Hearing Voices Movement

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The Hearing Voices Movement is the name used by organisations and individuals advocating the "hearing voices approach",[1] an alternative way of understanding the experience of those people who "hear voices". In the medical professional literature, ‘voices’ are most often referred to as auditory hallucinations or ‘verbal’ hallucinations. The movement uses the term ‘voices’ which, it feels, is a more accurate and ‘user-friendly’ term.

The movement was instigated by Marius Romme, Sandra Escher and Patsy Hage [2] in 1987.

The movement challenges the notion that to hear voices is necessarily a characteristic of mental illness. Instead it regards hearing voices as a meaningful and understandable, although unusual, human variation. It therefore rejects the stigma and pathologisation of hearing voices and advocates human rights, social justice and support for people who hear voices that is empowering and recovery focussed [3][4] (see the Melbourne Hearing Voices Declaration). The movement thus challenges the medical model of mental illness, specifically the validity of the schizophrenia construct.[5]

History and tenets[edit]

The international Hearing Voices Movement is a prominent mental health service-user/survivor movement that promotes the needs and perspectives of experts by experience in the phenomenon of hearing voices (auditory verbal hallucinations). The main tenet of the Hearing Voices Movement is the notion that hearing voices is a meaningful human experience

The Hearing Voices Movement [6] was established in 1987 by Romme and Escher, both from the Netherlands, with the formation of Stichting Weerklank (Foundation Resonance), a peer led support organisation for people who hear voices. In 1988, the Hearing Voices Network was established in England with the active support of Romme.[7] Since then, networks have been established in 29 countries including Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Canada, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Hungary, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Palestine, Malaysia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Norway, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Uganda, USA and Wales.[8]

In 1997, a meeting of voice hearers, family members and mental health workers was held in Maastricht, Netherlands to consider how to organise internationally further research and work about the subject of voice hearing. The meeting decided to create a formal organizational structure to provide administrative and coordinating support to the wide variety of initiatives in the different involved countries.

The organisation is structured as a network and is called INTERVOICE (The International Network for Training, Education and Research into Hearing Voices). INTERVOICE was incorporated in 2007 as a non-profit company and charity under UK law. The president is Maris Romme and the governing body is made up of people who hear voices and mental health professionals.

INTERVOICE hosts the annual World Hearing Voices Congress and an annual World Hearing Voices Day held on the 14th September. It has an international research committee, encourages and supports exchanges and visits between member countries, the translation and publication of books and other literature on the subject of hearing voices.

INTERVOICE is supported by people who hear voices, relatives, friends and mental health professionals including therapists, social workers, nurses, psychiatrists and psychologists. INTERVOICE members believe that the most important factor in the success of their approach is the importance placed on the personal engagement of the people involved, meaning that all participants are considered an expert of their own experience.Membership

The Hearing Voices Movement regards itself and is regarded by others as being a post-psychiatric organisation.[9] [10] It positions itself outside of the mental health world in recognition that voices are an aspect of human difference, rather than a mental health problem. One of the main issues of concern for the Hearing Voices Movement is human rights.

The Hearing Voices Movement also seeks holistic health solutions to problematic and overwhelming voices that cause mental distress. Based on their research,[11] the movement espouses that many people successfully live with their voices. In themselves voices are not seen as the problem. Rather it is the relationship the person has with their voices that is regarded as the main issue.[12][13]

The Hearing Voices Movement is actively developing interventions for mental health practitioners to support people who hear voices and are overwhelmed by the experience [14][15][16]

Position[edit]

The position of the hearing voices movement can be summarised as follows:[17]

  • Hearing voices is not in itself a sign of mental illness.
  • Hearing voices is experienced by many people who do not have symptoms that would lead to diagnosis of mental illness.
  • Hearing voices is often related to problems in life history.
  • If hearing voices causes distress, the person who hears the voices can learn strategies to cope with the experience. Coping is often achieved by confronting the past problems that lie behind the experience.

Theoretical Overview[edit]

The work of Romme, Escher and other researchersl[18][19][20][21][22][23] provides a theoretical framework for the movement. They find that:

  1. Not everyone who hears voices becomes a patient. Over a third of 400 voice hearers in the Netherlands they studied had not had any contact with psychiatric services. These people either described themselves as being able to cope with their voices and/or described their voices as life enhancing.[24]
  2. Demographic (epidemiological) research carried out over the last 120 years provides evidence that there are people who hear voices in the general population (2% - 6%) who are not necessarily troubled by them [25][26][27][28][29]). Only a small minority fulfil the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis and, of those, only a few seek psychiatric aid.[30] indicating that hearing voices in itself is not necessarily a symptom of an illness.[31] Even more (about 8%) have peculiar delusions and do so without being ill.
  3. People who cope well with their voices and those who did not, show clear differences in terms of the nature of the relationship they had with their voices.[32]
  4. People who live well with their voice experience use different strategies to manage their voices than those voice hearers who are overwhelmed by them.[33][34]
  5. 70% of voice hearers reported that their voices had begun after a severe traumatic or intensely emotional event,[35][36][37][38] such as an accident, divorce or bereavement, sexual or physical abuse, love affairs, or pregnancy.[39] Romme and colleagues found that the onset of voice hearing amongst a patient group was preceded by either a traumatic event or an event that activated the memory of an earlier trauma.[40][41]
  6. Specifically, there is a high correlation between voice hearing and abuse.[42] These findings are being substantiated further in on-going studies with voice hearing amongst children.[43][44]
  7. Some people who hear voices have a deep need to construct a personal understanding for their experiences and to talk to others about it without being designated as mad.

Romme, colleagues and other researchers find that people who hear voices can be helped using cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT)[45] and self-help methods.[46]

Romme theorizes a three phase model of recovery:[47]

  • Startling – Initial confusion; emotional chaos, fear, helplessness and psychological turmoil.
  • Organization – The need to find meaning, arrive at some understanding and acceptance. The development of ways of coping and accommodating voices in everyday living. This task may take months or years and is marked by the attempt to enter into active negotiation with the voice(s).
  • Stabilisation – The establishment of equilibrium, and accommodation, with the voice(s), and the consequent re-empowerment of the person.

Alternative to medical model of disability[edit]

The Hearing Voices Movement disavows the medical model of disability and disapproves of the practises of mental health services through much of the Western World, such as treatment solely with medication.[48] For example, some service users have reported negative experiences of mental health services because they are discouraged from talking about their voices as these are seen solely as symptoms of psychiatric illness.[49][50][51][52] Slade and Bentall conclude that the failure to attend to hallucinatory experiences and/or have the opportunity for dialogue about them is likely to have the effect of helping to maintain them.[53]

In Voices of Reason, Voices of Insanity, Leudar and Thomas review nearly 3,000 years of voice-hearing history, including that of Socrates, Schreber, and Janet's patient 'Marcelle', amongst others.[54] As with Smith [55] and Watkins[56] they argue that the Western World has moved the experience of hearing voices from a socially valued context to a pathologised and denigrated one. Foucault has argued that this process can generally arise when a minority perspective is at odds with dominant social norms and beliefs.[57]

See also[edit]

Publications[edit]

  • Romme, M. Escher, S. (1993) Accepting Voices. Mind Publications
  • Baker, P. (1995, 2011), The Voice Inside, P&P Publications
  • Romme, M. Escher, S. (Eds) (1996) Understanding voices: coping with auditory hallucinations and confusing realities, Rijksuniversitiet Maastricht, Limburg, Holland and English edition, Handsell Publications
  • Coleman R. Smith M. (1997, 2005) Working with Voices II: Victim to Victor
  • Watkins J. (1998, 2008) Hearing Voices: A Common Human Experience, Michelle Anderson Publishing
  • Romme, M. & Escher, S., (2000), Making Sense of Voices – A guide for professionals who work with voice hearers, MIND Publications, London
  • Leudar I. Thomas P. (2000) Voices of Reason, Voices of Insanity: Studies of Verbal Hallucinations, Routledge
  • Stephens G.L Graham G. (2000) When Self-Consciousness Breaks: Alien Voices and Inserted Thoughts, Bradford Books
  • Blackman L. (2001) Hearing voices: embodiment and experience, Free Association Books
  • Downs J. (Ed), (2001) Starting and Supporting Voices Groups, A Guide to setting up and running support groups for people who hear voices, see visions or experience tactile or other sensations. Hearing Voices Network, Manchester, England
  • Downs J.(Ed), (2001), Coping with Voices And Visions, A guide to helping people who Experience hearing voices, seeing visions, tactile or other Sensations, Hearing Voices Network, Manchester, England
  • James A. (2001), Raising our Voices: An Account of the Hearing Voices Movement, Handsell Publishing
  • Romme, M. Escher, S. (2005) Children Hearing Voices: What you need to know and what you can do, PCCS Books, UK
  • Romme M. Escher S. Dillon J. Corstens D. Morris M. (2009) "Living with Voices: 50 Stories of Recovery", PCCS Books/Birmingham City University
  • Romme M. Escher, S. eds. (2011) Accepting and Making Sense of Voices In Psychosis as a personal crisis: an experienced based approach, Routledge
  • McCarthy-Jones S. Hearing Voices (2013) The Histories, Causes and Meanings of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press
  • Longden E. (2013) Learning from the Voices in My Head, TED Books

Further reading[edit]

Press[edit]

Articles[edit]

