Heinrich Otto Wieland

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Heinrich Otto Wieland
Heinrich Wieland.jpg
Heinrich Otto Wieland
Born (1877-06-04)4 June 1877
Pforzheim, Baden, Germany
Died 5 August 1957(1957-08-05) (aged 80)
Starnberg, Bavaria, West Germany
Nationality Germany
Fields Chemistry
Institutions

Technical University of Munich 1913-21,

University of Freiburg 1921-25,
University of Munich 1925-
Alma mater University of Munich
Doctoral advisor Johannes Thiele
Doctoral students Rolf Huisgen,
Leopold Horner
Known for Bile acids research
Notable awards

Heinrich Otto Wieland (4 June 1877 – 5 August 1957) was a German chemist. He won the 1927 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research into the bile acids.[1][2] In 1901 Wieland received his doctorate at the University of Munich while studying under Johannes Thiele. In 1904 he completed his habilitation, then continued to teach at the university and starting in 1907 was a consultant for Boehringer-Ingelheim. In 1914 he became associate professor for special topics in organic chemistry, and director of the Organic Division of the State Laboratory in Munich. From 1917 to 1918 Wieland worked in the service of the (KWI) Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Elektrochemistry in Dahlem then led by Fritz Haber [3] as an alternative to regular military service. There he was involved in weapons research for instance finding new synthetic routes for mustard gas. He is also credited with the first synthesis of Adamsite.

From 1913 to 1921, he was Professor at the Technical University of Munich. He then moved to the University of Freiburg as successor of Ludwig Gattermann (he also assumed responsibility for Gattermanns famous cookbook). In Freiburg he started working on toad poisons and bile acids. In association with Boehringer-Ingelheim he worked on synthetic alkaloids such as morphine and strychnine

In 1925 Wieland succeeded Richard Willstätter as Chemistry Professor at the University of Munich.[4][5]

In 1941, Wieland isolated the toxin alpha-amanitin, the principal active agent of one of the world's most poisonous mushrooms Amanita phalloides.

Wieland tried successfully to protect people, especially Jewish students, who were "racially burdened" after the Nuremberg Laws. Students who were expelled because they were "racially burdened" could stay in Heinrich Wieland's group as chemists or as "Gäste des Geheimrats" (guests of the privy councillor). Hans Conrad Leipelt, a student of Wieland, was sentenced to death after collecting money for Kurt Huber's widow Clara Huber.

Family[edit]

Heinrich's father, Theodor Wieland (1846–1928) was a pharmacist with a doctorate in chemistry. He owned a gold and silver refinery in Pforzheim.[3] Heinrich Wieland was a cousin of Helene Boehringer, the wife of Albert Boehringer, who was the founder of Boehringer-Ingelheim. From 1915 to the end of 1920, he was advisor at Boehringer-Ingelheim and during this time he established the first scientific department of the company.

Eva Wieland, Heinrich Wieland's daughter, was married to Feodor Lynen on 14 May 1937.

Heinrich Wieland Prize[edit]

Since 1964, the Heinrich Wieland Prize has been awarded annually to promote research on chemistry, biochemistry, physiology and clinical medicine of lipids and related substances. The prize is among the most treasured international science awards and has a successful history of over 40 years. To date it has been presented to 58 scientists. The Heinrich Wieland Prize is sponsored by Boehringer Ingelheim and awarded by an independent Board of Trustees.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Karrer, P. (1958). "Heinrich Wieland 1877-1957". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 4: 340. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1958.0026. 
  2. ^ Bernhard Witkop (1993). "Remembering Heinrich Wieland (1877-1957) portrait of an organic chemist and founder of modern biochemistry". Medicinal Research Reviews 12 (3): 195–274. doi:10.1002/med.2610120303. PMID 1578969. 
  3. ^ a b Interconnections and Independence: Heinrich Wieland (1877–1957) and His Era Elisabeth Vaupel Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 9154 –9179 doi:10.1002/anie.200702255
  4. ^ "Heinrich Wieland - Biography". 
  5. ^ Haslewood, G. A. (1957). "Prof. H. O. Wieland". Nature 180 (4584): 462–463. Bibcode:1957Natur.180..462H. doi:10.1038/180462a0. PMID 13464859. 

External links[edit]