12 March 1915|
Gundelsdorf near Kronach
|Died||13 March 1943
near Le Tréport, France
|Buried at||war cemetery at Bourdon, France
block 32—row 11—grave 427
|Years of service||1936–43|
|Unit||JG 77, JG 27|
|Commands held||4./JG 77, I./JG 27|
|Awards||Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves|
|Relations||Franz Ruhl (Cousin)|
Heinrich Setz (12 March 1915 – 13 March 1943) was a German Luftwaffe military aviator during World War II, a fighter ace credited with 138 enemy aircraft shot down in 274 combat missions. The majority of his victories were claimed over the Eastern Front, with six claims over the Western Front.
Born in Gundelsdorf, Setz volunteered for military service in the Luftwaffe of the Third Reich in 1936. Following flight training and a period at a fighter pilot training school as an instructor, he was posted to Jagdgeschwader 77 (JG 77—77th Fighter Wing) in 1940. Following the Norwegian Campaign he claimed his first three aerial victories in late 1940 in that theater. Setz was appointed Staffelkapitän (squadron leader) of the 4. Staffel (4th squadron) of JG 77 in June 1941 which he led in Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union. Following his 43rd aerial victory he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 31 December 1941 and the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves on 23 June 1942 after 81 victories. He claimed his 100th aerial victory on 24 July 1942.
In February 1943 Setz was appointed Gruppenkommandeur (group commander) of the I. Gruppe (1st group) of Jagdgeschwader 27 (JG 27—27th Fighter Wing) which was based in France on the Western Front. Setz claimed three more victories before he was killed in action on his 274th combat mission in a midair collision with a Supermarine Spitfire on 13 March 1943.
Early life and career
Setz was born on 12 March 1915 in Gundelsdorf near Kronach, Upper Franconia in the Kingdom of Bavaria. He was the son of a Oberförster (head of a forest range) and joined the military service of the Luftwaffe as a Fahnenjunker (cadet) on 6 April 1936. He was promoted to Leutnant (second lieutenant) on 1 January 1938. On 1 July 1938 he was posted to Jagdgeschwader 135 (135th Fighter Wing).[Notes 1] From April 1939 onwards he was posted to a Jagdfliegerschule (fighter pilot training school) as an instructor. On 3 April 1940 he was transferred to Jagdfliegerschule 3 at Stolp-Reitz, present day Redzikowo in Poland. There he was promoted to Oberleutnant (first lieutenant) on 1 June 1940.
World War II
World War II in Europe began on Friday 1 September 1939 when German forces invaded Poland. Setz was transferred to a front line unit when he joined II. Gruppe (2nd group) of Jagdgeschwader 77 (JG 77—4th squadron of the 77th Fighter Wing) on 28 June 1940. There he was assigned to the 4. Staffel (4th squadron) of JG 77 on 1 July 1940. JG 77 at the time was based at Kristiansand, in southern Norway. He claimed three aerial victories in this theater, his first a Royal Air Force (RAF) Bristol Blenheim south of Stavanger over Norway's west coast on 27 August 1940. This achievement earned him the Iron Cross 2nd Class (Eisernes Kreuz 2. Klasse) on 12 September 1940. Following the other two victories over Norway he received Iron Cross 1st Class (Eisernes Kreuz 1. Klasse) on 18 October 1940.
Following the Invasion of Yugoslavia, JG 77 was moved to Romania in preparation for Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941. II. and III. Gruppe, plus the Stab (headquarters unit), of JG 77 supported the German advance as part of Army Group South. Setz claimed his 30th victory on 29 October 1941 and less than a month later, on 21 November, he shot down his 40th opponent. He was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) on 31 December 1941 for 43 aerial victories. Under his leadership, 4. Staffel was credited with 110 aerial victories and further 89 aircraft destroyed on the ground by the end of 1941. Flight operations were severely impeded by the harsh winter weather conditions on the Eastern Front and Setz accounted for only two further victories until March 1942.
JG 77 was assigned as fighter cover as the Wehrmacht set about storming the great pre-war fortress of Sevastopol as a prelude to the main summer campaign into the Caucausus, Fall Blau. In a remarkable run of success, Setz claimed his 46–50th aerial victories on 19 March 1942, 58–60th aerial victories on 21 April, 3 more (68–70th v.) on 13 May 1942 and his 81st victory on 23 June, just a year after first arriving in Russia. Oblt Setz was immediately awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub) on the same day. The award was presented at the Führerhauptquartier (Führer Headquarters) at Rastenburg on 28/29 June 1942.
Returning to the front, and with Sevastopol fallen, JG 77 moved further north to Kursk and covered the advance onto Voronezh. Setz briefly commanded II./JG 77 in July for Gruppenkommandeur Anton Mader. He claimed two Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3s on 23 July 1942. and then reached his century the next day, on 24 July. He continued to score freely until in early October, with his victory tally now at 135, he was wounded. While recuperating in hospital his unit, II./JG 77, was initially pulled back to the Reich for rest and refit, then transferred in December to North Africa in response to the recent Torch landings.
Setz however did not rejoin his unit. On 12 November he was appointed the new Gruppenkommandeur of I./JG 27, to replace Hauptmann (Captain) Gerhard Homuth who had to resign the command because of illness. This unit had formerly led the assault in North Africa but after being shattered in the recent battles around El Alamein had been pulled back for rest and rebuild. Setz took over his command in Bari, Italy on 20 November 1942. and soon led the transferral back to Krefeld in Germany, where they arrived on 28 November 1942.
