 5 5
 Belgium 6 23 1 12 5 5 11
 Germany 7 7 3 8 20 19 1
 Luxemburg 8 21 3 9 5 1 16
 France 9 11 7 9 13 10 5
 Finland 10 11 23 3 9 5 2
 Sweden 11 11 33 3 2 2 11
 Austria 12 11 3 18 13 24 2
 Scotland 13 4 16 12 11 14 16
 England 14 4 23 18 5 5 16
 Ireland 15 23 16 12 13 10 5
 Czech Republic 16 31 9 12 18 24 11
 Portugal 17 11 31 18 20 2 11
 Slovenia 18 18 23 9 22 16 11
 Spain 19 23 31 12 9 10 19
 Croatia 20 9 16 21 13 24 22
 Italy 21 19 16 12 24 5 22
 Slovakia 22 16 9 25 24 29 5
 Estonia 23 4 23 21 18 35 22
 Lithuania 24 9 14 25 23 33 22
 Cyprus 25 33 16 21 24 19 19
 Greece 26 35 16 21 28 16 30
 Malta 27 33 23 27 11 19 32
 Macedonia 28 23 12 29 28 19 34
 Hungary 29 21 16 29 24 24 22
 Albania 30 29 3 29 34 29 35
 Bulgaria 31 28 9 33 34 29 30
 Poland 32 29 23 27 28 29 22
 Latvia 33 20 33 29 28 19 19
 Romania 34 23 23 34 33 24 32
 Serbia 35 31 33 34 28 33 22

See also[edit]

References[edit]

[5]

  1. ^ Stuckler, David; Feigl, Andrea B.; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin (November 2010). "The political economy of universal health coverage. Background paper for the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research, 16–19 November 2010, Montreaux, Switzerland". Pacific Health Summit. Seattle: National Bureau of Asian Research. p. 16. "Figure 2. Global Prevalence of Universal Health Care in 2009; 58 countries: Andorra, Antigua, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Moldova, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Oman, Panama, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Tunisia, UAE, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela." 
  2. ^ a b World Health Organisation, World Health Staff, (2000), Haden, Angela; Campanini, Barbara, eds., The world health report 2000 - Health systems: improving performance, Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organisation, ISBN 92-4-156198-X 
  3. ^ http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~wgreene/Statistics/WHO-COMP-Study-30.pdf MEASURING OVERALL HEALTH SYSTEM PERFORMANCE FOR 191 COUNTRIES: World Health Organization
  4. ^ "Euro Health Consumer Index 2013". Health Consumer Powerhouse. Retrieved 20 April 2014. 
  5. ^ http://www.who.int/whr/2010/en/index.html The world health report - Health systems financing: the path to universal coverage http://whqlibdoc.who.int/whr/2010/9789241564021_eng.pdf