Heinrich Mark

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Heinrich Mark
Heinrich Mark.jpg
5th Prime Minister in duties of the President
In office
1 March 1990 – 6 October 1992
Preceded by Tõnis Kint
Succeeded by President Lennart Meri (in country)
Acting Prime Minister of Estonian Exile Government
In office
1971–1990
Preceded by Tõnis Kint
Succeeded by Enno Penno
Secretary of State of Estonian Exile Government
In office
1953–1971
Preceded by Helmut Maandi
Succeeded by Arved Ruusa
Personal details
Born 1 October 1911
Krootuse, Estonia
Died 2 August 2004
Stockholm, Sweden
Nationality Estonian
Spouse(s) Alice Vreeman
Alma mater University of Tartu

Heinrich Mark (1 October 1911 in Krootuse, Estonia – 2 August 2004 in Stockholm, Sweden) was an Estonian politician and Prime Minister of the Estonian Government in Exile.

He was Prime Minister in duties of the President of the Republic of Estonia from 1 March 1990, to 6 October 1992, being the last Estonian head of state in exile, as Estonian independence was restored in 1991.

1953–1971 Secretary of State, 1971–1990 Acting Prime Minister, 1971–1973 Minister of War and 1973–1990 minister of the Estonian Exile Government.

Life[edit]

Studied in Võru, graduated from the Teachers' Seminar of Tartu. In 1933–1938 studied at the legal department of Tartu University.

In 1938–1940 elementary school teacher. In 1940 solicitor to the barrister P. Sepp in Tartu, in 1941–1943 a solicitor in Tallinn. In 1940, after the occupation of Estonia was a secretary of Tartu University for a short period, left on the recommendation of the rector Hans Kruus. In 1940, put up a candidacy for the Riigivolikogu elections as an alternative candidate to the Estonian Working People's Union, was deleted from the list of candidates. Later hid in Estonia, escaped to Finland in 1943, was one of the organisers of the Estonian Bureau (an Estonian exile organisation) and assistant to the Editor-in-Chief of the "Malevlane" (a newspaper of the Estonians in the Finnish Army).

In 1944 he moved to Sweden, was an assistant at the National Committee of Foreigners. From 1945–1956, he was Chairman of the education working group of the Estonian Committee, 1954–1975 Director of the Bureau and assistant Chairman of the Estonian Committee, 1975–1982 Chairman of the Estonian Committee, from 1982 Honorary Chairman of the Estonian Committee. In 1951–1979 Secretary-General of the Estonian National Council.

Honours and decorations[edit]

In 1998 Honorary Doctor of Law of Tartu University. Honorary Member of the Estonian Literature Society, Golden Badge of the Estonian National Foundation, the I Class Gold Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland, the II Class Order of the National Coat of Arms of the Republic of Estonia.

Political offices
Preceded by
Helmut Maandi
State Secretary of Estonia (in exile)
1953–1971
Succeeded by
Arved Ruusa
Preceded by
Tõnis Kint
Prime Minister of Estonia in exile
1971–1990
Succeeded by
Enno Penno
Preceded by
Tõnis Kint
Prime Minister in duties of the President
1990–1992
Succeeded by
Lennart Meri (President of Estonia)