  • Baker P.K (1990): I hear voices and I’m glad to!, Critical Public Health, No. 4, 1990, pp 21-27
  • Baker P.K (1995) Accepting the Inner Voices, Nursing Times, Vol. 91, No 31, 1995, pp 59-61
  • Baker P.K (1996) Can you hear me, a research and practice summary, Handsell UK
  • Barret T.R and Etheridge J.B (1992) Verbal hallucinations in Normals I: People who hear voices Applied Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 6, pp. 379-387
  • Benthall R.P (1990) The illusion of Reality: a review and integration of psychological research into psychotic hallucinations, Psychological Bulletin, no. 107, pp. 82-95
  • Bentall R.P., Claridge G.S. & Slade P.D (1988), Abandoning the Concept of “Schizophrenia”: Some Implications of Validity Arguments for Psychological Research into Psychotic Phenomena British Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol.27, pp. 303-324
  • Bentall R.P., Claridge G.S. & Slade P.D (1989), The Multidimensional Nature of Schizotypal traits: A factor analytic study with normal subjects British Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol.?
  • Benthall R.P., Haddock G. and Slade P.D (1994), Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for persistent auditory hallucinations: from theory to therapy, Behavioral Psychotherapy No. 25, pp. 51-56
  • Bentall R.P., Jackson H.J & Pilgrim D. (1988), Abandoning the concept of “schizophrenia: Some implications of validity arguments for psychological research into psychotic phenomena, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, No. 27, pp. 303 – 324
  • Bentall R.P., Kaney S & Dewey. M (1991), Paranoia and Social Reasoning: An Attribution Theory Analysis, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, No. 30, pp.13-23
  • Benthall R.P and Slade P.D. (1995) Reliability of a scale for measuring disposition towards hallucinations: a brief report, Person. Individ. Diff. Vol 6, No. 4, pp. 527-529
  • Richard Bentall & Gillian Haddock: Cognitive behaviour therapy for persistent auditory hallucinations, (1990) Behaviour Therapy 25: 51 – 66;
  • Chadwick P.D.J. and Birchwood M.J, (1994), Challenging the omnipotence of voices: A cognitive approach to auditory hallucinations, British Journal of Psychiatry, No. 164, pp. 190-201
  • Coleman R and M. Smith: Victim to Victor: working with voices (1997) Handsell, Gloucester, UK
  • Cullberg J., (1991) Recovered versus non-recovered schizophrenic patients among those who have had intensive psychotherapy, Acta Psychiatr Scand. Vol. 84, pp.242-245
  • Davies, H. (2002) Hearing Voices Past and Present: A Users Perspective, Chapter 2, Psychosocial Interventions For People with Schizphrenia: A Practical Guide For Health Workers, Harris, N. William, S. Bradshaw, T. (Eds), Palgrave McMillan
  • Downs J. (Ed), (2001) Starting and Supporting Voices Groups: A Guide to setting up and running support groups for people who hear voices, see visions or experience tactile or other sensations. Hearing Voices Network, Manchester, England
  • Downs J. (Ed), (2001), Coping with Voices And Visions, A guide to helping people who Experience hearing voices, seeing visions, tactile or other Sensations, Hearing Voices Network, Manchester, England
  • Ensink B. (1993) Confusing Realities: A study of child sexual abuse and psychiatric symptoms Amsterdam, VU University Press (1992) and also Trauma: A study of child abuse and hallucinations, in Accepting Voices Eds M. Romme and S. Escher
  • Eaton W.W. Romanoski A. Anthony J.C. Nestadt G. (1991) Screening for psychosis in the general population with a self-report interview, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, No. 179, pp 689-693
  • Falloon I.R.H. Talbot R.E. (1981) Persistent auditory hallucinations: coping mechanisms and implications for management, Psychological Medicine, No.11, pp. 329-339
  • Freedland J. (1995), Hearing is believing, The Guardian (UK Newspaper), April 22
  • Mike Grierson (1991), A Report on the Manchester Hearing Voices Conference November 1990 Hearing Voices Network
  • Haddock G., Benthall R.P and Slade P. (1996), Psychological treatments for auditory hallucinations, focussing or distraction? pp. 45-71 in Cognitive, Behavioural Interventions with Psychotic Disorders * Routledge, London Therapy, Eds. Haddock G. and Slade P
  • Haddock G., Bentall R.P and Slade, P.D: Psychological treatmment of chronic auditory hallucinations: two case studies (1993) Behavioral and Cognitive Psychotherapy 21: 335 – 46;
  • G. Haddock, P. Slade: Empowering people who hear voices in cognitive behavioral interventions with psychotic disorders, Routledge, London (1996)
  • Heery M. W. (1989), Inner Voice Experiences: an exploratory study of 30 cases Journal of Transpersonal Psychiatry, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 73-82
  • Doug Holmes Ph.D, Hearing Voices: Hillary, Angels, and O.J. to the Voice-Producing Brain Shenandoah Psychology Press, shenpsy@rica.net, 15 February, 1999
  • Jaynes J., The origin of consciousness and the breakdown of the bicameral mind: (1976) Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Leudar I. Thomas P. (1994) Guidelines for Establishing Pragmatic Aspects of Voices – Voice Hearer Talk, Manchester: Department of Psychology, University of Manchester
  • I Leudar, P Thomas and M. Johnston (1994) Self Repair for in dialogues of schizophrenics: effects of hallucinations and negative symptoms, Brain and Language 43: 487 – 511
  • Leudar I Thomas P. Johnston M. (1992) Self monitoring in speech production: effects of verbal hallucinations and negative symptoms Psychological Medicine
  • Leudar I. Thomas P. McNally D. Glinsky A. (1997) What can voices do with words? Pragmatics of verbal hallucinations Psychological Medicine
  • Lineham T., (1993), Hearing is Believing, New Satatesman and Society, 26.3.93, pp.18-19
  • Lockhart A. R. (1975), Mary’s Dog is an Ear Mother: Listening to the Voices of Psychosis, Psychological Perspectives Vol. 6, No 2, pp.144-160
  • Miller L.J., O’Connor R.N & DiPasquale T., (1993), Patients’ Attitudes Toward Hallucinations American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 150, no.4, pp. 584-588
  • Rector, Seeman (1992) Auditory Hallucinations in Women and Men, Schizophrenia Research, vol 7, pp. 233- 236
  • Sarbin T.R. (1990), Towards the Obsolescence of the Schizophrenia Hypothesis, The Journal of Mind and Behaviour, vol. 11. No.3/4, pp. 259-283
  • Siegel, Ronald: Fire in the Brain: Clinical Tales of Hallucination Dutton Books New York 1992 Sidgewick H.A. (1894)Report on the census of hallucinations, Proceedings of the Society of Psychical Research, No. 26, pp. 25-394
  • Slade P.D. (1993) Models of Hallucination: from theory to practice in David, A..S and Cutting, J. (Eds.) The Neuropsychology of Schizophrenia; Earlbaum, London
  • Slade P.D and Bentall R.P. (1988) Sensory Deception; towards a scientific analysis of hallucinations Croom Helm, London
  • Tarrier N. Harwood S. Yusupoff L. Beckett R. & Baker A. (1990), Coping Strategy Enhancement (CSE): Method of Treating Residual Schizophrenic Symptoms Behavioural Psychotherapy, No.18, pp. 283-293
  • Tiihonen, Hari, Naukkarinen, Rimon, Jousimaki and Kajola (1992) Modified Activity of Human Auditory Cortex during Auditory Hallucinations, American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 149, No.2, pp. 225-257
  • Yusopoff and Tarrier N. (1996) Coping strategy enhancement for persistent hallucinations and delusions, pp. 86-103, in Cognitive, Behavioural Interventions with Psychotic Disorders, Routledge, London Therapy, Eds. Haddock G. and Slade

Voice Hearing Prevalence

  • Beavan, V., Read, J. & Cartwright, C. (2011). The prevalence of voice-hearers in the general population: A literature review. Journal of Mental Health, 20(3), 281-292.
  • Pearson, D., Smalley, M., Ainsworth, C., Cook, M., Boyle, J. & Flury, S. (2008). Auditory hallucinations in adolescent and adult students: Implications for continuums and adult pathology following child abuse. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196(8), 634–638.
  • Posey, T. B. & Losch, M. E. (1983–1984). Auditory hallucinations of hearing voices in 375 normal subjects. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 3(2), 99–113.
  • Tien A.Y. (1991) Distributions of hallucinations in the population Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, No.26, pp. 287-292

Voice Hearing and Life Events

  • Andrew, E., Gray, N. & Snowden, R. (2008). The relationship between trauma and beliefs about hearing voices: A study of psychiatric and non-psychiatric voice hearers. Psychological Medicine, 38(10), 1409-1417.
  • Honig, A., Romme, M., Ensink, B., Escher, S., Pennings, M. & deVries, M. (1998). Auditory hallucinations: A comparison between patients and nonpatients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 186(10), 646-651.
  • Moskowitz, A. & Corstens, D. (2007). Auditory hallucinations: Psychotic symptom or dissociative experience? The Journal of Psychological Trauma, 6(2/3), 35-63.
  • Read, J., Perry, B.D., Moskowitz, A. & Connolly, J. (2001). The contribution of early traumatic events to schizophrenia in some patients: A traumagenic neurodevelopmental model. Psychiatry, 64(4), 319-345.
  • Read, J., van Os, J., Morrison, A., & Ross, C. (2005). Childhood trauma, psychosis and schizophrenia: A literature review with theoretical and clinical implications. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 112(5), 330-350.
  • Shevlin, M., Murphy, J., Read, J., Mallett, J., Adamson, G. & Houston, J. E. (2011). Childhood adversity and hallucinations: A community-based study using the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46(12), 1203-1210.
  • Whitfield, C., Dube, S., Felitti, V. & Anda, R. (2005). Adverse childhood experiences and hallucinations. Child Abuse and Neglect, 29(7), 797-810.

Working With Voices

  • Beavan, V. & Read, J. (2010). Hearing voices and listening to what they say: The importance of voice content in understanding and working with distressing voices. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198(3), 201-205.
  • Corstens, D., Longden, E. & May, R. (2011). Talking with voices: Exploring what is expressed by the voices people hear. Psychosis: Psychological, Social and Integrative Approaches. Advance online publication.
  • Longden, E., Corstens, D., Escher, S., & Romme, M. (2011). Voice hearing in biographical context: A model for formulating the relationship between voices and life history. Psychosis: Psychological, Social and Integrative Approaches. Advance online publication.

