Heavy water reactor
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A pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) is a nuclear power reactor, commonly using unenriched natural uranium as its fuel, that uses heavy water (deuterium oxide D2O) as its coolant and moderator. The heavy water coolant is kept under pressure, allowing it to be heated to higher temperatures without boiling, much as in a PWR. While heavy water is significantly more expensive than ordinary light water, it yields greatly enhanced neutron economy, allowing the reactor to operate without fuel enrichment facilities (mitigating the additional capital cost of the heavy water) and generally enhancing the ability of the reactor to efficiently make use of alternate fuel cycles.
Purpose of using heavy water
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The key to maintaining a nuclear reaction within a nuclear reactor is to use the neutrons being released during fission to stimulate fission in other nuclei. With careful control over the geometry and reaction rates, this can lead to a self-sustaining chain reaction, a state known as "criticality".
Natural uranium consists of a mixture of various isotopes, primarily 238U and a much smaller amount (about 0.72% by weight) of 235U. 238U can only be fissioned by neutrons that are fairly energetic, about 1 MeV or above. No amount of 238U can be made "critical", however, since it will tend to parasitically absorb more neutrons than it releases by the fission process. 235U, on the other hand, can support a self-sustained chain reaction, but due to the low natural abundance of 235U, natural uranium cannot achieve criticality by itself.
The "trick" to making a working reactor is to slow some of the neutrons to the point where their probability of causing nuclear fission in 235U increases to a level that permits a sustained chain reaction in the uranium as a whole. This requires the use of a neutron moderator, which absorbs some of the neutrons' kinetic energy, slowing them down to an energy comparable to the thermal energy of the moderator nuclei themselves (leading to the terminology of "thermal neutrons" and "thermal reactors"). During this slowing-down process it is beneficial to physically separate the neutrons from the uranium, since 238U nuclei have an enormous parasitic affinity for neutrons in this intermediate energy range (a reaction known as "resonance" absorption). This is a fundamental reason for designing reactors with discrete solid fuel separated by moderator, rather than employing a more homogeneous mixture of the two materials.
Water makes an excellent moderator; the hydrogen atoms in the water molecules are very close in mass to a single neutron, and the collisions thus have a very efficient momentum transfer, similar conceptually to the collision of two billiard balls. However, in addition to being a good moderator, water is also fairly effective at absorbing neutrons. Using water as a moderator will absorb enough neutrons that there will be too few left over to react with the small amount of 235U in the fuel, again precluding criticality in natural uranium. Instead, light water reactors first enhance the amount of 235U in the uranium, producing enriched uranium, which generally contains between 3% and 5% 235U by weight (the waste from this process is known as depleted uranium, consisting primarily of 238U). In this enriched form there is enough 235U to react with the water-moderated neutrons to maintain criticality.
One complication of this approach is the requirement to build a uranium enrichment facility, which are generally expensive to build and operate. They also present a nuclear proliferation concern; the same systems used to enrich the 235U can also be used to produce much more "pure" weapons-grade material (90% or more 235U), suitable for producing a nuclear bomb. This is not a trivial exercise by any means, but feasible enough that enrichment facilities present a significant nuclear proliferation risk.
An alternative solution to the problem is to use a moderator that does not absorb neutrons as readily as water. In this case potentially all of the neutrons being released can be moderated and used in reactions with the 235U, in which case there is enough 235U in natural uranium to sustain criticality. One such moderator is heavy water, or deuterium-oxide. Although it reacts dynamically with the neutrons in a similar fashion to light water (albeit with less energy transfer on average, given that heavy hydrogen, or deuterium, is about twice the mass of hydrogen), it already has the extra neutron that light water would normally tend to absorb.
Advantages and disadvantages
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The use of heavy water moderator is the key to the PHWR system, enabling the use of natural uranium as fuel (in the form of ceramic UO2), which means that it can be operated without expensive uranium enrichment facilities. Additionally, the mechanical arrangement of the PHWR, which places most of the moderator at lower temperatures, is particularly efficient because the resulting thermal neutrons are "more thermal" than in traditional designs, where the moderator normally runs hot. This means that a PHWR is not only able to "burn" natural uranium and other fuels, but tends to do so more efficiently as well.
Pressurised heavy water reactors do have some drawbacks. Heavy water generally costs hundreds of dollars per kilogram, though this is a trade-off against reduced fuel costs. It is also notable that the reduced energy content of natural uranium as compared to enriched uranium necessitates more frequent replacement of fuel; this is normally accomplished by use of an on-power refuelling system. The increased rate of fuel movement through the reactor also results in higher volumes of spent fuel than in reactors employing enriched uranium; however, as the unenriched fuel was less reactive, the heat generated is less, allowing the spent fuel to be stored much more compactly.
Opponents of heavy water reactors suggest that such reactors pose a much greater risk of nuclear proliferation because of two characteristics: (1) they use unenriched uranium as fuel, the acquisition of which is free from supervision of international institutions on uranium enrichment. (2) they produce more plutonium and tritium as by-products than light water reactors, these are hazardous radioactive substances that can be used in the production of modern nuclear weapons such as fission, boosted fission, and neutron bombs as well as the primary stages of thermonuclear weapons. For instance, India produced its plutonium for Operation Smiling Buddha, its first nuclear weapon test, by extraction from the spent fuel of a heavy water research reactor known as "CIRUS".
- Economics of Nuclear Power from Heavy Water Reactors
- Nuclear Power Program – Stage1 – Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor