London Heathrow Airport
|London Heathrow Airport|
|Heathrow Terminal 5 building|
|IATA: LHR – ICAO: EGLL|
|Owner||Heathrow Airport Holdings|
|Operator||Heathrow Airport Limited|
|Serves||London, United Kingdom|
|Location||London Borough of Hillingdon|
|Hub for||British Airways|
|Elevation AMSL||83 ft / 25 m|
|Passengers||70,037,417 ( 0.9%)|
|Aircraft movements||475,176 ( 1.2%)|
|Economic impact||$16.2 billion|
|Social impact||216.7 thousand|
|Sources: UK AIP at NATS and EUROCONTROL
Statistics from the UK Civil Aviation Authority
London Heathrow Airport or Heathrow (IATA: LHR, ICAO: EGLL) is a major international airport serving London, England, known as London Airport from 1946 until 1965. Located in the London Borough of Hillingdon, in West London, Heathrow is the busiest airport in the United Kingdom and the third busiest airport in the world (as of 2012) in total passenger traffic, handling more international passengers than any other airport around the globe. It is also the busiest airport in Europe by passenger traffic and the third busiest by traffic movements, with a figure surpassed only by Charles de Gaulle Airport and Frankfurt Airport. Heathrow is London's main airport, having replaced RAF Northolt and the earlier Croydon Airport. The airport sustains 76,600 jobs directly and around 116,000 indirectly in the immediate area, and this, together with the large number of global corporations with offices close to the airport, makes Heathrow a modern aerotropolis which contributes an estimated 2.7% to London's total GVA.
The airport is owned and operated by Heathrow Airport Holdings, which also owns and operates three other UK airports, and is itself owned by FGP TopCo Limited, an international consortium, which includes Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec and GIC Special Investments, that is led by the Spanish Ferrovial Group. Heathrow is the primary hub for British Airways and the primary operating base for Virgin Atlantic.
Heathrow lies 12 nautical miles (22 km; 14 mi) west of Central London, and has two parallel east–west runways along with four operational terminals on a site that covers 3,000 acres (1,200 ha). Terminal 5 was officially dedicated by Queen Elizabeth II on 14 March 2008 and opened to passengers on 27 March 2008. Construction of a new Terminal 2 complex to replace the old terminal building and adjacent Queen's Building began in 2009 with the first phase expected to open in 2014. Terminals 3 and 4 underwent major refurbishments between 2007 and 2009. In November 2007, a consultation process began for the building of a new third runway and a sixth terminal, which was controversially approved on 15 January 2009 by UK Government ministers. The project was subsequently cancelled on 12 May 2010 by the Cameron Government.
- 1 Location
- 2 History
- 3 Heathrow today
- 4 Terminals
- 5 Airlines and destinations
- 6 Other facilities
- 7 Traffic and statistics
- 8 Access
- 9 Accidents and incidents
- 10 Future expansion
- 11 Metaphorical use
- 12 See also
- 13 Notes
- 14 References
- 15 External links
Heathrow is 14 mi (23 km) west of central London, near the south end of the London Borough of Hillingdon on a parcel of land that is designated part of the Metropolitan Green Belt. The airport is surrounded by the built-up areas of Harlington, Harmondsworth, Longford and Cranford to the north and by Hounslow and Hatton to the east. To the south lie Bedfont and Stanwell while to the west Heathrow is separated from Colnbrook in Berkshire by the M25 motorway. Heathrow falls entirely under the Hounslow post town of the TW postcode area.
As the airport is west of London and as its runways run east–west, an airliner's landing approach is usually directly over the conurbation of London when the wind is from the west.
Along with Gatwick, Stansted, Luton, Southend and London City, Heathrow is one of six airports with scheduled services serving the London area, although only Heathrow and London City are within Greater London.
- For a chronicled history of Heathrow Airport, see History of London Heathrow Airport.
Heathrow Airport started in 1929 as a small airfield (Great West Aerodrome) on land southeast of the hamlet of Heathrow (straddling a road which ran along the east and south edges of the present main terminals area). Development of the whole Heathrow area as a very big airfield started in 1944, stated to be for long-distance military aircraft bound for the far east. However, by the time the airfield was nearing completion, World War II had ended. The government continued to develop the airfield as a civil airport known as London Airport and later Heathrow.
The name 'Heathrow' originates from a local hamlet called 'Heathrow' or 'Heath Row', whose land was mostly farms and market gardens and orchards; there was a 'Heathrow Farm' (approximately where Terminal 1 is now), and a Heathrow Hall and a Heathrow House. Now the name 'Heathrow' is widely known across the world, and occurs in the names of many establishments around the airport, some having no connection with aviation, such as the Heathrow Garden centre in Sipson.
Of Heathrow's 69 million passengers in 2011, 7% were bound for UK destinations, 41% were short-haul international travellers and 52% were long-haul. The busiest single destination in passenger numbers is New York, with over 3.8 million passengers between Heathrow and JFK / Newark airports in 2011. The airport has four passenger terminals (Terminals 1, 3, 4 and 5) and a cargo terminal. The new passenger Terminal 2 is due to open in 2014, replacing the previous Terminal 2.
In the 1950s, Heathrow had six runways, arranged in three pairs at different angles in the shape of a hexagram with the permanent passenger terminal in the centre and the older terminal along the north edge of the field, and two of its runways would always be within 30° of the wind direction. As the required length for runways has grown, Heathrow now has only two parallel runways running east–west. These are extended versions of the two east-west runways from the original hexagram. From the air, almost all of the original runways can still be seen, incorporated into the present system of taxiways, except for the northernmost point, which has been completely lifted to allow for the enlarged entrance to the access tunnel. The northern apex, of the six pointed star, lay precisely at the point now occupied by Heathrow's unofficial 'gate guardian'. For many years the home of a 40% model of a British Airways Concorde, G-CONC, the site has been occupied by a model of an Emirates Airbus A380 since 2008.
Policing of the airport is the responsibility of the aviation security unit of the Metropolitan Police, although the army, including armoured vehicles of the Household Cavalry, has occasionally been deployed at the airport during periods of heightened security. Heathrow's reputation for thefts has led to its sometimes being referred to as 'Thiefrow'.
Full body scanners are now used at the airport, and passengers who object to their use after being selected are not allowed to fly. These display passengers' bodies as a cartoon-style figure, with indicators showing where concealed items may be. The new imagery was introduced initially as a trial in September 2011 following complaints over privacy.
Heathrow Airport has Anglican, Catholic, free church, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim and Sikh chaplains. There is a multi-faith prayer room and counselling room in each terminal, in addition to St. George's Interdenominational Chapel in an underground vault adjacent to the old control tower, where Christian services take place. The chaplains organise and lead prayers at certain times in the prayer room.
Heathrow airport has its own resident press corps, consisting of six photographers and one TV crew, serving all the major newspapers and television stations around the world.
Most of Heathrow's internal roads are initial letter coded by area: N in the north (e.g. Newall Road), E in the east (e.g. Elmdon Road), S in the south (e.g. Stratford Road), W in the west (e.g. Walrus Road), C in the centre (e.g. Camborne Road).
The original 1950s red-brick control tower was demolished in early 2013 to enable access roads for the new Terminal 2 to be laid. The Central Terminal Area, as it was named, was designed by Frederick Gibberd and opened in 1955. Air Traffic Control moved to a new control tower in 2007.
Aircraft destined for Heathrow usually enter its airspace via one of four main reporting points: Bovingdon (BNN) over Hertfordshire, Lambourne (LAM) over Essex, Biggin Hill (BIG) over Bromley and Ockham (OCK) over Surrey. Each is defined by a VOR radio-navigational beacon. When the airport is busy, aircraft orbit in the associated hold patterns. These holding areas lie to the north-west, north-east, south-east and south-west of the London conurbation. Aircraft hold between 7000 feet and 15000 feet at 1000 foot intervals. If these holds become full, aircraft are held at more distant points before being cleared onward to one of the four main holds.
Air traffic controllers at Heathrow Approach Control (based in Swanwick, Hampshire) then guide the aircraft to their final approach, merging aircraft from the four holds into a single stream of traffic, sometimes as close as 2.5 nautical miles (4.6 km; 2.9 mi) apart. Considerable use is made of continuous descent approach techniques to minimise the environmental effects of incoming aircraft, particularly at night. Once an aircraft is established on its final approach, control is handed over to Heathrow Tower.
When runway alternation was introduced, aircraft generated significantly more noise on departure than when landing, so a preference for westerly operations during daylight was introduced, which continues to this day. In this mode, aircraft depart towards the west and approach from the east over London, thereby minimising the impact of noise on the most densely populated areas. Heathrow's two runways generally operate in segregated mode, whereby arriving aircraft are allocated to one runway and departing aircraft to the other. To further reduce noise nuisance to people beneath the approach and departure routes, the use of runways 27R and 27L is swapped at 15:00 each day if the wind is from the west. When landings are easterly there is no alternation; 09L remains the landing runway and 09R the departure runway due to the legacy of the now rescinded Cranford Agreement, pending taxiway works to allow the roles to be reversed. Occasionally, landings are allowed on the nominated departure runway, to help reduce airborne delays and to position landing aircraft closer to their terminal, reducing taxi times.
Night-time flights at Heathrow are subject to restrictions. Between 23:00 and 07:00, the noisiest aircraft (rated QC/8 and QC/16) cannot be scheduled for operation. In addition, during the night quota period (23:30–06:00) there are four limits:
- A limit on the number of flights allowed;
- A quota count system which limits the total amount of noise permitted, but allows operators to choose to operate fewer noisy aircraft or a greater number of quieter planes;
- QC/4 aircraft cannot be scheduled for operation.
- A voluntary agreement with the airlines that no early morning arrivals will be scheduled to land before 04:30.
A trial of "noise relief zones" ran from December 2012 to March 2013, which concentrated approach flight paths into defined areas compared with the existing paths which were spread out. The zones used alternated weekly, meaning residents in the "no-fly" areas received respite from aircraft noise for set periods. However, it was concluded that some residents in other areas experienced a significant disbenefit as a result of the trial and that it should therefore not be taken forward in its current form.
Until it was required to sell Gatwick and Stansted Airports, Heathrow Airport Holdings held a dominant position in the London aviation market, and has been heavily regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) as to how much it can charges airline to land. The annual increase in landing charge per passenger was capped at inflation minus 3% until 1 April 2003. From 2003 to 2007 charges increased by inflation plus 6.5% per year, taking the fee to £9.28 per passenger in 2007. In March 2008, the CAA announced that the charge would be allowed to increase by 23.5% to £12.80 from 1 April 2008, and by inflation plus 7.5% for each of the following four years. In April 2013, the CAA announced a proposal for Heathrow to charge fees calculated by inflation minus 1.3%, continuing until 2019. Whilst the cost of landing at Heathrow is determined by the CAA and BAA, the allocation of landing slots to airlines is carried out by Airport Co-ordination Limited (ACL).
Until 2008, air traffic between Heathrow and the United States was strictly governed by the countries' bilateral Bermuda II treaty. The treaty originally allowed only British Airways, Pan Am and TWA to fly from Heathrow to the US. In 1991, PAA and TWA sold their rights to United Airlines and American Airlines respectively, while Virgin Atlantic was added to the list of airlines allowed to operate on these routes. The Bermuda bilateral agreement conflicted with the Right of Establishment of the United Kingdom in relation to its EU membership, and as a consequence the UK was ordered to drop the agreement in 2004. A new "open skies" agreement was signed by the United States and the European Union on 30 April 2007 and came into effect on 30 March 2008. Since then, additional US Airlines including Continental (now United Airlines), US Airways and Delta have started services to Heathrow.
The airport has been criticised in recent years for overcrowding and delays; according to BAA, Heathrow's facilities were originally designed to accommodate 55 million passengers annually. The number of passengers using the airport reached a record 70 million in 2012. In 2007 the airport was voted the world's least favourite, alongside Chicago O'Hare in a TripAdvisor survey. However, the opening of Terminal 5 in 2008 has relieved some pressure on terminal facilities, increasing the airport's terminal capacity to 90 million passengers per year. A tie-up is also in place with McLaren Applied Technologies to optimise the general procedure, reducing delays and pollution.
With only two runways, operating at over 98% of their capacity, Heathrow has little room for more flights, although the increasing use of larger aircraft such as the Airbus A380 will allow some increase in passenger numbers. It is difficult for existing airlines to obtain landing slots to enable them to increase their services from the airport, or for new airlines to start operations. In order to increase the number of flights, BAA has proposed using the existing two runways in 'mixed mode' whereby aircraft would be allowed to take off and land on the same runway. This would increase the airport's capacity from its current 480,000 movements per year to as many as 550,000 according to British Airways CEO Willie Walsh. BAA also proposed building a third runway to the north of the airport, which would have significantly increased traffic capacity (see Future expansion below).
Terminal 1 opened in 1968 and was formally inaugurated by Queen Elizabeth II in May 1969. Before Terminal 5 opened, Terminal 1 was the base for British Airways' domestic network from Heathrow and for a few of its long haul routes.
In 2005, a substantial redesign and redevelopment of the terminal saw the opening of the new Eastern Extension, doubling the size of the departure lounge and creating additional seating as well as retail space. With an area of 74,601 m2 (803,000 sq ft) 2, the terminal is home to Ireland's Aer Lingus, and several Star Alliance airlines. Since the buyout of British Midland International, British Airways serves some short-haul and medium-haul destinations from this terminal. Some of the newer boarding gates used by airlines present in Terminal 1 are numbered in Terminal 2 (i.e. gate 2xx instead of gate 1xx). Those recently built gates will be retained as part of the new Terminal 2 after Terminal 2 officially opens. A temporary connector is in place between the older Terminal 1 and the new gates.
Terminal 1 will be closed by the end of 2016 once all airlines have moved to other Heathrow terminals, following the opening of T2 in June 2014.
Terminal 2 (under construction)
Heathrow's current major project is the construction of a vast new Terminal 2 on the site of the original Terminal 2 and the Queen's Building. Formerly known as Heathrow East Terminal, the whole project will occupy a site similar in size to that of Terminal 5. Terminal 2 is expected to be completed in November 2013 and will be followed by 6 months of testing. It is scheduled to open on 4 June 2014 with the arrival of a United Airlines flight from Chicago at 05:55. It will be used by all 23 Star Alliance members currently operating at Heathrow, Aer Lingus, Little Red (Virgin Atlantic's domestic operations) and Germanwings. The airlines will move from their current terminals in phases over a period of six months with only 10% of flights operating in the first 3 weeks to avoid the opening challenges witnessed at Terminal 5. The project includes the main Terminal 2 building, a 522-metre satellite pier (T2B), a 1,340 space car park and an energy centre and cooling station. Passengers will be able to choose from a selection of 52 shops and 17 bars and restaurants.
The building will replace the original Terminal 2, which was the airport's oldest terminal. It opened as the Europa Building in 1955, and had an area of 49,654m2. Originally the terminal was designed to handle around 1.2 million passengers annually; in its final years of operation it often accommodated around 8 million. A total of 316 million passengers passed through the terminal in its lifetime. The terminal was demolished in 2010, and the site was combined with that of the Queen's Building to form the site under development.
Terminal 3 opened as The Oceanic Terminal on 13 November 1961 to handle flight departures for long-haul routes. At this time the airport had a direct helicopter service to Central London from the gardens on the roof of the terminal building. Renamed Terminal 3 in 1968, it was expanded in 1970 with the addition of an arrivals building. Other facilities added included the UK's first moving walkways. In 2006, the new £105 million Pier 6 was completed to accommodate the Airbus A380 superjumbo; Singapore Airlines, Emirates and Qantas now operate regular flights from Terminal 3 using the Airbus A380. These three airlines have nearly a dozen daily A380 flights. Redevelopment of Terminal 3's forecourt through the addition of a new four lane drop-off area and a large pedestrianised plaza, complete with canopy to the front of the terminal building, was completed in 2007. These improvements were intended to improve passengers' experiences, reduce traffic congestion and improve security. As part of this project, Virgin Atlantic was assigned its own dedicated check-in area, known as 'Zone A', which features a large sculpture and atrium. Heathrow Airport Holdings also has plans for a £1bn upgrade of the rest of the terminal over the next ten years[when?] which will include the renovation of aircraft piers and the arrivals forecourt. A new baggage system connecting to Terminal 5 (for British Airways connections) is under construction. In addition to the baggage system, the baggage claim hall is also set to undergo changes with dedicated A380 belts and an improved design and layout.
As of 2013, Terminal 3 has an area of 98,962 m2 (1,065,220 sq ft) and in 2011 handled 19.8 million passengers on 104,100 flights.
Opened in 1986, Terminal 4 is situated to the south of the southern runway next to the cargo terminal and is connected to Terminals 1, 2 and 3 by the Heathrow Cargo Tunnel. The terminal has an area of 105,481 m2 (1,135,390 sq ft) and is now home to the SkyTeam alliance, as well as some unaffiliated carriers. It has recently undergone a £200m upgrade to enable it to accommodate 45 airlines with an upgraded forecourt to reduce traffic congestion and improve security. An extended check-in area with renovated piers and departure lounges, a new baggage system installed as well as the construction of two new stands to accommodate the Airbus A380 with Malaysia Airlines operating regular A380 flights.
Terminal 5 lies between the northern and southern runways at the west end of the Heathrow site and was opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 14 March 2008, some 19 years after its inception. It opened to the public on 27 March 2008. The first passenger to enter Terminal 5 was a UK ex-pat from Kenya who passed through security at 04:30 on the day to be presented with a boarding pass by the British Airways CEO Willie Walsh for the first departing flight, BA302 to Paris. During the two weeks after its opening, operations were disrupted by problems with the terminal's IT systems, coupled with insufficient testing and staff training, which caused over 500 flights to be cancelled. Until March 2012, Terminal 5 was exclusively used by British Airways as its global hub; however, because of the merger, on 25 March Iberia's operations at Heathrow were moved to the terminal, making it the home of International Airlines Group.
Built at a cost of £4.3 billion, the new terminal consists of a four storey main terminal building (Concourse A) and two satellite buildings linked to the main terminal by an underground people mover transit system. The second satellite (Concourse C), includes dedicated aircraft stands for the Airbus A380. It became fully operational on 1 June 2011.
The main terminal building (Concourse A) has an area of 300,000 square metres (3,200,000 sq ft) while Concourse B covers 60,000 square metres (650,000 sq ft). It has 60 aircraft stands and capacity for 30 million passengers annually as well as more than 100 shops and restaurants.
A further building, designated Concourse D and of similar size to Concourse C, may yet be built to the East of the existing site, providing up to another 16 stands. Following British Airways' merger with Iberia, this may become a priority since the newly combined business will require accommodation at Heathrow under one roof to maximise the cost savings envisaged under the deal. A proposal for Concourse D featured in Heathrow's most recent capital investment plan.
The transport network around the airport has been extended to cope with the increase in passenger numbers. A dedicated motorway spur links the M25 between junctions 14 and 15 to the terminal, which includes a 3,800 space multi-storey car park. A more distant long-stay car park for business passengers is connected to the terminal by a personal rapid transit system, which became operational in Spring 2011. New branches of both the Heathrow Express and the Underground's Piccadilly Line serve a new shared Heathrow Terminal 5 station.
Heathrow's cargo terminal is located south of the runways, towards the west. It was built in or soon before 1968.[when?] The Cargo Tunnel connects it to Terminals 1, 2 and 3, with the Western Tug Road connecting it to Terminal 5. Stands 607, 608 & 609, as well as the 'Zulu' cul de sac, are the main areas used for the dedicated cargo flights.
In 1948 (see map) the area was still farm or market garden land around Eglantine Cottage.
To accommodate the rush of about 7,000 athletes and their non-competing followers leaving when the 2012 Olympics ended, a temporary new terminal was built on a staff car park. Described as being "the area of 3 Olympic sized swimming pools", it seemed to be made of plastic sheeting on metal posts. Construction started in February 2012. After check-in the passengers were bussed to departures of the permanent terminals where their flights were to depart from. Some of their luggage was checked in at their hotels.
Airlines and destinations
Terminal moves and rearrangements
- Current terminal assignments
Following the opening of Terminal 5 in March 2008, a hugely complex programme of terminal moves was implemented. This saw many airlines move so as to be grouped in terminals by airline alliance as far as possible. However, the process was complicated by the acquisition of Star Alliance member BMI by Oneworld member British Airways, the transfer of Continental Airlines from SkyTeam to Star Alliance prior to its merger with United Airlines, and formerly non-aligned carriers such as EVA Air and Malaysia Airlines joining alliances. As of November 2013, the terminals are assigned to airline alliances as follows:
- Terminal 1: Star Alliance, plus Aer Lingus, El Al and some British Airways destinations
- Terminal 3: Oneworld and Star Alliance as well as Virgin Atlantic
- Terminal 4: SkyTeam, with some United Airlines destinations
- Terminal 5: Oneworld (British Airways and Iberia)
Non-aligned airlines operate from Terminals 1, 3 and 4. Virgin Atlantic's domestic flights operate from Terminal 1.
- Scheduled terminal moves
Delta Air Lines will move services to certain destinations from Terminal 4 to Terminal 3 from 2 April 2014, in order to be located with their partners, Virgin Atlantic. When Phase 1 of the new Terminal 2 opens (expected to be 4 June 2014), all Star Alliance member airlines (along with Aer Lingus, El Al and Virgin Atlantic domestic flights) will relocate there in a gradual process, beginning with United Airlines. All British Airways services will be moved to Terminals 3 and 5. Terminal 1 will then be gradually demolished to make way for Phase 2 of the new Terminal 2, with all airlines operating from Terminal 1 moving to other terminals.
- Aegean Airlines : All flights move from Terminal 1 to Terminal 2 on 2 July 2014
- Aer Lingus : All flights move from Terminal 1 to Terminal 2 on 2 July 2014
- Air Canada : All flights move from Terminal 3 to Terminal 2 on 18 June 2014
- Air China: All flights move from Terminal 3 to Terminal 2 on 18 June 2014
- British Airways: Tel Aviv flights move from Terminal 3 to Terminal 5 on 24 March 2014
- Delta Air Lines : Boston, New York-JFK and Seattle flights move from Terminal 4 to Terminal 3 on 2 April 2014 
- Thai Airways : All flights move from Terminal 3 to Terminal 2 on 2 July 2014
- Turkish Airlines : All flights move from Terminal 3 to Terminal 2 on 2 July 2014
- United Airlines : All flights move from Terminals 1 and 4 to Terminal 2 on 4 June 2014
- Upon completion
Once the moves are complete the terminal assignments are expected to be as follows:
- Terminal 2: Star Alliance, plus Aer Lingus, El Al, Virgin Atlantic Little Red (domestic operations) and Germanwings
- Terminal 3: Oneworld (including some British Airways flights), Virgin Atlantic (long-haul), Delta (some destinations) and some non-aligned airlines
- Terminal 4: SkyTeam, plus most non-aligned airlines
- Terminal 5: IAG (most British Airways flights, except those at Terminal 3, and Iberia)
The head office of BAA Limited is located in the Compass Centre by Heathrow's northern runway, a building that previously served as a British Airways flight crew centre. The World Business Centre Heathrow consists of buildings one and two. 1 World Business Centre houses offices of BAA Limited, Heathrow Airport, and Scandinavian Airlines. International Airlines Group has its head office in 2 World Business Centre.
At one time the British Airways head office was located within Heathrow Airport at Speedbird House before the completion of Waterside, the current BA head office in Harmondsworth, in June 1998.
To the north of the airfield lies the Northern Perimeter Road, along which most of Heathrow’s car rental agencies are based, and Bath Road, which runs parallel to it, but outside the airport campus - this is nicknamed by locals as “The Strip” owing to its continuous line of airport hotels.
Traffic and statistics
Although BAA claims that Heathrow is the "world's busiest international airport", in 2011 it ranked third-busiest by total passenger traffic, after Atlanta and Beijing which are both international airports. However, Heathrow does have the highest number of international passengers.
In 2011, Heathrow was the busiest airport in Europe in total passenger traffic, with 13.9% more passengers than Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport and 23.0% more than Frankfurt Airport, However, it was in second place behind Charles de Gaulle in total aircraft movements in 2011 with 5.1% fewer landings and take offs than its French counterpart. Heathrow was the third busiest European airport by cargo traffic in 2010, after Paris Charles de Gaulle and Frankfurt.
Busiest international routes
|Rank||Airport||Passengers handled|| % Change
2011 / 12
Busiest domestic routes
|Rank||Airport||Passengers handled||% Change 2011 / 12|
Annual passenger numbers
|1986||31,675,779||26 !||537,131||26 !||315,753|
|1987||35,079,755||02 !10.7||574,116||09 !6.9||329,977||4.3|
|1988||37,840,503||04 !7.9||642,147||05 !11.8||351,592||6.1|
|1989||39,881,922||08 !5.4||686,170||10 !6.9||368,429||4.6|
|1990||42,950,512||05 !7.7||695,347||17 !1.3||390,372||5.6|
|1991||40,494,575||24 !5.7||654,625||23 !5.9||381,724||2.3|
|1992||45,242,591||01 !11.7||754,770||01 !15.3||406,481||6.1|
|1993||47,899,081||07 !5.9||846,486||04 !12.2||411,173||1.1|
|1994||51,713,366||03 !8.0||962,738||03 !13.7||424,557||3.2|
|1995||54,461,597||10 !5.3||1,031,639||08 !7.2||434,525||2.3|
|1996||56,049,706||15 !2.9||1,040,486||18 !0.9||440,343||1.3|
|1997||58,185,398||13 !3.8||1,156,104||06 !11.1||440,631||0.1|
|1998||60,683,988||11 !4.3||1,208,893||13 !4.6||451,382||2.4|
|1999||62,268,292||16 !2.6||1,265,495||12 !4.7||458,300||1.5|
|2000||64,618,254||14 !3.8||1,306,905||16 !3.3||466,799||1.8|
|2001||60,764,924||25 !6.0||1,180,306||25 !9.6||463,567||0.7|
|2002||63,362,097||12 !4.3||1,234,940||14 !4.6||466,545||0.6|
|2003||63,495,367||19 !0.2||1,223,439||20 !0.9||463,650||0.6|
|2004||67,342,743||06 !6.1||1,325,173||07 !8.3||476,001||2.6|
|2005||67,913,153||17 !0.8||1,305,686||21 !1.5||477,887||0.4|
|2006||67,527,923||21 !0.6||1,264,129||22 !3.2||477,048||0.2|
|2007||68,066,028||18 !0.8||1,310,987||15 !3.7||481,476||0.9|
|2008||67,054,745||22 !1.5||1,397,054||11 !6.6||478,693||0.6|
|2009||66,036,957||23 !1.5||1,277,650||24 !8.5||466,393||2.6|
|2010||65,881,660||20 !0.2||1,472,988||02 !15.3||454,823||2.5|
|2011||69,433,230||09 !5.4||1,484,351||19 !0.8||480,906||5.4|
|2012||70,037,417||09 !0.9||1,464,390||24 !1.3||475,176||1.2|
Countries with most passengers to Heathrow
2009 / 10
|1||20 ! United States||12,340,933||09 !0.03|
|2||05 ! Germany||4,341,214||05 !7.57|
|3||09 ! Italy||2,377,026||03 !12.00|
|4||02 ! Canada||2,354,965||15 !4.07|
|5||19 ! United Arab Emirates||2,291,338||08 !0.91|
|6||07 ! India||2,283,731||13 !3.22|
|7||08 ! Ireland||2,156,503||14 !3.77|
|8||18 ! Turkey||2,142,910||04 !7.86|
|9||04 ! France||2,138,519||11 !1.81|
|10||15 ! Spain||2,127,872||16 !5.24|
|11||17 ! Switzerland||1,896,859||01 !14.47|
|12||06 ! Hong Kong||1,386,779||19 !9.29|
|13||14 ! South Africa||1,378,268||17 !6.95|
|14||10 ! Netherlands||1,333,124||20 !11.70|
|15||16 ! Sweden||1,058,134||06 !2.01|
|16||01 ! Australia||1,030,619||10 !1.34|
|17||13 ! Singapore||1,022,220||18 !9.01|
|18||03 ! Denmark||870,104||07 !1.90|
|19||12 ! Russia||747,425||02 !13.93|
|20||11 ! Portugal||746,946||12 !2.78|
|Heathrow area rail services|
- Heathrow Express: a non-stop service directly to London's Paddington station; trains leave every 15 minutes for the 15-minute journey (21 minutes to/from Terminal 5). Trains depart from Heathrow Terminal 5 station or Heathrow Central station (Terminals 1 & 3). A Heathrow Express transfer service operates between Terminal 4 and Heathrow Central to connect with services from London and Terminal 5.
- Heathrow Connect: a stopping service to Paddington calling at up to five National Rail stations en route – trains leave every 30 minutes for the 27-minute journey. Heathrow Connect services terminate at Heathrow Central station (Terminals 1 & 3).
- London Underground Piccadilly line: four tube stations serve the airport – Terminals 1, 2, 3; Terminal 4; Terminal 5 serves the passenger terminals, and Hatton Cross the maintenance areas. The standard journey time from Heathrow Terminals 1 & 3 tube station to Central London is around 40–50 minutes.
- South West Trains has a direct bus transfer to Feltham railway station, allowing passengers to change services towards Reading and Windsor or Clapham Junction and Waterloo Station.
Bus and coach
Many buses and coaches operate from the large Heathrow airport central bus station serving Terminals 1 and 3, and also from bus stations at Terminals 4 and 5. Services include the following:
- Long-distance coach services operated by National Express and Oxford Bus Company to various parts of the UK, including Victoria Coach Station in London
- HotelHoppa buses connect each terminal with hotels in the Heathrow area
- There are two RailAir coach services connecting nearby railway stations with the airport using dedicated non-stop coaches and running to:
- Reading railway station, connecting with railway services to the West Country, South Wales, Midlands, the North of England and the south coast of England
- Woking railway station, for destinations in Surrey, Hampshire, Dorset and Wiltshire
- A connection to Feltham railway station, for Richmond, Camberley, Bracknell, London Waterloo and Clapham Junction, using London Buses route 285 (route 490 from Terminals 4 and 5)
- Express bus services to Watford, St Albans and Harlow (Green Line route 724), Croydon (London Buses route X26) and High Wycombe (Carousel Buses)
- Local bus services by London Buses, First Berkshire & The Thames Valley and other companies to nearby towns and London suburbs
- Night bus N9 operates to central London at night when the trains do not operate
Between 1981 and 2004, the airport was linked to central London by a group of routes known as Airbus. These routes carried A prefixes before their numbers; one route, A10, operates with such a number to Uxbridge.
Terminals 1 and 3 are within walking distance of each other. Transfers to Terminal 4 and 5 are by Heathrow Express trains or bus. Heathrow Express and Heathrow Connect services between Heathrow Central and Terminals 4 and 5 are free of charge. Normal fare rules apply to London Underground services between terminals. Local buses throughout the airport area are provided free of charge under the "Heathrow FreeFlow" scheme; passengers should tell the driver their destination to ensure they are not charged a fare.
Transit passengers remaining airside are provided free dedicated transfer buses between terminals.
ULTra Personal Rapid Transport has been opened in April 2011 to shuttle passengers to and from Terminal 5 at a speed of up to 40 km/h (25 mph). The initial trial will have 18 pods running. ULTra are small transportation pods that can fit four adults, two children, and their luggage and will be able to carry passengers directly to the terminal. The pods are battery powered and will be initially used on a four kilometre track. If the trial is successful there are plans for a roll out airport-wide. The capsules run on demand. The provider claims a 95% availability rate and no accidents so far.
Taxis are available at all terminals.
Heathrow is accessible via the nearby M4 motorway and A4 road (Terminals 1–3), the M25 motorway (Terminals 4 and 5), and the A30 road (Terminal 4). There are drop off and pick up areas at all terminals and short and long stay multi-storey car parks. Additionally, there are car parks not run by BAA just outside the airport, the most recognisable is the National Car Parks facility although there are many other options; these car parks are connected to the terminals by shuttle buses.
Four parallel tunnels under one of the runways connect the M4 motorway and the A4 road to Terminals 1–3. The two larger tunnels are each two lanes wide and are used for motorised traffic. The two smaller tunnels were originally reserved for pedestrians and bicycles; to increase traffic capacity the cycle lanes have been modified to each take a single lane of cars, although bicycles still have priority over cars. Pedestrian access to the smaller tunnels has been discontinued, with the free bus services being the alternative.
There are (mainly off-road) bicycle routes to some of the terminals. Free bicycle parking places are available in car parks 1 and 1A, at Terminal 4, and to the North and South of Terminal 5's Interchange Plaza.
Accidents and incidents
- On 3 March 1948, Sabena Douglas DC3 OO-AWH crashed in fog. Three crew and 19 of the 22 passengers onboard died.
- On 31 October 1950, BEA Vickers Viking G-AHPN crashed at Heathrow after hitting the runway during a go-around. Three crew and 25 passengers died.
- On 1 August 1956, XA897, an Avro Vulcan strategic bomber of the Royal Air Force, crashed at Heathrow after an approach in bad weather. The Vulcan was the first to be delivered to the RAF, and was returning from a demonstration flight to Australia and New Zealand. The pilot and co-pilot ejected and survived, but the four other occupants were killed.
- On 7 January 1960, Vickers Viscount G-AOHU of BEA was damaged beyond economic repair when the nose wheel collapsed on landing. A fire then developed and burnt out the fuselage. There were no casualties among the 59 people on board.
- On 27 October 1965, BEA Vickers Vanguard G-APEE, flying from Edinburgh, crashed on Runway 28R while attempting to land in poor visibility. All 30 passengers and six crew onboard died.
- On 8 April 1968, BOAC Flight 712 Boeing 707 G-ARWE, departing for Australia via Singapore, suffered an engine fire just after take-off. The engine fell from the wing into a nearby gravel pit in Staines, before the plane managed to perform an emergency landing with the wing on fire. However, the plane was consumed by fire once on the ground. Five people – four passengers and a stewardess – died, while 122 survived. Barbara Harrison, a flight attendant on board who helped with the evacuation, was posthumously awarded the George Cross.
- On 3 July 1968, the port flap operating rod of G-AMAD, an Airspeed Ambassador operated by BKS Air Transport failed due to fatigue thereby allowing the port flaps to retract. This resulted in a rolling movement to port which could not be controlled during the approach, causing the aircraft to contact the grass and swerve towards the terminal building. It hit two parked British European Airways Hawker Siddeley Trident aircraft, burst into flames and came to rest against the ground floor of the terminal building. Six of the eight crew died, as did eight horses on board. Trident G-ARPT was written off, and Trident G-ARPI was badly damaged, but subsequently repaired, only to be lost in the Staines crash in 1972.
- On 22 January 1970, Vickers Viscount G-AWXI of British Midland was damaged beyond economic repair when an engine caught fire on take-off. A successful emergency landing was made at Heathrow.
- On 18 June 1972, Trident G-ARPI, operating as BEA548, crashed in a field close to the Crooked Billet Public House, Staines, two minutes after taking off. All 118 passengers and crew on board died.
- On 5 November 1997, a Virgin Atlantic Airbus A340-300, G-VSKY, made an emergency landing following an undercarriage malfunction. Part of the undercarriage collapsed on landing, and both aircraft and runway were damaged. Recommendations made as a result of the accident included one that aircraft cabin door simulators should more accurately reproduce operating characteristics in an emergency, and another that cockpit voice recorders should have a two-hour duration in aircraft registered before April 1998.
- On 17 January 2008, a British Airways Boeing 777-236ER, G-YMMM, operating flight BA038 from Beijing, crash-landed at Heathrow. The aircraft landed on grass short of the south runway, then slid to the edge of the runway and stopped on the threshold, leading to eighteen minor injuries. The aircraft was later found to have suffered loss of thrust caused by fuel icing.
Terrorism and security incidents
- On 8 June 1968, James Earl Ray, the man convicted of the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., was captured and arrested at Heathrow Airport while attempting to leave the United Kingdom on a false Canadian passport.
- On 19 May 1974, the IRA planted a series of bombs in the Terminal 1 car park. Two people were injured by the explosions.
- On 26 November 1983, the Brink's-MAT robbery occurred, in which 6,800 gold bars worth nearly £26 million were taken from a vault near Heathrow. Only a small amount of the gold was recovered, and only two men were convicted of the crime.
- On 17 April 1986, semtex explosives were found in the bag of a pregnant Irishwoman attempting to board an El Al flight. The explosives had been given to her by her Jordanian boyfriend and father of her unborn child Nizar Hindawi. The incident became known as the Hindawi Affair.
- On 21 December 1988, Pan Am Flight 103 from Heathrow to New York/JFK was blown up over Lockerbie, Scotland, killing all 259 onboard and 11 other people on the ground.
- In 1994, over a six-day period, Heathrow was targeted three times (8, 10, and 13 March) by the IRA, which fired 12 mortars. Heathrow was a symbolic target due to its importance to the UK economy, and much disruption was caused when areas of the airport were closed over the period. The gravity of the incident was heightened by the fact that the Queen was being flown back to Heathrow by the RAF on 10 March.
- In March 2002, thieves stole US$3 million that had arrived on a South African Airways flight.
- In February 2003, the British Army was deployed to Heathrow along with 1,000 police officers in response to intelligence reports suggesting that al-Qaeda terrorists might launch surface-to-air missile attacks at British or American airliners.
- On 17 May 2004, Scotland Yard's Flying Squad foiled an attempt by seven men to steal £40 million in gold bullion and a similar quantity of cash from the Swissport warehouse at Heathrow.
- On 10 August 2006, the airport became the focus of changes in security protocol, following the revelation of a supposed al-Qaeda terrorist plot. New security rules were put in force immediately, causing additional restrictions in regards to carrying liquids onto flights. This caused longer queues and wait times at security. These included the prohibition of carry-on luggage (except essential items such as travel documents and medication) and all liquids – although this rule was later relaxed to allow the carrying onboard of liquid medications and baby milk, if they were tasted first by passengers at the security checkpoint.
- On 25 February 2008, Greenpeace activists protesting against the planned third runway managed to cross the tarmac and climb atop a British Airways Airbus A320, which had just arrived from Manchester Airport. At about 09:45 GMT the protesters unveiled a banner, saying "Climate Emergency – No Third Runway", over the aircraft's tailfin. By 11:00 GMT four arrests had been made.
- On 13 March 2008, a man with a rucksack scaled the perimeter fence onto runway 27R, and ran across the grounds, resulting in his subsequent arrest. A controlled explosion of his bag took place, although nothing suspicious was found, and the Metropolitan Police later said that the incident had not been terrorism related.
- Flights from Heathrow were suspended from midday Thursday 15 April 2010 to 22:00 Tuesday 20 April 2010 due to risk of jet engines being damaged by volcanic ash in the upper atmosphere caused by the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland.
- On 18 December 2010, 'heavy' (9 cm, according to the Heathrow Winter Resilience Enquiry) snowfall caused the closure of the entire airport, causing one of the largest incidents at Heathrow of all time. 4,000 flights were cancelled over five days and 9,500 passengers spent the night at Heathrow on 18 December following the initial snowfall. The problems were caused not only by snow on the runways, but also by snow and ice on the 198 parking stands which were all occupied by aircraft.
- On 12 July 2013, an Ethiopian Airlines Boeing 787 Dreamliner parked at Heathrow airport caught fire. There were no passengers aboard and no injuries. The cause is under investigation.
Runway and terminal expansion
In January 2009 the Transport Secretary Geoff Hoon announced that the UK government supported the expansion of Heathrow by building a third 2,200-metre (7,200 ft) runway and a sixth terminal building. This decision followed the 2003 white paper on the future of air transport in the UK, and a public consultation in November 2007. This was a controversial decision which met with widespread opposition because of the expected greenhouse gas emissions, impact on local communities, as well as noise and air pollution concerns.
Before the 2010 General Election the Conservative and Liberal Democrats parties announced that they would prevent the construction of any third runway or further material expansion of the airport's operating capacity. The Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, has taken the position that London needs more airport capacity, but favours constructing an entirely new airport in the Thames Estuary rather than expanding Heathrow. After the Conservative – Liberal Democrat coalition took power, it was announced that the third runway expansion was cancelled. Two years later, leading Conservatives were reported to have changed their minds.
Another proposed plan for expanding Heathrow's capacity is Heathrow Hub's which aims to extend both runways to a total length of about 7,000 metres and divide them into four so that they each provide two, full length runways, allowing simultaneous take-offs and landings while actually decreasing noise levels.
Heathrow railway hub
A plan to make Heathrow an international railway exchange has also been proposed with the potential construction of Heathrow Hub railway station, built on a link to the High Speed 2 railway line.
In July 2009, Heathrow Airport Limited submitted an application to the Secretary of State for Transport seeking to gain authorisation to develop a new rail link to Heathrow Terminal 5 to be known as Heathrow Airtrack. The rail link would address the current lack of public transport available to the South West of the Airport by connecting to Guildford, Reading and London Waterloo. BAA stated that the scheme should add significantly to its aim of increasing the proportion of people using public transport to travel to the Airport. In April 2011, BAA announced that it was abandoning the project, citing the unavailability of government subsidy and other priorities for Heathrow, such as linking to Crossrail and HS2.
- An episode of Helicopter Heroes in a rescue in North Yorkshire said that "The hills above the market town of Hawes are the Heathrow of hang gliding."
- "Heathrow of the North" is sometimes used to describe possible plans to considerably enlarge Manchester Airport in England.
