Healthcare in Romania
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Romania has a universal healthcare system. The access to healthcare is guaranteed by Article 34 in the Constitution of Romania, which states that the state is obliged "to guarantee the sheltering of healthcare". Romania has a comprehensive universal health care system, which covers up medical examinations, any surgical interventions, and any post-operator medical care, and provides free or subsidized medicine for a range of diseases. The state is obliged to fund public hospitals and clinics.
Every citizen of Romania or EU national is entitled to free medical assistance.
History of the Romanian health system 
The first concept of public healthcare appeared in 1700, in the areas of the Contemporary Romania, as well as Greater Romania). At the time, it was a common practice for foreign doctors to be brought in to provide healthcare for the upper class. Philanthropists ran their own charity hospitals, and provided free healthcare for the peasants.
Hospitals in Romania 
See article List of hospitals in Romania
The hospitals listed below are the most historically relevant hospitals in Romania.
Colţea Hospital, in Bucharest, was built by Mihai Cantacuzino between 1701 and 1703, composed of many buildings, each with 12 to 30 beds, a church, three chapels, a school, and doctors' and teachers' houses. In 2011, the hospital has been fully re-equipped and is now one of the most modern hospitals in Bucharest.
Pantelimon Hospital was raised in 1733 by Grigore II Ghica. The surface area of the Pantelimon Hospital land property was 400,000 m². The hospital had in its inventory a house for infectious diseases and a house for persons with disabilities. The hospital is still operational today.
Filantropia Hospital had a capacity of 70 beds and was built in 1806-1812, during the Russian occupation. The hospital is still operational today.
In 1830 the Brâncoveanu Hospital was inaugurated. The hospital worked on the same principle as a free clinic, offering various vaccines/medical tests free of charge. However, the urban development led to the hospital building being demolished (and therefore its activity ceased) in the mid 20th Century.
Romanian doctors 
During the early 18th century, the aristocracy would send their children away to Vienna or Paris to attend a medicine faculty there. Later, they would return back to Romania and practice medicine here. Eventually, this practice has became so common that most Romanian doctors were schooled externally, and began sharing their knowledge with future medics. The practice of sending future doctors abroad has ceased when the first medical school in Romania became operational.
With the raise of Alexandru I.C., doctors were employed by the newly-created state. Doctors used to receive little pay from the state, but in most cases, they charged patients with a fee.
In the dawn of the First World War, Romania did not have enough medics to power the Army. The situation has gotten so desperate, that the Queen of Romania, had became a nurse herself, and started working on the front lines, attending to injured people.
After the WW1 has ended, the situation stabilized. There were enough doctors to cover the population of the cities and provide limited support to the peasants. Being a doctor became a noble, well-rewarded profession.
In 1947, after the overthrow of the monarchy and the raise of the communists to power, the demand for doctors has once again increased. Young adults were encouraged by their parents to join the medicine school. Being a doctor used to give the person a higher rank in the state. Doctors were given priority housing and had easier access to benefits such as extra fuel, which from 1980 became rationalized. Furthermore, doctors used to receive a lot of "tips" consisting of chocolate, cigarettes and fine drinks, which were also rationalized goods.
Vaccination has been done in Romania ever since the 17th century, when people used rudimentary methods of vaccination, such as dipping newborns into cow milk coming from cows with smallpox.However, due to the increasing number of doctors, more modern methods of vaccination have been introduced. As of 1800, the children were being administered a regular smallpox shot.
From the 19th century up until today, it has became compulsory that all children get vaccinated against Hepatitis B, Tuberculosis, Tetanus, Polio, Rubella and Diphtheria. The vaccines are free of charge and can be done at any authorized pediatrics medic. Additional optional vaccines such as the one against the Flu are also provided free of charge on a bi-yearly basis.
Universal healthcare 
The concept of universal healthcare has been implemented in Greater Romania. However, the patients were still required to pay some medical costs, and in some cases, the fees were too high. In consequence, healthcare was virtually only available to the middle class and upwards. The working class were in the position of having to use free clinics or hospitals ran by charities.
Late 2000s private hospitals boom 
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Ever since 2007, when Romania joined the EU, the amount of private hospitals has raised. At the moment, there are 130 private hospitals/clinics in Romania.
The private hospitals have increased in popularity, especially since the 2011 proposal of privatization (see above) has came into discussion. More and more Romanians are choosing to opt for a private insurance plan, which includes access to a private hospital.
A few reasons for this sudden shift is the fact that private hospitals offer premium services. They tend to be more patient-friendly than the public hospitals, and they also have modern equipment.
However, criticism has been brought to the private hospitals, because although most of them are equipped with state-of-art medical machines, if any serious medical emergency occurs (e.g. massive internal bleeding), the patient is being transferred to a public hospital. This is usually done because public hospitals have more specialists who might be more competent than the ones in the private hospitals.
2011/2012 proposal of privatization 
In November 2011, the Government has announced and proposed a completely new healthcare system. The main changes are: the privatization of all hospitals and public clinics, the replacement of the public NHCIS with private insurers and the mandatory contribution to a private healthcare contractor. As president Băsescu declared, "Hospitals must become Plcs or charity institutions, the management must be privatized." Furthermore, the changes also mention the fact that diseases should be treated with local, generic medicine rather than expensive treatments and that doctors will be able to negotiate their salary. The people who are not required to co-pay are teens under the age of 18, people with a monthly income of less than 150€ or people without an income at all.
The project was withdrawn in January 2012. It caused great controversy and received extensive media coverage. As a result of the proposal, Raed Arafat quit his job as a state secretary. This caused protests in Bucharest and other major cities in Romania. The protests ceased on the 6 February,when the Government resigned.