After a brief period of recreation the group began preparations for a transfer to France on 2 January 1943. The Stab (headquarter unit), 1st and 3rd Staffel transferred to Evreux on 31 January 1943 The remaining groups followed and new pilots and new Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-4 joined the group. Now fighting a completely different type of air-war, versus the big box-formations of bombers of the American 8th Air Force, Setz had the entire group conduct training flights and reported operational readiness on 20 February 1943.
His first success however, was also unfortunately his last. On 13 March 1943, on his 274th combat mission he dispatched two Supermarine Spitfires in five minutes over Abbeville, but it is believed he was killed when he collided with a third fifteen minutes later at high altitude.
In recognition of his leadership, he was posthumously promoted to Major.
- Iron Cross (1939)
- Front Flying Clasp of the Luftwaffe for fighter pilots
- German Cross in Gold on 21 August 1942 as Oberleutnant in the II./JG 77
- Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves
- For an explanation of the meaning of Luftwaffe unit designation see Luftwaffe Organization
- Stockert 1997, p. 3.
- Obermaier 1989, p. 51.
- Weal 1996, p. 39.
- Bergström, Dikov, Antipov & Sundin 2006, p. 36.
- Prien, Rodeike and Stemmer 1998, p. 314.
- Prien, Rodeike and Stemmer 1998, p. 319.
- Prien, Rodeike and Stemmer 1998, p. 321.
- Luftwaffe 39-45 Historia website.
- Thomas 1998, p. 317.
- Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 442.
- Scherzer 2007, p. 702.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 399.
- Von Seemen 1976, p. 318.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 60.
- Von Seemen 1976, p. 29.
- Bergström, Christer; Mikhailov, Andrey (2001). Black Cross / Red Star Air War Over the Eastern Front, Volume II, Resurgence January–June 1942. Pacifica, California: Pacifica Military History. ISBN 978-0-935553-51-2.
- Bergström, Christer; Dikov, Andrey; Antipov, Vlad; Sundin, Claes (2006). Black Cross / Red Star Air War Over the Eastern Front, Volume 3, Everything for Stalingrad. Hamilton MT: Eagle Editions. ISBN 978-0-9761034-4-8.
- Bergström, Christer (2007). Stalingrad – The Air Battle: 1942 through January 1943. Midland Publications ISBN 1-857802-76-4
- Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 – Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtsteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6.
- Obermaier, Ernst (1989). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Luftwaffe Jagdflieger 1939 – 1945 [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the Luftwaffe Fighter Force 1941 – 1945] (in German). Mainz, Germany: Verlag Dieter Hoffmann. ISBN 978-3-87341-065-7.
- Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001). Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II [The German Cross 1941 – 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2] (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-45-8.
- Prien, Jochen; Rodeike, Peter; Stemmer, Gerhard (1998). Messerschmidt Bf 109 im Einsatz bei Stab und I./Jagdgeschwader 27 1939 – 1945 [Messerschmidt Bf 109 in Action with the Headquarter Unit and I./Jagdgeschwader 27 in 1939 – 1945] (in German). Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck. ISBN 978-3-923457-46-5.
- Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.
- Spick, Mike (1996). Luftwaffe Fighter Aces. New York: Ivy Books. ISBN 978-0-8041-1696-1.
- Stockert, Peter (1997). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 2 [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 2] (in German). Bad Friedrichshall, Germany: Friedrichshaller Rundblick. ISBN 978-3-9802222-9-7.
- Thomas, Franz (1998). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 2: L–Z [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 2: L–Z] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2300-9.
- Von Seemen, Gerhard (1976). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 : die Ritterkreuzträger sämtlicher Wehrmachtteile, Brillanten-, Schwerter- und Eichenlaubträger in der Reihenfolge der Verleihung : Anhang mit Verleihungsbestimmungen und weiteren Angaben [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 : The Knight's Cross Bearers of All the Armed Services, Diamonds, Swords and Oak Leaves Bearers in the Order of Presentation: Appendix with Further Information and Presentation Requirements] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7909-0051-4.
- Weal, John (1996). Bf109D/E Aces 1939–41. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85532-487-9.
- Weal, John (1999). Bf 109F/G/K Aces of the Western Front. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85532-905-8.
- Weal, John (2001). Bf 109 Aces of the Russian Front. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-084-1.
- Weal, John (2003). Jagdgeschwader 27 'Afrika'. London, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-538-9.
- "Heinrich Setz". Ritterkreuzträger (in German). Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- "Heinrich Setz". Luftwaffe 39–45 Historia (in Portuguese). Retrieved 4 June 2008.
- "Luftwaffe Air Units: Single–Engined Fighters". Jagdgeschwader 77. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
none: new unit
|Squadron Leader of 2.(Schul.)/Erg.Gruppe JG 77
March, 1941 – 6 August 1941
Oblt Hans Brockmann
Hptm Walter Jänisch
|Squadron Leader of 4./JG 77
6 August 1941 – 11 November 1942
Ltn Lutz-Wilhelm Burckhardt
Hptm Gerhard Homuth
|Group Commander of I./JG 27
12 November 1942 – 13 March 1943
Hptm Erich Hohagen