- Number of passengers including domestic, international and transit
- "London Heathrow airport - Economic and social impact". Ecquants. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- "London Heathrow – EGLL". NATS Aeronautical Information Service. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- "UK Airport Statistics". Civil Aviation Authority. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
- "Year to date International Passenger Traffic November 2010". Airports Council International. 16 February 2011. Archived from the original on 10 March 2011.
- "Busiest Airports – The Busiest Airports in the World". Geography.about.com. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- Optical Economics Ltd. "Heathrow Related Employment". BAA plc. Retrieved September 2011.
- "Who we are". Heathrow Airport Holdings. 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- "Who owns us". Heathrow Airport Holdings. 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- "Heathrow's Terminal 2 closes as work on its £1 billion replacement gets underway" (Press release). Heathrow Airport. 23 November 2009. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
- "Britain: Third Heathrow runway approved despite opposition". CNN. 15 January 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- "Go-ahead for new Heathrow runway". BBC News. 15 January 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- "Heathrow third runway plans scrapped by new government". BBC News. 12 May 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- "Licence No. P527". Civil Aviation Authority. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- "Myrtle Avenue, Hounslow". Google Maps. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "Heathrow: Facts and figures". Heathrow Airport. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
- "International Air Passenger Traffic To and From Reporting Airports for 2011". Civil Aviation Authority. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- "Heathrow airport's BA Concorde landmark replaced by foreign airline's Airbus". Daily Mail (London). 23 July 2008. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- "Thiefrow gang lifts £1m of duty-free". The Sun (London). 11 November 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
- "Security (body) scanners". Heathrow Airport. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "Airport body scanners: Heathrow trials new 'privacy friendly' security technology". Daily Mail (London). 5 September 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- "Prayer and Worship". Heathrow Airport. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "Heathrow's hidden gems". CNN. 13 July 2007. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- Evans, Becky (10 January 2013). "Heathrow Airport demolishes Old Control Tower after almost 60 years service". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- "Landing at Heathrow". BBC News. 18 January 2008. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
- BAA Heathrow (2004/05). Flight Evaluation Report 2004/05. Retrieved 2 November 2007.
- During periods of westerly operation, aircraft continue to fly in a westerly direction with an easterly tailwind component of up to 5 knots (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph), if the runway is dry and there is no significant crosswind.
- "Noise limits". Heathrow Airport. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "Heathrow begins trial of noise relief zones". BBC News. 4 December 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- "IATA attacks higher landing charges at British airports". Agence France-Presse. 12 March 2008. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2008.
- "Heathrow and Gatwick face new airline fee caps". BBC News. 30 April 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- "Economic Regulation of Heathrow and Gatwick Airports 2008–2013". Civil Aviation Authority. 11 March 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- "BA boss joins attack on Heathrow". BBC News. 1 August 2007. Retrieved 28 October 2007.
- "Heathrow airport hits record 70 million passengers". BBC News. 18 February 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- Millward, David (30 October 2007). "Heathrow voted world's least favourite airport". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 30 October 2007.
- "Work Smarter: McLaren". Wired. 1 March 2010. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- Airport Coordination Ltd (February 2002). Submission to the CAA Regarding Peak Periods at Heathrow. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
- "BA pushes for 'mixed mode' at Heathrow". UK Airport News. Retrieved 31 May 2008.
- Webster, Ben (7 August 2007). "Heathrow is defeated in its attempt to ban environmental campaigners". The Times (London). Retrieved 9 August 2007. (subscription required)
- Above Us The Skies: The Story Of BAA – 1991 (Michael Donne – BAA plc), p. 40
- "Terminal 2 to start testing November 2013, open June 2014". Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- "The new Terminal 2: Only one year to go" (Press release). Heathrow Airpoer. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- "Demolition work begins at Heathrow's Terminal 2". BBC News. 29 April 2010. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- "Our history". BAA. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "Debut A380 flight lands in London". BBC News. 18 March 2008. Retrieved 19 March 2008.
- "BAA Heathrow unveils plans to re-develop Terminal 3" (Press release). BAA. Retrieved 1 December 2008.[dead link]
- "Heathrow facts and figures". Heathrow Airport Limited. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- "Terminal 4's £100m new check-in area reaches the top" (Press release). BAA. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
- "Queen opens new Heathrow Terminal". BBC News. 14 March 2008. Retrieved 14 March 2008.
- "British Airways reveals what went wrong with Terminal 5". Computer Weekly. 14 May 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2008.
- "Heathrow Terminal 5".
- "Heathrow Terminal 5: The Vital Statistics". Sky News. 15 March 2008. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "ULTra PRT – FAQ". ATS ULTra. 2010. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
- Hirst, Michael (4 April 2012). "London 2012: Heathrow airport unveils Olympic terminal". BBC News. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- BBC TV 1 news, 6 pm, Sunday 11 August 2012
- L, J (20 September 2013). "Air Astana to Launch Astana – London Heathrow from late-October 2013". Routesonline / Routes. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- globalnews.ca - Air Canada grounding direct flight between Edmonton and London for nearly three months
- "Non-stop Austin to Heathrow flights announced | kvue.com Austin". Kvue.com. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- "Delta launches service between Seattle and London Heathrow" (Press release). Delta Air Lines. 23 July 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- "Major emerging market airline chooses Heathrow". Heathrow Airport Limited. 19 September 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- "Heathrow looks ahead", Airports (Key Publishing), September/October 2007, p. 30.
- "Star Alliance Airlines Move From Terminal 2 To Terminal 1 At London's Heathrow Airport" (Press release). Star Alliance. 18 June 2009. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "Delta Air Lines and Virgin Atlantic Airways announce new summer schedule" (Press release). Delta Air Lines. 11 November 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- "Explore Our Working World". British Airways. 3 March 2006. Archived from the original on 3 March 2006.
- "World Business Centre Heathrow". Egpropertylink.com. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
- "IAG - International Airlines Group - Investor Relations Team". Iairgroup.com. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- "IAG - International Airlines Group - About Us". Iairgroup.com. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- "World Airline Directory." Flight International. 26 March – 1 April 1997. 58. "Speedbird House, PO Box 10, London Heathrow Airport, Hounslow, Middlesex, TW6 2JA, UK."
- McKellar, Susie and Penny Sparke. "The Contemporary Office." Interior Design and Identity. Manchester University Press, 2004. 200. Retrieved from Google Books on 12 February 2010. ISBN 0-7190-6729-4, ISBN 978-0-7190-6729-7.
- "Record Traffic in 2011". Aeroports De Paris. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
- "German ADV Statistics". ADV. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
- "Cargo Traffic 2007 Final". Airports Council International. Retrieved 13 March 2010.[dead link]
- Aircraft Movements, Terminal and Transit Passengers
- "UK Airport Statistics". CAA. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
- "Heathrow Airport trains". Heathrow Airport. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "Coaches to Heathrow". Heathrow Airport. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "Heathrow hotel transfer buses". Heathrow Airport. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "Heathrow rail-air bus links". Heathrow Airport. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "Local buses to Heathrow". Heathrow Airport. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "Travel between terminals – Heathrow terminal transfers". Heathrow Airport. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- "Heathrow Airport Buses – Free Bus Routes". Milesfaster.co.uk. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- "Heathrow to Debut Futuristic Travel Pods". PopSci.com.au. 27 January 2009. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
- "Taxis, minicabs and chauffeurs". Heathrow Airport. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "Heathrow short stay parking". Heathrow Airport. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- "BAA Heathrow: Heathrow long stay parking". Heathrow Airport. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- Transport for London free maps 'London Cycling Guide 6' covers Terminals 1, 2 & 3 while 'London Cycling Guide 9' covers Terminal 4 (as of the June 2007 revision).
- Cycling and Motorcycling map.
- Hamilton, Fiona (3 March 2003). "On This Day The Times 3 March 1948". The Times (London). Retrieved 11 May 2010. (subscription required)
- "Aviation Safety Network G-AHPN". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- Blackman, Tony (2007). Vulcan Test Pilot: My Experiences in the Cockpit of a Cold War Icon. London: Grub Street. ISBN 978-1-904943-88-4. p. 142
- "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 14 September 2009.
- "ASN Aircraft accident description Vickers 951 Vanguard G-APEE – London-Heathrow Airport (LHR)". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- "Night the sky turned to flames". The Scotsman (Edinburgh). 1 December 2005. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- "Women awarded the George Cross". Stephen-stratford.co.uk. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- "Aviation Safety Network G-AMAD". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 8 October 2009.
- "1972: UK's worst air crash kills 118". BBC News. 18 June 1972. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- Symonds, Tom (3 August 2000). "Pilots praised for crash landing". BBC News. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- Symonds, Tom (4 September 2008). "'Ice in fuel' caused BA jet crash". BBC News. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- Borrell, Clive (28 June 1968). "Ramon Sneyd denies that he killed Dr King". The Times (London). p. 2. Retrieved 13 January 2009. (subscription required)
- "Heathrow Airport History". Milesfaster.co.uk. Retrieved 31 May 2008.
- "Brinks Mat gold". BBC News. 15 April 2000. Retrieved 31 May 2008.
- Reynolds, Paul (16 December 2002). "Assad engages politics of politeness". BBC News. Retrieved 31 May 2008.
- "1988: Jumbo jet crashes onto Lockerbie". BBC News. 21 December 1988. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- Henderson, Scott (1998). Silent Swift Superb: The Story of the Vickers VC10. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Scoval. p. 130. ISBN 1-901125-02-5.
- "$3m heist at Heathrow". BBC News. 19 March 2002. Retrieved 31 May 2008.
- Archive copy at the Wayback Machine
- "Flying Squad foils £80m robbery". BBC News. 18 May 2004. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- Batty, David; Oliver, Mark (10 August 2006). "'Mass murder terror plot' uncovered". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- "Climate protest on Heathrow plane". BBC News. 25 February 2008. Retrieved 31 May 2008.
- "Man arrested over Heathrow alert". BBC News. 13 March 2008. Retrieved 31 May 2008.
- "Icelandic volcanic ash alert grounds UK flights". BBC News. 15 April 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- "Heathrow Winter Resilience Enquiry".
- "BAA launches inquiry into Heathrow Airport snow chaos". BBC News. 23 December 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- "De-icing Aircraft Parking Stands".
- . Reuters
- "Heathrow shut after Boeing Dreamliner 787 fire". BBC News. 12 July 2013.
- "Britain's Transport Infrastructure: Adding Capacity at Heathrow: Decisions Following Consultation, January 2009". Department of Transport. Retrieved 16 January 2009.
- "The Future of Air Transport" (PDF). 1 December 2003.
- "Industry backs third Heathrow runway as consultation opens". Flight International. 22 November 2007. Retrieved 8 December 2007.
- "Heathrow's new runway". BBC News. 15 January 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- Helm, Toby; Doward, Jamie (24 March 2012). "Top Tories admit: we got it wrong on third runway". The Observer (London).
- Financial Times - Pilot plots longer Heathrow runways - 10 March 2013
- CPS paper - Double Upon Heathrow - July 2013
- Oakeshott, Isabel; Gourlay, Chris (4 January 2009). "Heathrow train plan to allay environmental fears". The Times (London). Retrieved 11 May 2010. (subscription required)
- "High Speed Rail: Investing in Britain's Future". Department for Transport. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "Heathrow Airtrack". BAA. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- "The Need For Heathrow Airtrack". BAA. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "Heathrow Airtrack Waterloo rail link shelved by BAA". BBC News London. 11 April 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2011.
- Samuel, A. (11 April 2011). "Heathrow: 'No option but to withdraw proposed Airtrack link to Staines'". Rail News from Rail.co. Retrieved 11 April 2011.
- "Heathrow and Gatwick airports: Ministers mull rail link". BBC News. 8 October 2011.
- On Really UK TV channel, 5-6 pm 30 July 2013
- Heathrow of the North. Liberal Democrats. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- Cotton, Jonathan; Mills, John & Clegg, Gillian. (1986) Archaeology in West Middlesex. Uxbridge: London Borough of Hillingdon ISBN 0-907869-07-6
- Gallop, Alan. (2005) Time Flies: Heathrow At 60. Stroud: Sutton Publishing ISBN 0-7509-3840-4
- Halpenny, Bruce B. (1992) Action Stations Vol.8: Military Airfields of Greater London. ISBN 1-85260-431-X
- Sherwood, Philip. (1990) The History of Heathrow. Uxbridge: London Borough of Hillingdon ISBN 0-907869-27-0
- Sherwood, Philip. (1999) Heathrow: 2000 Years of History. Stroud: Sutton Publishing ISBN 0-7509-2132-3
- Sherwood, Philip. (2006) Around Heathrow Past & Present. Sutton Publishing ISBN 0-7509-4135-9
- (Contains many pairs of photographs, old (or in one case a painting), and new, each pair made from the same viewpoint.)
- Sherwood, Philip. (2009) Heathrow: 2000 Years of History. Stroud: The History Press ISBN 978-0-7524-5086-2
- Sherwood, Philip. (2012) Around Heathrow Through Time. Amberley Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4456-0846-4
- Sherwood, Tim. (1999) Coming in to Land: A Short History of Hounslow, Hanworth and Heston Aerodromes 1911–1946. Heritage Publications (Hounslow Library) ISBN 1-899144-30-7
- Smith, Graham. (2003) Taking to the Skies: the Story of British Aviation 1903–1939. Countryside ISBN 1-85306-815-2
- Smith, Ron. (2002) British Built Aircraft Vol.1. Greater London: Tempus ISBN 0-7524-2770-9
- Sturtivant, Ray. (1995) Fairey Aircraft: in Old Photographs. Alan Sutton ISBN 0-7509-1135-2
- Taylor, H.A. (1974) Fairey Aircraft since 1915. Putnam ISBN 0-370-00065-X.
- Taylor, John WR. (1997) Fairey Aviation: Archive Photographs. Chalford ISBN 0-7524-0684-1
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to London Heathrow Airport.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Heathrow Airport.|
- Official website
- Heathrow Airport Consultative Committee
- The building of Heathrow Video at the Internet Archive
- Heathrow Air Watch – Information on pollution levels around Heathrow
- Longford Residents' Association (thisislongford.com) archived copy