Romme M, Morris M. The recovery process with hearing voices: accepting as well as exploring their emotional background through a supported process. Psychosis Psychol Soc Integr Appr. 2013;5:259–269.

  • Stainsby, M., Sapochnik, M., Bledin, K. & Mason, O. J. (2010). Are attitudes and beliefs about symptoms more important than symptom severity in recovery from psychosis? Psychosis: Psychological, Social and Integrative Approaches, 2(1), 41-49.


Hearing Voices Groups

  • Dillon J, Hornstein GA. Hearing voices peer support groups: a powerful alternative for people in distress. Psychosis Psychol Soc Integr Appr. 2013;5:286–295.
  • Dillon J, Longden E. Hearing voices groups: creating safe spaces to share taboo experiences. In: Romme M, Escher S, eds. Psychosis as a Personal Crisis: An Experience Based Approach. London, UK: Routledge; 2011:129–139.

May R, Longden E. Self-help approaches to hearing voices. In: Larøi F, Aleman A, eds. Hallucinations: A Guide to Treatment and Management. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2010.


References[edit]

  1. ^ McCarthy-Jones S (2013) Hearing Voices - The Histories, Causes and Meanings of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp.346-354
  2. ^ "Patsy Hague: Co-founder". intervoiceonline.org. 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014. .
  3. ^ Longden E, Corstens D, Dillon J. (2013) Recovery, discovery and revolution: the work of Intervoice and the hearing voices movement. In: Coles S, Keenan S, Diamond B , eds. Madness Contested: Power and Practice. Ross-on-Wye, UK: PCCS; 2013, 161–180.
  4. ^ Romme, M. A. J. , Honig, A., Noorthoorn, O. & Escher, A. D. M. A. C. Coping with voices: an emancipatory approach. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161: 99-103. (1992)
  5. ^ Romme M. Morris M. (2007) The harmful concept of Schizophrenia: Outline for a more helpful and cause related alternative, Mental Health Nursing vol. 27 no 2 page 8-12.
  6. ^ Escher S. Romme M. The Hearing Voices Movement, Chapter 28 page 385 in “Hallucinations” by Jan Dirk Blom and Iris E.C. Sommer, Editors Springer, New York; Dordrecht; Heidelberg; London (2012).
  7. ^ Adam James (201) Raising Our Voices: An Account of the Hearing Voices Movement, Handsell Publishing (2001)
  8. ^ INTERVOICE World Map https://maps.google.co.uk/maps/ms?msa=0&msid=206854668906561198640.0004d62ee0abdfd28256e&dg=feature
  9. ^ Bracken P. Thomas P., Postpsychiatry: Mental health in a postmodern world, International Perspectives in Philosophy & Psychiatry, Oxford University press, (2005)
  10. ^ Stastny P. Lehmann P. (Eds.), Alternatives Beyond Psychiatry, Peter Lehmann Publishing (2007)
  11. ^ , Romme M. Escher S. Dillon J. Corstens D Morris M. (2009) Living with Voices: 50 Stories of Recovery, PCCS Books/Birmingham City Universtiy
  12. ^ Romme M. Morris M. (2013) The recovery process with hearing voices, Psychosis Volume 5 Issue 3 Oct, page 250-260
  13. ^ Romme M Escher S. (2011) Accepting and Making Sense of Voices In Psychosis as a personal crisis: an experienced based approach Romme and Escher eds. Routledge October
  14. ^ Useful Instruments for exploring hearing voices and paranoia (2011) Escher S., In Psychosis as a personal crisis: an experienced based approach. Romme and Escher eds Rotledge
  15. ^ Managing Distressing Voice Hearing Experiences Romme & Escher (2005). In Wellness Recovery Action Plan. Mary Ellen Copeland edited by Piers Allott. P.Sefton Recovery Group, Liverpool, UK. P. 114-118
  16. ^ Romme, M. A. J. and Escher A. D. M. A. C. . (2000). Making sense of voices: A guide for professionals working with voice hearers. London: Mind.
  17. ^ Accepting Voices: A New Analysis of the Experience of Hearing Voices Outside the Illness Model, Ed. Marius Romme and Sandra Escher, Mind Publications 1993; Living with Voices: 50 Stories of Recovery, Prof Marius Romme, Dr Sandra Escher, Jacqui Dillon, Dr Dirk Corstens, Prof Mervyn Morris, PCCS Books/Birmingham City Universtiy, 2009