On March 26, 2012, the Health minister of Romania has announced that a similar project has been proposed. The project is similar to the one proposed in November, although the project brings up a new initiative, namely the dissolution of the Casa Natională de Asigurări de Sănătate. Furthermore, the hospitals will remain public, unlike the previous proposition, that suggested the hospitals shall become private institutions.
Facilities and equipment 
Currently, there are 425 hospitals in Romania. Theoretically, each of the 425 hospitals should be equipped with a basic trauma room and an operating theater. For each 1000 people, there are 6.2 hospital beds available.
Romania makes use of ~2,600 ambulances, and by 2015, the government is planning on purchasing an additional 1,250 ambulances.
Romania also has a professional emergency response unit, SMURD, which operates at major emergencies. SMURD operates independently from the regular emergency response services, but it can be dialed and asked for by calling 112.
Pharmaceutical sector 
The pharmaceutical industry in Romania is prosperous, with an average revenue of 8,3 billion RON per year. There are plants of productions which receive subsidies from the state. The biggest Romanian player in this sector is Terapia S.A.
Drugs and prescription medicines 
All citizens are entitled to receive financial aid for prescriptions, regardless of their financial status. The only required condition is that they are contributing to CNAS. Virtually any medicine (except from generic medicine) can be obtained with a discount. The discount is obtained by getting a prescription form from a doctor. The deduction is made right at the paying point, and pharmacies further obtain their money back from the Ministry of Health.
Furthermore, there are drugs that are being given out for free. Medicine for diseases included in the National Health Programs are free for anyone, regardless of their financial status. The diseases that are usually covered are chronic diseases.
Issues and challenges 
Per capita, Romania has the lowest medical expenses inside the Union.
The medical system has been affected by a lack of medical staff. This is due to the low wages and the attractive working conditions in Southern and Western Europe. Many medics and nurses have decided to go and work in the medical system in Germany, UK, Belgium, France, Spain, Ireland and Italy.
Another issue is the high level of out-of-pocket spending. Due to the bribing that is "traditionally" practiced ever since the communist era, a sizable amount of patients have reported that they had to bribe the doctors and nurses in order to receive good treatment. Furthermore, another issue is that, in some cases, the hospitals lacked basic supplies, such as tampons and therefore, although the equipment and medicine is there, certain procedures cannot be done until the patient provides the supplies by themselves.
Most common causes of death 
The most common cause of death are cardiovascular diseases. Cancer is the second leading cause of death. It is estimated that a fifth of the total population of Romania suffers from a communicable or chronic disease.
There were 17,283 people with tuberculosis in 2008. The mortality rate is 31,8 people per 1000 infected citizens. At the moment, some statistics show that 30,000 people have been infected with the TB, making in the third largest country in North-Eastern Europe when it comes to infections with TB.
Less than 1% of the total population of Romania is a carrier or infected with HIV. The most common cause of getting HIV is sharing needles. Another cause was the HIV-infected blood in the 1980s, when blood donors were not being screened.
Medical universities and faculties 
This is a list of accredited medicine (and pharmacy) universities. The emphasized universities are exclusively private.
- Vasile Goldiș West University of Arad - Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy
- Transilvania University of Brașov - Faculty of Medicine
- Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Bucharest
- Iulia Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Cluj-Napoca
- Ovidius University of Constanța - Faculty of Medicine
- University of Craiova - Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy
- Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Iași
- University of Oradea - Faculty of Medicine
- Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu - Faculty of Medicine
- University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Târgu Mureș
- Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Timișoara
Romanian National Partnership in Telemedicine
Romanian Partners for the Pilot are:
- "Sfântul Ioan" Hospital, Bucharest;
- University Hospital, Bucharest;
- Military Hospital, Bucharest;
- Floreasca Emergency Hospital;
- "Victor Babeş" Hospital, Bucharest;
- "Sfânta Maria" Hospital, Bucharest.
- "Sfântul Spiridon" Hospital, Iaşi;
- Craiova County Hospital;
- Timişoara County Hospital;
- Târgu Mureş County Hospital;
See also 
- "Constitution of Romania".
- "The Budget of the Ministry of Health for 2012 ...".
- 1001 premieres the first hospital in Romania
- Coltea H.(Romanian)
- St.Spiridon Hospital History (Romanian)
- Carol Davila
- History of cholera epidemics in Romania
- "The total count of new private hospitals in 2011".
- "More and more Romanians prefer private policies".
- "Arcadia nu face fata cazurilor grave".
- Cheap Medical Services Payable by the Patients Will be Eliminated
- New Improvements in The Healthcare Act Discussed In the Government Meeting Today
- Health minister: doctors will no longer be paid from the state budget
- "In Romania there are 18,300 churches and only 425 hospitals".
- "Less hospital beds for sick Romanians".
- "New Ambulances for SMURD by the end of the year".
- "Six I.A. helicopters dispatched to rescue victims".
- "The Army's modern equipment saves lives".
- The crisis: poor health, prosperous pharmaceutical sector
- Main Page of Terapia S.A.
- Compensated Medicine FAQ
- National Health Program Booklet
- Free contraceptives for students in planning centers
- CNAS electronic prescription, running from june, mandatory from July
- "Our doctors are leaving".
- "Bribing in hospital, a tradition".
- "Medics and patients bring everything from home for surgeries".
- Most frequent diseases in Romania
- Most frequent diseases in Romania II
- TB epidemics in Romania
- Romania, the most sick of TB in EU
- Romania, Europe's reservoir of viral hepatitis
- Eve of an HIV Epidemic in Romania
- Complete list of medicine Universities in Romania
- Romania: health profile from the DFID Health Resource Centre.
- Healthcare Systems in Transition: A Profile on Romania from the World Health Organization
- Bribes for basic care in Romania from The Guardian Weekly