Healthcare in Europe

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58 countries with universal health care in 2009.[1]
Most European countries have universal health coverage.
 
  58 countries with legislation mandating UHC, and
>90% health insurance coverage, and
>90% skilled birth attendance.
European Health Insurance Card (French version pictured)

Healthcare in Europe is provided through a wide range of different systems run at the national level. The systems are primarily publicly funded through taxation (universal health care). Private funding for health care may represent personal contributions towards meeting the non-taxpayer refunded portion of health care or may reflect totally private (non-subsidized) health care either paid out of pocket or met by some form of personal or employer funded insurance. All EU and many other European countries offer their citizens a European Health Insurance Card which, on a reciprocal basis, provides insurance for emergency medical treatment insurance when visiting other participating European countries.

The European Union has no major administrative responsibility in the field of health care. The European Commission's Directorate-General for Health and Consumers however seeks to align national laws on the safety of food and other products, on consumers' rights and on the protection of people's health, to form new EU wide laws and thus strengthen its internal markets.

Healthcare Rankings[edit]

In 2000 the World Health Organisation, WHO, published its rankings of 190 of the world's healthcare systems.[2] France was ranked in 1st place worldwide. The rankings for the European countries are shown in the table below. The lowest ranking European country is Russia at 130, while the lowest ranking (current) European Union country is Latvia at 105.

The World Health Organization's ranking of Europe's health systems.[2][3]
World Ranking European Ranking Country  % Public funding*
1 1 France 76.9
2 2 Italy 57.1
3 3 San Marino 73.5
4 4 Andorra 86.7
5 5 Malta 58.9
7 6 Spain 90.6
9 7 Austria 67.3
11 8 Norway 82.0
12 9 Portugal 57.5
13 10 Monaco 62.5
14 11 Greece 65.8
15 12 Iceland 83.8
16 13 Luxembourg 91.4
17 14 Netherlands 70.7
18 15 United Kingdom 96.9
19 16 Ireland 77.3
20 17 Switzerland 69.3
21 18 Belgium 83.2
23 19 Sweden 78.0
24 20 Cyprus 38.8
25 21 Germany 77.5
31 22 Finland 73.7
34 23 Denmark 84.3
38 24 Slovenia 80.8
43 25 Croatia 79.7
48 26 Czech Republic 92.3
50 27 Poland 71.6
55 28 Albania 77.7
62 29 Slovakia 81.8
66 30 Hungary 84.9
70 31 Turkey 74.0
72 32 Belarus 82.6
73 33 Lithuania 75.7
77 34 Estonia 78.9
79 35 Ukraine 75.5
90 36 Bosnia-Herzegovina 92.6
99 37 Romania 60.3
101 38 Moldova 75.1
102 39 Bulgaria 81.9
104 40 Armenia 41.5
105 41 Latvia 61.0
106 42 FR Yugoslavia 64.8
109 43 Azerbaijan 79.3
114 44 Georgia 8.6
130 45 Russia 76.8
  • as a percentage of total health expenditures

A different ranking of European healthcare systems, the Euro health consumer index, is being done by Health Consumer Powerhouse. The 2012 ranking included 34 countries measured by 42 indicators.

Euro Health Consumer Index 2012.[4]
Country Overall ranking Ranking in outcomes Ranking in access
Netherlands 1 3 6
Denmark 2 5 16
Iceland 3 3 10
Luxembourg 4 5 1
Belgium 5 11 1
Sweden 6 1 32
Switzerland 7 11 1
France 8 8 16
Norway 9 1 34
Finland 10 5 22
Austria 11 19 4
United Kingdom 12 16 22
Ireland 13 8 21
Germany 14 16 6
Czech Republic 15 10 10
Slovakia 16 22 6
Croatia 17 16 22
Estonia 18 23 16
Slovenia 19 11 22
Cyprus 20 19 10
Italy 21 11 22
Greece 22 23 6
Malta 23 25 10
Spain 24 11 32
Portugal 25 25 28
Lithuania 26 27 10
Hungary 27 27 16
Poland 27 19 28
Albania 29 31 4
Macedonia 30 31 10
Latvia 31 27 28
Romania 32 34 16
Bulgaria 33 27 22
Serbia 34 31 28

See also[edit]

References[edit]

[5]

  1. ^ Stuckler, David; Feigl, Andrea B.; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin (November 2010). "The political economy of universal health coverage. Background paper for the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research, 16–19 November 2010, Montreaux, Switzerland". Pacific Health Summit. Seattle: National Bureau of Asian Research. p. 16. "Figure 2. Global Prevalence of Universal Health Care in 2009; 58 countries: Andorra, Antigua, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Moldova, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Oman, Panama, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Tunisia, UAE, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela." 
  2. ^ a b World Health Organisation, World Health Staff, (2000), Haden, Angela; Campanini, Barbara, eds., The world health report 2000 - Health systems: improving performance, Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organisation, ISBN 92-4-156198-X 
  3. ^ http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~wgreene/Statistics/WHO-COMP-Study-30.pdf MEASURING OVERALL HEALTH SYSTEM PERFORMANCE FOR 191 COUNTRIES: World Health Organization
  4. ^ "Euro Health Consumer Index 2012". Health Consumer Powerhouse. Retrieved 28 April 2013. 
  5. ^ http://www.who.int/whr/2010/en/index.html The world health report - Health systems financing: the path to universal coverage http://whqlibdoc.who.int/whr/2010/9789241564021_eng.pdf