  18. ^ MA Romme, AD Escher, Hearing voices, Schizophrenia Bulletin, (1989)
  19. ^ MA Romme, A Honig, EO Noorthoorn et al, Coping with hearing voices: an emancipatory approach, British Journal of Psychiatry, (1992)
  20. ^ MAJ Romme, BJ Ensink, SD Escher, Auditory hallucinations: a comparison between patients and nonpatients, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, (1998)
  21. ^ S Escher, M Romme, A Buiks et al, Formation of delusional ideation in adolescents hearing voices: a prospective study, American Journal of Medical Genetics, (2002)
  22. ^ S ESCHER, M ROMME, A BUIKS, P DELESPAUL, Independent course of childhood auditory hallucinations: a sequential 3-year follow-up study , British Journal of Psychiatry, (2002)
  23. ^ P Delespaul, J Van Os, M Romme, Determinants of outcome in the pathways through care for children hearing voices, International Journal of Social Welfare, (2004)
  24. ^ Sandra Escher Ph.D., Marius Romme M.D., Ph.D. The Hearing Voices Movement, pp 385-393, Hallucinations, Research and Practice Editors: Jan Dirk Blom, Iris E.C. Sommer, (2012)
  25. ^ Sidgewick, H., Johnson, A., Myers, F. W. H., et al, Report on the census of hallucinations. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 26, 259-394.(1894)
  26. ^ Tien A.Y. (1991) Distributions of hallucinations in the population, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, No.26, pp. 287 292
  27. ^ Eaton W.W., Romanoski A., Anthony J.C., Nestadt G. (1991), Screening for psychosis in the general population with a self report interview, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, No. 179, p.689 693
  28. ^ Lawrence C, Jones J, Cooper M. Hearing voices in a non-psychiatric population, Behavioural Cognitive Psychotherapy. 2010 May;38(3), pp.363-73
  29. ^ Beavan, V., Read, J., & Cartwright, C. (2011). The prevalence of voice-hearers in the general population: A literature review, Journal of Mental Health, 20, pp.281-292.
  30. ^ Bijl, R.V., Ravelli, A. & Van Zessen, G. Prevalence of psychotic disorder in the general population: results from the Netherlands mental health survey and incidence study. Social Psychiatry & Epidemiology, 33, 587-596., 1998
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  33. ^ Prof Marius Romme, Dr Sandra Escher, Jacqui Dillon, Dr Dirk Corstens, Prof Mervyn Morris, Living with Voices: 50 Stories of Recovery, , PCCS Books/Birmingham City Universtiy, 2009
  34. ^ The accepting and making sense of hearing voices approach. (2006) Romme Marius and Escher Sandra
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  36. ^ Read, J. & Ross, C.A. (2003). Psychological trauma and psychosis: another reason why people diagnosed schizophrenic must be offered psychological therapies. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry, 31, pp.247-268.
  37. ^ Read, J., Van Os, J., Morrison, A. P. & Ross C. A. (2005). Childhood trauma, psychosis and schizophrenia: a literature review with theoretical and clinical implications. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 112, 5, pp.330-350.
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  41. ^ Psychological trauma and psychosis: another reason why people diagnosed schizophrenic must be offered psychological therapies. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry, 31, 247-268.
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  43. ^ Escher, S., Morris, M., Buiks, A., Delespaul, P., Van Os, J., Romme, M. (2004), Determinants of outcome in the pathways through care for children hearing voices. International Journal of Social Welfare, 13, pp. 208-222
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