Kuhl was born in Hanau. He became assistant to Coenraad Jacob Temminck at the Leiden Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie. In 1817 he published a monograph on bats, and in 1819 he published a survey of the parrots, Conspectus psittacorum. He also published the first monograph on the petrels, and a list of all the birds illustrated in Daubenton's Planches Enluminées and with his friend Johan Coenraad van Hasselt (1797–1823) Beiträge zur Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomie ("Contributions to Zoology and Comparative Anatomy") that were published at Frankfurt-am-Main, 1820.
In 1820 he travelled to Java, then part of the colonial Netherlands East Indies, with his friend van Hasselt, to study the animals of the island, sending back to the museum at Leiden 200 skeletons, 200 mammal skins of 65 species, 2000 bird skins, 1400 fish, 300 reptiles and amphibians, and many insects and crustaceans.
In 1821 he died in Buitenzorg (now Bogor) of a liver infection brought on by the climate and overexertion. He had been less than a year in Java. Johan van Hasselt continued his work collecting specimens, but died two years later. The partners are buried in a single grave in the Botanoical Garden, Bogor, marked with a small column.
- Bluespotted stingray or Kuhl's stingray, Neotrygon kuhlii
- Kuhl's loach or kuhli loach, Pangio kuhlii
- Kuhlia, a genus of marine fish, flagtail
- Kuhl's Creek Frog or Large-headed Frog, Limnonectes kuhlii found in Southeast Asia
- Kuhl's Flying Gecko, Ptychozoon kuhli gecko found in Southeast Asia
- Axis kuhlii, Bawean deer
- Callithrix kuhlii
- Eptesicus kuhli, synonyme of Eptesicus nilssonii
- Pipistrellus kuhlii, Kuhl's Pipistrelle
- Sciurillus pusillus kuhlii
- Scotophilus kuhlii
- Roberts T.R. (1993) "The freshwater fishes of Java, as observed by Kuhl and van Hasselt in 1820-23", Zoologische Verhandelingen, Vol. 285 p. 1-94 PDF
- Husson A.M., L.B. Holthuis (1955) The dates of publication of "Verhandelingen over de natuurlijke Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche overzeesche Bezittingen" edited by C. J. Temminck, Zoologische Verhandelingen, Vol. 34 p. 17-24 PDF
- The Reptile Database; . research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia/ Amphibian Species of the World 5.5, an Online Reference].
- Huylebrouck J. 2014. "Viviparous Halfbeaks of the of the family Zenarchopteridae", Amazonas: Freshwater Aquariums & Tropical Discovery, illus. p 23.
- "Author Query for 'Kuhl'". International Plant Names Index.
- Zoohistory. co. uk pdf file
- Walters, Michael. 2003. A Concise History of Ornithology. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09073-0
- BHL Text of Beiträge zur Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomie