Heimat

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For other uses, see Heimat (disambiguation).

Heimat (pronounced [ˈhaɪmat]) is a German word with no English equivalent[1] that denotes the relationship of a human being towards a certain spatial social unit. The term forms a contrast to social alienation and usually carries positive connotations. It is often expressed with terms such as home or homeland.

The meaning of Heimat[edit]

Heimat is a German concept.[1] People are bound to their heimat by their birth and their childhood, their language, their earliest experiences or acquired affinity. For instance, Swiss citizens have their Heimatort (the municipality where the person or their ancestors became citizens) on their identification. Heimat as a trinity of descendance, community and tradition—or even the examination of it— highly affects a person's identity.

Heimat found strength as an instrument of self-assurance and orientation in an increasingly alienating world as Germany's, Austria's and Switzerland's population from the days of the Industrial Revolution made a massive exodus from rural areas into more urbanised communities around the countries' major cities (Landflucht). Heimat was a reaction to the onset of modernity, loss of individuality and intimate community.[2] Heimat began as an integral aspect of German, Austrian and Swiss identity that was patriotic without being nationalistic. Regional identity (along with regional dialect) is an important foundation for a person's Heimat.

The state shall edge away where we love our Heimat—Kurt Tucholsky, 1929

Nazi conception of Heimat[edit]

The specific aspects of Heimat — love and attachment to homeland — left the idea vulnerable to easy assimilation into the fascist "blood and soil" literature of the National Socialists since it is relatively easy to add to the positive feelings for the Heimat a rejection of anything foreign, that however is not there necessarily. It was conceived by the Nazis that the volk community is deeply rooted in the land of their heimat through their practice of agriculture and their ancestral lineage going back hundreds and thousands of years. The Third Reich was regarded at the deepest level as the sacred heimat of the unified volk community—the national slogan was One Reich, One Volk, One Führer. Those who were taken to Nazi concentration camps were those who were officially declared by the SS to be "enemies of the volk community" and thus a threat to the integrity and security of the heimat.[3]

Heimat in film media[edit]

The contemporary conception of Heimat is most readily seen in the Heimatfilme from the Heimat period c.1946–1965, in which filmmakers placed a profound emphasis on nature and the provincial homeliness of Germany. Forests, mountains, landscapes and rural areas portrayed Germany in a homely light with which the German people readily identified.

In 1984 Edgar Reitz released his film Heimat. This epic production provided an in-depth illustration of Heimat on a variety of levels, most poignantly highlighting the provincial sense of belonging and the conflict that exists between urban and rural life.

Sociology[edit]

Many, such as historian Alon Confino, in his book "Germany as a Culture of Remembrance: Promises and Limits of Writing History", see the post-war concept of Heimat as having emerged as a reaction to Germany's self-imposed position on the world stage, a symptom of the forced introversion following the world wars, and an attempt at individual distancing from responsibility for Nazi Germany's actions.

In the wake of World War II, Germans are still rarely seen demonstrating a specific pride in their 'Germanness'. With the emergence of a renewed sense of Heimat, Germans show pride in their regional origins as Berliners, Bavarians, Prussians or Swabians.

Support in international law[edit]

In international law the "right to one's homeland" (German: Recht auf die Heimat; French: droit au foyer; Italian: diritto alla Patria; Spanish; derecho a la patria) is a concept that has been gaining acceptance as a fundamental human right and a precondition to the exercise of the right to self-determination. In 1931 at the Académie de Droit International in The Hague (Hague Academy of International Law), Robert Redslob spoke of the right to the homeland in connection with the right to self-determination in Le principe des nationalités [4]

Georges Scelle in Belgium, Felix Ermacora in Austria, Alfred de Zayas.[5] in the United States, and Christian Thomuschat and Dieter Blumenwitz in Germany are amongst those who have written extensively on the subject. The first United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Jose Ayala Lasso of Ecuador affirmed this right, which is reflected in the 13-point Declaration appended to the Final Report on "Human Rights and Population Transfers" [6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Blickle, Peter (2004) Heimat: A Critical Theory Of The German Idea Of Homeland
  2. ^ Heimat: A German Dream
  3. ^ Peter Vierick Metapolitics: The Roots of the Nazi Mind (1941)
  4. ^ Redslob, Robert (1931). Le principe des nationalités, Recueil des cours (1931) 37 (III). Académie de Droit International. pp. 1–82 
  5. ^ Heimatrecht is Menschenrecht, Universitas, Munich, 2001; "The Right to One's Homeland, Ethnic Cleansing and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia" Criminal Law Forum, vol. 6, No. 2, 1995, pp. 257-314
  6. ^ Awn Shawkat Al-Khasawneh, Special Rapporteur of the UN Sub-Commission on Promotion and Protection of Human Rights (1997). Final Report on "Human Rights and Population Transfers". United Nations UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1997/23 

Essays[edit]

  • Ladenthin, Volker (1991). "Jeder Mensch ist heimatberechtigt". Neue Zürcher Zeitung. 301/91 (28–29 December 1991). p. 19. 
  • Stone, Dan (1997). "Homes Without Heimats? Jean Améry at the limits". Angelaki 2 (1): 91–100. doi:10.1080/09697259708571918.